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Copy of The Middle Ages

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TMLA Social Studies

on 23 February 2015

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Transcript of Copy of The Middle Ages

Roman Empire falls to Germanic tribes (Visigoths, Ostrogoths and Franks) in the West

Experiences a decline in trade and industry, learning and culture, and strong central government

Germanic tribes have political system where a weak king consults a body of nobles—influences government structure of medieval Europe
Reform begins at monasteries
Bishops and abbots were more concerend with their secular feudal responsibilities than their spiritual duties
500 - 1000 A.D. Vikings
attacked and destroyed monasteries
Other Problems:
1. Priests were marrying
2. Simony
3. Lay Investitures
Spiritual revival across Europe
Largest landholder in Europe
Gained wealth through a tithe (tax)
that Christians had to pay (1/10 of salary)
742-814 A.D.
Who were the Franks?
The Conversion of Clovis: King of the Franks
How did the conversion of the Franks
to Catholicism help them to become an empir
Church becomes basis for authority.
King of the Franks
Holy Roman Emperor
Protector of Rome
Promotes German:
Preserves Roman:
Spreads Christianity
"New" Roman Empire
Defender of Christian Faith
Defends Church by defeating
rebellious Roman nobles.
Result: Pope Leo III crowns
Holy Roman Emperor
What does this title signify?
Divine-Right Monarchy
Secular united to Church Rule
Revives Learning
Missi Dominici
Copies ancient laws & manuscripts
Holy Roman Empire = 1/3 size of USA
Divides empire between three sons
How will division impact the empire?
Power of nobles grows
Vikings attack
Growth of Feudalism
What is it the importance of the Battle of Tours?
Monastery- self-sufficient centers where religious persons lived, worked, and prayed,
How would the problems in the church
impact the faith of the people?
The "Rule" of St. Benedict
Imitate Christ
Daily Prayer
Read & Study Scripture
How did monasteries help to preserve Greco-Roman culture?
What was the relationship
between religion and education?
Why did feudalism and manor systems begin?
Manoralism = Economic System
How does European feudalism compare to Japanese feudalism?
What was the most important economic resource in medieval Europe?
Who controlled this resource?
How did control of economic resources
affect the power structure of medieval society?

What did this system offer to serfs?
What was life like for the different social classes?
What happens when a bishop is a vassal?
What happens when you have more than one lord?
Gothic Architecture: Cathedral of Aachen
Charlemagne, 792 A.D.
Gothic architecture
Reflects glory of Christian faith.
Flying Buttresses
Romanesque Arches
Rounded Arches
What shape is the church? Why?
Buttresses: What are their functions?
Vault = Canopy
Monastic Life
Coronation of Charlemagne
800 A.D
The Fall of Rome
"Dark Ages" of Europe
Middle Ages of Europe = "Dark Ages"
Why would monastic life aid
church reform?
What is a monastery?
Pope Gregory I sent out missionaries
Why is the Christian Church
a light in the darkness?
Sense of security, unity, purpose
Why was it important to convert the pagan people of Europe?
Where did the Catholic church send its missionaries?
Age of Faith
Conversion Methods:
1. Missionaries
2. Example of leader
3. Conversion by the sword
4. Monastic Example
5. Synthesizing pagan with Christian
Tithes = taxes collected by Church, 1/10 income
Pope = universal leader of the Church
Power over Holy Roman Emperor and secular rulers
Why was excommunication an effective tool
to maintain power over secular rulers?
Canon law
Religious "court" with advisors
Lay-Investiture Conflict
Pope Gregory VII vs. Holy Roman Emperor Henry
Power of Holy Roman Emperor Weakens & Chuch power is strengthened
Only church can appoint officials
King gets veto power
Concordat of Worms 1122
What was the purpose of stained glass windows?
Chivalry = Rules & Customs of Knighthood
Honor & Serve their lords, women
Courteous, Courageous, Generous
The Medieval Church
Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica
Logical Reasoning to Defend Faith
Romanesque Architecture
The Crusades
Seljuk Turks (Muslims) conquered Palestine (Holy Land)
Pope Urban II calls for war to recapture Holy Land
Why did Pope Urban II call for war?
Christian Holy Land
Interfered with
Why did people fight in Crusades?
Promise of wealth
Freedom from feudal duties & taxes
Escape troubles
Pope forgives sins & promises salvation
Increase power of Church
Unite Byzantine & Roman Catholic Churches
The Crusades: 1095 - 1291
Christians recapture Jerusalem
Muslims regain Holy Land
Truce: Holy Land ruled by Muslims but Christian pilgrimages allowed
Spanish Reconquista
1492: Spanish monarchs Ferdinand & Isabella expel Muslims from Spain
Power of pope weakened
Cultural Diffusion through trade & travel between Europe & S.E. Asia
End of manoralism & feudalism
What is the legacy of the crusades on relations between Christianity and Islam?
What were the effects of the crusades?
Changes in Agriculture
Three-Field System
Increased food production
Increased population
Collar harness
Horses can be used for plowing
Horses stronger than oxen
Financial & Urban Revolutions
Growth of Trade
Population growth
Expansion of trade during Crusades
Towns grown around centers of trade
House built with wood and thatched roofs
Dark, unsanitary, stifling
Streets narrow
No sanitation
Fire hazards
Challenges feudal order
Burghers = merchants, craftsmen, town dwellers
Burghers win right to govern towns from feudal lords
Wage Control
Est. quality standards
Master craftsmen
What was the effect of towns on feudalism?
How will changes in agriculture lead to the growth of trade and cities?
How did the crusades contribute to
changes in the medieval societal, political & economic system?

The High Middle Ages
What does this title signify?
The Canterbury Tales, Geoffrey Chaucer
Universities: Revival of Learning
What economic and social changes would lead to a revival of learning?
How will vernacular impact learning?
The Growth of Royal Power
England & France

How will the nobles & Church respond
to this change?
Early Middle Ages:
Church power supreme
Local lords wielded secular power
High Midle Ages:
Kings will centralize power
Claim authority over Church & nobles
What caused these changes?
Growth of Royal Power: France
Hugh Capet 987 A.D.
Throne made hereditary
Tax system established
Played rival nobles against one another to gain land and power
Capetian Rule Empowers French Monarchy
Philip II of France
How does he continue to weaken the nobility?
Government officials = paid members of middle class
Creates standing army
Quadruples land holdings
Estates General does not limit power
Growth of Royal Power:England
Henry II: King of England
How will Henry strengthen the English monarchy?
Common Law
Jury System
Traveling Justices to enforce law
Improves Finance
How does Romanesque architecture
differ from Gothic architecture?
What role does the architecture of
cathedrals play in promoting the faith?
King John I of England
Raised taxes & abused power
Nobles demand limit on power
War with France
Gives up land to France
Lay-investiture controversy over Archbishop
Three Enemies
Philip II of France
Pope Innocent II
Signing of the Magna Carta, 1215
1. King must follow law
2. King could not raise taxes
without consulting Great Council
Great Council = lords & clergy
Evolved into modern day Parliament
Why did the nobles of England create the Magna Carta?
Why is the Magna Carta significant?
Why did John I accept these terms?
The Bubonic Plague: Black Death
Origins: Asia
How did it spread?
Trade - 1347 Genoese fleet carried disease into Venice
Where did it spread?
1/3 of European population died
What was the impact of the
plague on European society?
Trade declined
Prices rose
Farms abandoned
Jews Blamed
Fearful climate
Faith declined
Peasants revolted
The Hundred Years War
What caused the war?
Why were the English initially successful?
Who was Joan of Arc?
Archery vs. Chivalry
What were the effects of the Hundred Years' War?
English lose most lands in France
Power of monarchy grew
End of Middle Ages
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