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Lexicology and Morphology

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Samina Dazdarevic

on 3 March 2016

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Transcript of Lexicology and Morphology

The study of forms
Study of the system of rules underlying our knowledge of the structure of words
Free morphemes
--> those which can stand by themselves as single words. e.g:

open, tour
Bound morphemes
--> those that cannot stand alone and must be attached to another form. e.g:
re, -ist, -ed, -s, -ing........
un-happi-ness
Let's define:
Live
lives, lived, living
the set of word-forms that belongs
to a lexeme--
>Paradigm
big, bigger, biggest
affixes
un
-dress-
ed
prefix
suffix
stem
free-morpheme
Abso
goddam
lutely
infix
all affixes are bound morphemes
all inflectional morphemes are suffixes
all prefixes are derivational morphemes
Dictionary
Allomorph
: an affix with more than
one shape.
phonological allomorphs->
when they exhibit differences in pronunciation
,
but not in spelling.
suppletive allomorphs->
they show differences in the word-form.
go
-> suppletive stem->
went

(in the past tense wen-t)
the plural can be pronounced as:
[s]->cats [kæts]
[z]->dogs [dogz])
[-ez]->faces [feisez]
good
->suppletive stem->
bett
->
bett
er
(strong suppletion)
inflections for nouns-> -s, -'s
inflections for verbs-> -s, -ed, -ing, -en
inflections for adjectives-> -est, -er
buy
->suppletive stem->
bought
->weak suppletion
prof. Samina Dazdarevic
The term - Greek
morphe - ‘form’ logia - ‘reasoning, learning
‘the study of form’.

Smallest unit of language that carries information about meaning or function.

e.g. build; build-er; house; houses.

The smallest meaningful constituent of words that can be identified.
e.g.
break-ing hope-less re-write, ear-plug-s,

One morpheme         boy  (one syllable)                                
desire, lady, water  (two syllables)                                   crocodile (three syllables)                                 
salamander (four syllables), or
more syllables

Two morphemes        boy + ish                                  
desire + able

Three morphemes       boy + ish + ness                                  
desire + able + ity

Four morphemes         gentle + man + li + ness                                  
un + desire + able + ity

More than four           un + gentle + man + li + ness                                  
anti + dis + establish + ment + ari + an + ism

LEXICOLOGY
WHAT IS LEXICOLOGY?
1. What is lexicology?
Aims of lexicology.
Branches of lexicology.
Problems of lexicology
The Lexical Syllabus:

2. Morphology/ Word formation
Why study word-formation processes?
Inflection and derivation
Inflectional affixes
Derivational affixes
Word formation pr
3. Where do English words come from?
The origin of English.
Historical development of English vocabulary.
Native English vocabulary.
The process of borrowing.
Creating new English words.
Characteristics of modern English vocabulary.
4. THE WORD
The notion of word
Word meaning
Polysemy
Homonymy
Multiword lexemes

5. MEANING IN RELATIONS
Synonymy
Antonymy
Hyponymy and meronymy
Analysing meaning
Collocation
6. Words in use
Vocabularies
Jargon
Sub-cultures
Style
Restricted languages
7. Investigating vocabulary
8. Words in dictionary
9. Corpus linguistics

What's in a name?
That which we call a rose
By any other name would smell as sweet...




What's in a name?
That which we call a rose
By any other name would smell as sweet...

(W. Shakespeare. Romeo and Juliet, Act II, Sc. 2)

Juliet argues that the names of things do not matter, only what things "are".

What is in a name, in a word?

Is there any direct connection between a word and the object it represents?
Could a rose have been called by "any other name" as Juliet says?

These and similar questions are answered by lexicological research.

WHAT IS LEXICOLOGY?
Lexicology
[lek-si-
kol
-uh-jee]

Etimology-
Lexico-; Lexicon (noun); A word-book or dictionary
-logy; a combining form used in the names of sciences or bodies of knowledge

Definition:
The branch of knowledge which treats of words, their form, history and meaning

Origin- 1828-1832 (first recorded use)
Lexicography
[lek-si-
kog
-ruh-fee]

Etimology-
Lexico-; Lexicon (noun); A word-book or dictionary
-graphy; indicating an art or descriptive science

Definition:
The principles and procedures involved in writing, editing, and/or compiling dictionaries;

Origin- 1680 (first recorded use)
Lexicology
The Science of Words
from Greek lexicos (of words) and logos (science)
deals with the meaning and use of words (lexical items) and their mutual relations
provides systematic description of vocabulary in respect to its origin, development and current use
Vocabulary (lexis) encompasses all the lexical items (words and multi-word expressions) used in a particular language
Other Types of Lexicology
comparative lexicology - studies correlation and differentiation of closely related languages
contrastive lexicology - examines both related and non-related languages to establish differences and similarities
combinatorial lexicology - deals with of combinatorial properties of lexical units
applied lexicology - translation, lexicography, pragmatics of speech

"Words have no power to impress the mind without the exquisite horror of their reality"
- Edgar Allan Poe
Problems of Lexicology
a word can have more than one meaning: head (a part of the body, a leader)
different words can have the same/similar meaning: fat - thick
some pairs of words have opposite meanings: pretty - ugly
the meaning of some words is included in the meanings of others:
plant (flower, rose)
a group of words may have one meaning: make up one's mind (decide), give up
the meaning of words can be analyzed into components: mare (animal, horse, female)
What is a "word"?
materialistic approach - words are no mere sounds, but names of matter
grammatical approach - the word is the minimum of the sentence
phonological approach - word is any speech sound having meaning
psycholinguistic approach - word is a microcosm of human consciousness
syntactic approach - word is a minimum free form
semiotic approach - word is a sign to express notions or opinions
3
The definiation of word
Orthographic word
Morphological word
Lexical word
Semantic word
Semantic word
Morphologically identical but differ in meaning

For example:
Table
can refer to a piece of furniture or to a diagram.
The diagram and the piece of furniture are the same morphologically word but they are two Semantic words because they not closely related in meaning.

Orthographic word
Is one which has a space
on either side of it.
Morphological word
It considers form only and not meaning.
For example:
ball
and
balls

two morphological words because
they are not identical in form.

Etymology

The study of the origin and history of wrod

Lexical word
Comprehends the various forms of items
For example:
chair
and
chairs
are two morphological but one lexical word.
Related studies
- lexicology has to co-operate with other branches of language:
morphology
= study of the forms of words
etymology
= study of origin of words
semantics
= study of word´s meaning
General & Special
lexicology
General
= studies general features of words common to all languages ("universals")

Special
=
studies words related to a particular language
Historical & Descriptive
lexicology
Historical
-
studies evolution of words
(in course of time)

Descriptive
(synchornic) -
studies structure of
vocabulary and function of words
BRANCHES OF LEXICOLOGY
Morphemic Analysis
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