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Evidence for God

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Robert Kuenning

on 8 March 2014

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Transcript of Evidence for God

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli
... the builder of all things is God.
Evidence for God
Goal - Confident Logic of God
The Existence of Anything
First Cause - The Cosmological Argument

Science has strongly established that the Universe
had a beginning.

Cause has a very specific relationship with effect.

Science has absolute laws governing matter & energy.
The Organization of Everything
Design and Details - Teleological Argument

From the very beginnings of the universe everything was HIGHLY organized.

From sub-atomic to cosmic extreme complexity reigns.

The Anthropic Principle

Science proves that Organization doesn't just happen.
Life is a very, very special thing.

Life is built with very complicated structures.

These are too complicated to form by chance.

DNA - The language of God.

Science has long established rules on life.
Human Mind, Heart, & Soul
The Human is much more than fancy animal.

Human conscience & Human consciousness.

Free Will & Personal Responsibility.

Good/Evil, Right/Wrong, Etc., only make sense if there is an objective moral standard.

People like Ethical Relativism until...

Only God is Good.

The Bible is one coherent story covering 66 books.

The Bible presents itself as God's Word & Truth.

The Bible has repeatedly been proven right. It has gone through many challenges.

The Bible testifies in very accurate ways about Jesus.

You can have confidence in the details.
Not Faith vs Science
Logic is the application of
reason, judgement, and validity
to any branch
of knowledge or study.
Everyone has a Bias.
We will not "prove" God.
Theism, Atheism, Agnosticism
> We combine logical thought and truth to establish what we believe.
"Something is worth believing:
- if it's rational,
- if it's supported by evidence, and - if it best explains all the data."
Dr. N. Geisler, Philosopher
Science and religion ... are friends, not foes, ... there's a feeling ... that religious belief is outmoded, or downright impossible, in a scientific age. I don't agree. In fact, I'd go so far to say that if people knew a bit more about science than many of them actually do, they'd find it easier to share my view."
Dr. John Polkinghorne
> The Sciences are respected, accurate, and nobel collectors of KNOWLEDGE.

> Science is
fundamentally naturalistic
and therefore looks for natural explanations.

> We should take in and enjoy scienticfic
data and research
, but be wise and careful before accepting unprovable conclusions.
> Some attack and insult those who hold different views.

> We are all looking at the same information.

> But we are coming to some very different conclusions.

> It helps to be understanding and patient...
> Theism - There is a God.

> Pantheism - God is everything.

> Atheism - There is no God. (Faces the problem of proving the negative.)

> Agnosticism - I (or you) don't (or can't) know if there is a God or not.
"My road to Atheism was paved by science ...
But, ironically,
so was my later journey to God."
Lee Strobel
Journalist, Author

"Science without religion is lame,
religion without science is blind"

Albert Einstein
> Everything that begins
to exist must have a cause.

> The universe began to exist.

> Therefore the universe must have had a cause.
Well! What caused God???
> God is, by definition, uncaused.
> Like asking to draw a 2 sided triangle.
"Even from everlasting to everlasting, You are God."
Ps 90:2
> "None of us believe in created Gods."
Dr. John Lennox, Oxford
"With the proof now in place cosmologists can no longer hide behind the possibility of a past eternal universe. There is no escape, they have to face the problem of a cosmic beginning. ... All the evidence we have says that the universe had a beginning."

Dr. Alexander Vilenkin
Director of the Institute of Cosmology

"This would mean that science could predict that the universe must have had a beginning, but that it could not predict how the universe should begin: for that one would have to appeal to God."
Dr. Stephen W. Hawking
"Because there is a law such as gravity, the universe can and will create itself from nothing,"

"Spontaneous creation is the reason there is something rather than nothing, why the universe exists, why we exist.

It is not necessary to invoke God to light the blue touch paper and set the universe going."
Dr. Stephen Hawking
Oxford, from The Grand Design
> Cause must be contiguous to the effect.

> Cause must prior to the effect.

> Cause must be greater than the effect.
For by Him all things were created,
in heaven and on earth,
visible and invisible, ...
all things were created
through Him and for Him.
And He is before all things,
and in Him all things hold together.

Col 1:16-17
Spontaneous Creation
" is Scientifically Impossible
The 1st Law of Thermodynamics
- The law of conservation of energy.

The Law of Causality
- All effects require a cause.

Newton's 1st Law of Motion
- Uniform Motion Law

Out of
absolute nothing
Space, Time (Space/Time),
Matter, Energy (Matter/Energy).
These built the entire universe.


- Purpose & Source



and the EARTH
In the various fields of physics and astrophysics, classical cosmology, quantum mechanics, and biochemistry, various discoveries have repeatedly disclosed that the existence of intelligent life on Earth at this time depends upon a delicate balance of physical and cosmological quantities, such that were any one of these quantities to be slightly altered, the balance would be destroyed and life would not exist.
Dr. William L. Craig
Research Professor of Philosophy
> Laws of Logic

> Laws of Mathematics

> Laws of Chemistry

> Laws of Cosmology and Physics
“There is for me powerful evidence that there is something going on behind it all ... It seems as though somebody has fine-tuned nature's numbers to make the Universe. ...The impression of design is overwhelming.”
Dr. Paul Davies,
Physicist, Az State Univ
A common sense interpretation of the facts suggests that a superintellect has monkeyed with physics, as well as with chemistry and biology, and that there are no blind forces worth speaking about in nature. The numbers one calculates from the facts seem to me so overwhelming as to put this conclusion almost beyond question.

Sir Fred Hoyle, Astronomer &
Forever, O LORD, Your word is settled in heaven.
"In physics, we see uncanny degree of harmony, symmetry, and proportionality. ... I mean that the laws of nature seem to have been carefully arranged so that they can be discovered by beings with our level of intelligence. That not only fits the idea of design, but also suggests a providential purpose for humankind ...
Dr. Robin Collins
Chair, Philosophy Dept.
If the world's finest minds can unravel only with difficulty the deeper workings of nature, how could is be supposed that those workings are merely a mindless accident, a product of blind chance.
Dr. Paul Davies
Physicist, Az State Univ
"If the 6 numbers that underlie the fundamental physical properties of the universe were altered even to the tiniest degree, there would be no stars, no complex elements, no life."

Dr. Martin Rees
Cosmologist, Astrophysicist Cambridge
It is quite easy to understand why so many scientists have changed their minds in the past thirty years, agreeing that the universe cannot reasonably be explained as a cosmic accident. Evidence for an intelligent designer becomes more compelling the the more we understand about our carefully crafted habitat.
Dr. Walter Bradley
Distinguished Eng. Prof. Tx A&M, Baylor
The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics
The second law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of an isolated system never decreases, because isolated systems spontaneously evolve towards thermodynamic equilibrium—the state of maximum entropy. Equivalently, perpetual motion machines of the second kind are impossible.
"It is probably no exaggeration to claim that the laws of thermodynamics represent some of the best science we have today. While the utterances in some fields seem to change almost daily, the science of thermodynamics has been noteworthy for its stability. In many decades of careful observations,
not a single departure from any of these laws has ever been noted
Dr. Emmett Williams
The law that entropy always increases, holds, I think, the supreme position among the laws of Nature. If someone points out to you that your pet theory of the universe is in disagreement with Maxwell's equations — then so much the worse for Maxwell's equations. If it is found to be contradicted by observation — well, these experimentalists do bungle things sometimes.

But if your theory is found to be against the second law of thermodynamics I can give you no hope; there is nothing for it but to collapse in deepest humiliation.
Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington
Astrophysicist, Cambridge
"Now, according to the Second Law of Thermodynamics,
there is always a tendency for the hot areas to cool off and the cool areas to warm up—so that less and less work can be obtained out of it.
Until finally, when everything is one temperature, you cannot get any work out of it, even though all the energy is still there. And this is true for EVERYTHING in general, the universe all over."

"Another way of stating the second law then is, 'The universe is constantly getting more disorderly!' "

Isaac Asimov
Author, Biochemist, Boston U
"What is life, exactly? This is a question that keeps biologists up at night. The science of biology is the study of life, yet scientists can't agree on an absolute definition."
AstroBiology Magazine
There is a very, very, tiny physical difference between these two birds.
is Special
"If we could wind back the universe big bang, our confidence that any kind of life would result should be close to ZERO."
Dr. Roger White, MIT
Life is built upon complex molecules
> Carbohydrates
> Nucleic Acids (DNA & RNA)
> Proteins ( made up of Amino Acids)
> Lipids
These types of molecules
be present for the cell to support the life of the organism.
> Darwin had no way of knowing how complicated a "simple" cell is.

> Biology lessons for generations have taught about the "simple one celled organism."

> There is no such thing as a "simple" cell.
> The 1st living thing would have had to come together by sheer chance of the forces of physics and chemistry.

> There would have been no "self correcting" forces to correct an error in the first Amino Acids or Proteins.

“A junkyard contains all the bits and pieces of a Boeing 747, dismembered and in disarray. A whirlwind happens to blow through the yard. What is the chance that after its passage a fully assembled 747, ready to fly, will be found standing there? So small as to be negligible, even if a tornado were to blow through enough junkyards to fill the whole Universe.”

Dr Fred Hoyle, Cambridge
Astronomer, Evolutionist
"The question, could life have originated by a chance occurrence of atoms, clearly leads to a negative answer. This ... leads to the conclusion that some sequence other than chance occurrences must have led to the appearances of life."

Dr. J.D. Bernal, Research Prof.
on life origins
Organic molecules,
therefore form a large and formidable aray, endless variety and of the most
bewildering complexity
. One cannot think of having organisms without them. This is precisely the trouble, for to understand how organisms originated we must first of all
explain how such complicated molecules could come into being
. And that is only the beginning. To make an organism requires not only a
tremendous variety
of these substances, in adequate amounts and proper proportions, but also
just the right arrangement
of them. Structure here is as important as composition -
and what a complication of structural. The most complex machine man has devised ... is child's play compared to the simplest of living organisms.
Dr. George Wald, 1906-1997
Nobel Prize in Physiology, Evolutionist
"The statistical probability that organic structures and the most precisely harmonized reactions that typify living organisms would be generated by accident, is zero."

Dr. Ilya Prigogine, physical chemist
2 x Nobel Prize

"An honest man, armed with all the knowledge available to us now, could only state that in some sense, the origin of life appears at the moment to be almost a miracle, so many are the conditions which would have had been satisfied to get it going."
Dr. Francis Crick, Discovered DNA
Nobel Prize

"We now know that the probability of life arising by chance is far too low to be plausible, ... there must be some deeper explaination that we are yet to discover."
Dr. Roger White, MIT
(Spontaneous Generation) is the process by which life arises from inorganic matter.

"Never will the doctrine of spontaneous generation recover from the mortal blow struck by this simple experiment."

Louis Pasteur

"... God, who gives Life to all things, ...
1 Tim 6:13

"True knowledge is knowledge by causes."
Francis Bacon, Creator of the Scientific Method
"I never asserted so absurd a proposition as that something could arise out of nothing"
David Hume, Skeptic Philosopher
20th Century Cosmology was a 100 years of Scientific Discovery establishing that the Universe had a beginning.
- Einstein's Theory of Relativity
- Drs. Friedman & Lemaitre Modeled
Relativity predicting expansion
- Dr. Hubble found a red shift in light.
- Background Radiation Found as predicted
- COBE Satellite Finds Galaxy "Seeds"
"The significance of this cannot be overstated." Dr. George Smoot

The most important discovery of the century, if not all time.
Dr. Stephen Hawking

The discovery showed that the expansion was precisely tweaked ... to 1:100,000

"...machining marks from the creation of the universe." Smoot
is designed to lead us to

is important (Origin, Identity, Meaning,
Morality, & Destiny)
- that which corresponds to reality & is coherent
- knowable
- absolute and exclusive
- iscovered
- not changed based on our ideas or attitudes

The Law of Cause & Effect
"Every student of logic knows that this is the ultimate canon of the sciences, the foundation of them all. If we did not believe in the truth of causation, Namely,
that everything that had a beginning had a cause
, ... all the sciences would at once crumble to dust. In
every scientific investigation
this is assumed.
Dr. W. T. Stace, Professor Emeritus of
Philosophy, Princeton
How About Over Lots of Planets
There are 122 very finely tuned factors that together make our planet habitable for life. We live in a very special place in the universe.

Assuming 10 the 22nd power planets out there...

There is only a chance of 1 in 10 to the 138 power that any 1 planet will have these factors to support life.

There are about 10 to the 70th power atoms in the universe.
"Astronomy leads us to a unique event, a universe which was created out of nothing and delicately balanced to provide exactly the conditions required to support life. In the absence of an absurdly improbable accident, the observations of modern science seem to suggest an underlying, one might say, supernatural plan."
Dr. Arno Penzias,
Nobel Laureate
But the difference
between life & Non-life is
More than 30 years of experimentation on the origin of life in the fields of chemical and molecular evolution have led to
a better perception of the immensity of the problem of the origin of life on Earth rather than to it's solution.

At present all discussions on principal theories and experiments in the field end in stalemate or in a confession of ignorance."
Dr. Klaus Dose
Pres. of Inst. of Biochemistry at Gutenberg
Heb 3:4
The first law is that of "conservation of matter and energy," which states that matter and energy cannot be created or destroyed. Matter and Energy can be converted from one form into another, but the total of the equivalent amounts of both must always remain constant.
The 1st Law of Thermodynamics
The Human Body is “Ultra Superior”

"It adapts to stress; it thrives and survives, it can even heal itself. Cells regenerate; wounds and fractures heal, the immune system can overcome infections."
"And if you use this machine, it develops; if not, it shrinks and loses its functions. Whenever we use an auto, it wears out a little, and finally malfunctions. But physical exercise causes humans to perform better."
"And I haven’t even begun to mention the body’s amazing feats of data processing, analysis, synthesis, reasoning, inventing and creating." (cont.)
"The human body is a carbon-based, chemically fueled, force-liquid-and-air cooled, bipedal, communicative, photochromatic, binocular, cellularly self-replicating, self-diagnostic, self-repairing tissuewise, multidexterous, continuously adaptive, computer-controlled, biodegradable exhaust system machine, capable of short and long-term memory with conceptual retrieval and integration, and precise decision-making and creativity—truly the “Ultimate Machine”.
Dr. David Kaufmann
Anatomy, Prof. Univ of Florida
The Human Body is “Ultra Superior” (Cont.)
'No single, essential difference separates
human beings from other animals.'
TIME magazine
('How Man Began', 03/14/94).
Well, how about:

Intellect, Reasoning, Justice, Discovery, Exploration, Wonder, Invention, Imagination, Self Awareness, Philosophy, Sciences, Creativity, Morality, Hyper Complex Social Organizations, Humor, Appreciation of Beauty, Self Consciousness, Awareness of Death, Understanding Time, Language Complexity, Meaning of life, Malleability to Environment, Lack of Harmony with Nature, Personal Character, Free Moral Agency, Capacity for Wisdom, Desire for Worship, Abstract Thought, Love, etc.
"[It is a huge] misconception to suppose that the brain is a bearer of psychological attributes . . . .
We do not know what it means to say that the brain thinks, fears, or is ashamed."
Dr. Maxwell Bennett Professor Neurophysiologist
We are Much More than our Body or Brain
You are a Conscious Awareness that is Residing in Your Body.
"Why should a bunch of atoms have thinking ability? Why should I, even as write now, be able to reflect on what I am doing and why should you, even as you read now, be able to ponder my points, agreeing or disagreeing, with pleasure or pain, deciding to refute me or deciding that I am just not worth the effort? No one, certainly not the Darwinian as such, seems to have any answer to this. ... The point is that there is no scientific answer."
Dr. Michael Ruse
Darwinian Philosopher
How could Consciousness arise from Unconscious Matter?
The Sciences are Stumped
in Regards to Human Consciousness
"Nobody has the slightest idea how anything material could be conscious. Nobody even knows what it would be like to have the slightest idea how anything material could be conscious. So much for the philosophy of consciousness."
Dr. Jerry Fodor
Philosophy Chair, Rutgers U.
"The first obstacle for the naturalist ... is to explain the origination of consciousness. The question of how consciousness could “emerge” from unconscious matter is ... a question about how the brain works to produce mental states even though neurons (brain cells) are not conscious. "
Dr. Callie Joubert
Research Philosopher
It is not a particularly difficult notion that, when the nervous system reaches a certain level of complexity, it should develop new properties. Nor would there be anything particularly difficult in the notion that when the nervous system reaches a certain level of complexity it should affect something that was already in existence in a new way.
But it is a quite different matter to hold that the nervous system should have the power to create something else, of a quite different nature from itself, and create it out of no materials.
Dr. D. M. Armstrong
Professor of Philosophy
Thoughts, Consciousness, ant the Mental "Self"
Could Not have Come from a Material Source
"There is no freedom of choice, no free will. ...
Our brains are simply meat computers that, like real computers, are programmed by our genes ...
... in reality we're puppets performing scripted parts written by the laws of physics."
Dr. Jerry A. Coyne
Biologist, Prof. U of Chicago

But guess what Dr. Coyne says in the same article!
Is Free Will Real?
“DNA neither cares nor knows. DNA just is.
And we dance to its music.”
Dr. Richard Dawkins
Ethologist, Evolutionary Biologist
"So if we don't have free will,
what can we do? One possibility is to give in to a despairing nihilism and just stop doing anything. ...."

Dr. Jerry A. Coyne
Biologist, Prof. U of Chicago
Dear Dr. Coyne,
I we don't have free will we can't DO or NOT DO anything!
"We don't have an adequate theory of how the brain causes conscious states, and we don't have an adequate theory of how the consciousness fits into the universe."
Dr. John Searl
Prof. UC Berkeley
Existence and Cause
- If something is - then - something always was.

- The existence of anything today points to prior
existence of something.

- NOTHING comes from NOTHING.

- The Universe is ...

"Human DNA contains more organized information than the Encyclopedia Britannica. If the full text of the encyclopedia were to arrive in computer code from outer space, most people would regard this as proof of the existence of extraterrestrial intelligence. But when seen in nature, it is explained as the workings of random forces."
George Sim Johnston
Harvard, Author/Speaker
The human genome contains approximately
- 6 billion base pairs of DNA
- in 23 pairs of chromosomes
- each cell contains about 6' of DNA
- times 70 trillion cells
- equals 79 billion MILES of DNA in you!
- All carefully copied, checked and error corrected.
Human DNA
This new realm of molecular genetics [is} where we see the most compelling evidence of design on Earth.
Dr. Dean Kenyon
"DNA is like a software program, only much more complex than anything we've ever devised."
Bill Gates

Where the extreme detailed information of DNA came from is
"the critical and foundational question. If you can't explain where information comes from, you haven't explained life, because it's the information that makes the molecules into something that actually functions."

Dr. Stephen C. Meyer
Philosopher, Cambridge
Moral Law Argument for God
Logical Argument:

- Every law has a law giver.
- There is an Objective Moral Law.
- Therefore, there is an Objective Moral Law Giver
"Everyone knows certain principles. There is no land where murder is virtue and gratitude vice."
Dr. J. Budziszewski
Prof. Ethics, UT, Austin
"Think of a country where people were admired for running away in battle, or where a man felt proud of double-crossing all the people who had been kindest to him. You might as well try to imagine a country where two and two made five."
C. S. Lewis
Oxford Prof., Author
"We hold these truths to be self evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed;"
Thomas Jefferson
United States Declaration of Independence
"Darwinism asserts that only materials exist, but materials don't have morality. How much does hate weigh? Is there an atom for love? What's the chemical compound for the murder molecule? These questions are meaningless because physical particles are not responsible for morality."
Dr. Norman Geisler
Philosopher, Author
"If Nature does not wish that weaker individuals should mate with the stronger, she wishes even less that a superior race should intermingle with an inferior one." ...
"History furnishes us with innumerable instances that prove this law." ...
"He who would live must fight. He who does not wish to fight in this world, where permanent struggle is the law of life, has not the right to exist."
Adolf Hitler
Mein Kampf
“Human beings, all over the earth, have this curious idea that they ought to behave in a certain way, and cannot really get rid of it. Secondly, they do not in fact behave that way. They know the Law of Nature; they break it. These two facts are the foundation of all clear thinking about ourselves and the universe we live in."
Dr. C. S. Lewis
Oxford Prof., Author
And Jesus said to him, “Why do you call me good? No one is good except God alone. You know the commandments: ‘Do not murder, Do not commit adultery, Do not steal, Do not bear false witness, Do not defraud, Honor your father and mother."
Mark 10:18-19
Ps 119: 89
The Bible was written over a
1600 Year
- 1500BC to 100AD

40 Writers
from many different backgrounds.

The wrote in many different styles:
History, Prophecy, Poetry, Law,
Personal Letters, Teachings, etc

To many different
, across many
during several
, in three

In a wide variety of situations:
Peace, War, Travel, Prosperity, Famine,
Political Strength, Victory, Disaster, Defeat

Yet it tells
One Consistent, Coherent Story
from beginning to end
The Bible is Amazing
"Sanctify them in the truth; your word is truth."
Jesus' Prayer to God in Jn 17:17
"All Scripture is breathed out by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness, that the man of God may be complete, equipped for every good work."
2 Tim 3:16-17
'Then the LORD put out his hand and touched my mouth.
And the LORD said to me, “Behold, I have put my words in your mouth."
Jer 1:9
"Thus says the Lord"
- Occurs over 400 times in the Old Testament
For the word of God is living and active, sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing to the division of soul and of spirit, of joints and of marrow, and discerning the thoughts and intentions of the heart
Heb 4:12

But the Bible always gives Evidences to Believe:

: "
That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we looked upon and have touched with our hands, concerning the word of life— ... that which we have seen and heard we proclaim also to you,"
1Jn 1:1-3


"Believe me that I am in the Father and the Father is in me, or else believe on account of the works themselves."
Jn 14:11

"when a prophet speaks in the name of the LORD, if the word does not come to pass or come true, that is a word that the LORD has not spoken..."
Deut 18:22

"For his invisible attributes, namely, his eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly perceived, ever since the creation of the world, in the things that have been made."
Rom 1:20
The Bible has Proven itself against all challenges for 3500 years:

- Leaders, Laws, Wars, Customs, Dates, etc.

- Astronomy, Water cycle, Cosmology, biology

- Diseases, Hygiene, Reproduction, Blood, nutrin

- Locations & conditions of cities, Nations

- Elevations, distances, topography, weather details

- Animal use & breeding, planting & harvesting
Reliability of Today's Bible
Old Testament
- in Hebrew
- Treated with Extreme Care by the Jews
- Verified by the Greek OT (Septuagint)
- Reflected in the NT
- Proven by the Dead Sea Scrolls

New Testament
- in Greek
- 25,000 Manuscripts! 5,000+ in Greek
- Dated to 25 years from original
- In 15+ languages.
- Early Church Writings (36,000 Quotations)
- Lectionaries

Accurate Eyewitness Details in the New Testament
Detailed study of John, Luke & Acts recently verified:

- 140 different details that have specific
historical Accuracy.

- 30 individual characters that are verified
by non-Christian sources
In the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of the region of Ituraea and Trachonitis, and Lysanias tetrarch of Abilene, during the high priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas, the word of God came to John the son of Zechariah in the wilderness.

Lk 3:1-2
Strength of Evidence for Jesus Resurrection
- He foretold of His Resurrection to the
confusion of His followers.
- Many extra details of the Story.
- Followers show as cowards.
- The Stone, the Guards, and their story.
- Women were the first witnesses.
- Testimony of His enemies.
- Confusion and transformation of disciples.
- Church began in Jerusalem 40 days later.
- NT writers challenged people to
check their story.
This Jesus God raised up, and of that we all are witnesses. ...
Let all the house of Israel therefore know for certain that God has made him both Lord and Christ, this Jesus whom you crucified.
Now when they heard this they were cut to the heart, and said to Peter and the rest of the apostles, “Brothers, what shall we do?”
And Peter said to them, “Repent and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins, and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit."
Acts 2:33, 37-38
"The marks of design are too strong to be gotten over. Design must have had a designer. That designer must have been a person. That person is GOD."

"But suppose I had found a watch upon the ground, and it should be inquired how the watch happened to be in that place, I should hardly think of the answer which I had before given, that for anything I knew the watch might have always been there."
William Paley, 1802
Philosopher, Clergy
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