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Chapter 9 Euro 101

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tim hudenburg

on 28 March 2016

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Transcript of Chapter 9 Euro 101

Euro Chapter 9
The Abbasid Caliphate
Byzantium Empire
The Viking Invasion
The Ottonian Kings
Political communities in England, France, and Italy
The Spread of Islam
French kings
Harder times coping with invasions
Capetian family
Bred kings for Carolingian dynasty
Carolingian dynasty
Power waned
Most powerful men together elected new king
Hugh Capet
Lord of great prestige, little power
Marked end of Carolingian rule
Beginning of Capetian dynasty
Would hand down royal title until 14th century
Political communities in Italy, England, and France
Conversion to Christianity
Great men joined Anglo-Saxons in attending English king at court
Peace returned
Shires --Equivalent of counties
Hundreds of smaller units
Powerful men swore fealty to king
England became united and organized to support a strong ruler
Alfred’s grandson Edgar
Sworn lord of all the great men
Controlled appointment to English church
Supported monastic reform
973
Anointed king
Political communities in Italy, England, and France
Rise of castellans
Increase in violence
Peace of God--attempt to contain violence united bishops, counts, peasants

Truce of God
Prohibited fighting
Compromise
Efforts to Contain Violence
Medieval warriors--Elite group
Kings, counts, dukes
Knights and their lords fought on horseback
Chain mail; Helmet of flat metal plates
Military revolution; War season started in May
Horseshoes allowed armies to move faster than ever before
Use of stirrups for lance
Light javelin of ancient Roman warfare abandoned
Lords and vassals lived together
Powerful vassals lived on their own fiefs
Unmarried knights were called youths
Primogeniture--oldest son inherits it all
Warriors & Warfare
Obligations differed across the regions of Europe
Landlords consolidated their power
Collected fees; fee for the use of their flour mills
Some built castles--Fortified strongholds, collected taxes, heard court cases, levied fines, mustered men
King’s power waned as political control fell into hands of counts & other princes
1000
Castles become key to power
Power was so fragmented
Each man who controlled a castle was a virtual ruler--A castellan
After the Carolingians: The Emergence of Local rule, cont.
Lords lightened the dues and services of peasants
Draining marshes
Cutting down forests
Dues were fixed despite inflation
Boundaries
Church often formed the focal point of village activity
People met & received sacraments
Drew up contracts
Buried their dead
Religious feasts and festivals--'The Fair'
Joined rituals of farming to mark seasons
Men and women owed tax to the Church called a tithe
One tenth of their crops or income
Paid in money or in kind (labor or product)
After the Carolingians: The Emergence of Local rule, cont.
Ritual gestures and verbal promises--Becoming a vassal
Homage--“I promise to be your man”
Followed by promise of fealty, fidelity, trust, and service
Vassals swore on bible
Bottom of social scale--Peasants; Some were free
Fewer and fewer peasants were free
Dependent of lords not as vassals but as serfs
Serfdom was not voluntary
Serfs worked as laborers (forced labor tied to the land)
Paid taxes due to their lords
After the Carolingians: The Emergence of Local rule, cont.
Landowning vassals looked to lords to give them still more land
Wives and mothers of vassals and lords
Few women were vassals
Some were lords

Ladies
Women entered convents
Often had vassals as well
Networks of dependencies and allegiances
After the Carolingians: The Emergence of Local rule, cont.
Royal power diminished; consolidated on what they had
Commanding allegiances from vassals, local peasantry
Built castles to dominate the countryside
Set up markets, collecting revenues, keeping the peace
Royals & powerful men considered themselves as independent rulers
New warrior class of lords & vassals came to dominate
In northern and central Italy-- Elites ruled from the cities rather from rural castles like most of Western Europe
Everywhere kings retained a certain amount of power
Weak nobles strong king
Strong king weak nobles
golden rule--he who has the gold makes the rules
After the Carolingians: The Emergence of Local rule
Viking, Muslim and Magyar invasions

Magyars (Hungarians)
Nomadic people from Ural Mountains
Settled in Europe’s center
Arrived around 899 in Danube Basin driving a wedge between the Slavs
Bulgarians, Serbs, and Rus
Forced into the Byzantine Orbit
While Slavs nearer the Frankish kingdom came under the influence of Germany
In present day Hungary
Magyars
Frequently Attacked Germany, Italy, and even southern Gaul between 899 and 955

Viking Expansion
Wessex
England’s King Alfred the Great
Gave Vikings hostages and tribute
Danegeld--Lucrative taxation system
Alfred led his army against the Vikings
Set up trading stations
Beginning about 850
Attacks became well organized expeditions for regional control
Normandy--Land of the Northmen
911
Frankish king Charles the Simple ceded the region to Rollo
Viking leader later Rollo converted to Christianity
Viking, Muslim and Magyar invasions
All the peasants
Dependents of the monastery
Owed dues & services to the church 'Lord' and the lord
Peasant women spent much time at the lord’s house in the workshop—peasant Women made & dyed cloth; sewed garments; cooked
Peasant men worked in the fields
Manors organized on the model of Villeneuve were profitable
Carolingians believed to benefit from landholdings
Farming was too primitive to return great surpluses
Dependence on manors
Proved to be a source of weakness
monoculture agriculture
slow to change; a rhythm;
everything viewed inwardly
Land & Power
Carolingian economy
Based on war profits, trade, and agriculture
Contributed first to rise and then to dissolution of the Carolingian empire
Silver--Traded in return for wine, jugs, glasses, and other manufactured goods & sometimes made into coins Weakening of
the Abbasid caliphate in the mid-ninth century
Disrupted this far-flung trade network
Contributed to the weakening of the Carolingians at the same time
Land was the most important source of Carolingian wealth & power
Carolingian aristocrats held many estates called manors
Land & Power
Louis the Pious died in 840
Treaty of Verdun 843
Divided the empire
Among three sons
Charles the Bald--France
Louis the German--Germany
Lothar--Middle Kingdom
Along with imperial title
Became modern states of the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Italy


Charlemagne’s Successor’s, 814-911
Louis the Pious
817
Imposed a uniform way of life
Based on the Benedictine rule the monastic standard in Europe
Louis’ first wife, Ermengard--crowned empress by the pope 816
817 First born son
Lothar-- Named emperor and made co-ruler with Louis
Pippin and Louis the German
Made sub-kings under imperial rule hoped to ensure the unity of the empire
Ermengard dies; Louis marries Judith 'most beautiful woman in the kingdom'
Had a son named Charles the Bald
Sons of Ermengard
Bitter over the birth of the royal heir
Rebelled against their father and fought for over a decade
Charlemagne’s Successor’s, 814-911

Revival in learning
Glory of kings, educate their officials
Purify the faith
Learning of the past
Roman imperial writers
Suetonius & Virgil
Church fathers
Accurate texts of everything they read & prized
role of Alcuin-made Charlemagne's court a center of study of Anglo-Saxon scholarship (Benedict & Bede
Became Charlemagne’s chief advisor
Improved edition of the Vulgate (Latin Bible)
used by the clergy in all church services
The Islamic Renaissance (790 – 1050 CE)
Occurred throughout the Islamic world
Cordoba
Translated ancient philosophy
Astronomy & Mathematics
Ibn Sina
(980 – 1037) Avicenna
Logic & Natural sciences & Physics
Canon of Medicine
Madrasa-school located in or attached to a mosque
All male students
Paid a fee for learning
Scholarship students
The Rise and Fall of the Abbasid Caliphate, cont.

Abbasid revolution (750 CE)
New emir declared 756
Became Abd al-Rahman I
Ruled broad range of people (Jews and Christians)
Mararabz (“like Arabs”)
Allowed freedom of worship
Some were content; Others converted to Islam; Some intermarried
Abd al-Rahman III (r. 912 – 961)
Title of caliph;
Caliphate of Cordoba (929 – 1031)
Members of all groups could worship; sense of equal opportunity
The Rise and Fall of the Abbasid Caliphate, cont.
Mahdi
“Divinely guided”
969 CE
Fatimid's declared rule over Egypt
Controlled North Africa, Arabia, and Syria
Lavish court culture which supported industries
Shi’ites dominated Egypt
Sunnis ruled al-Andalus
Islamic central and southern heart of Spain at Cordoba
took the title emir--“commander”
The Rise and Fall of the Abbasid Caliphate, cont.
Harun al-Rashid
Abbasid caliph presided over flourishing empire
Contemporary of Frankish ruler, Charlemagne
Abbasid dynasty declined after Harun’s death
Sons waged war against each other
Caliphs lost control over many regions, including Syria & Egypt
A loyal army was needed used “outsiders”, mostly Turks
Also called Mamluks, brought in as slaves
Once purchased, freedom was given and a salary was paid
The Rise and Fall of the Abbasid Caliphate, cont.
Unity
Rus remained under one ruler
By 1054 Civil wars broke out
Crossroads of East and West
Rus absorb great variety of traditions
Opened it up to unremitting military pressures
Heir to Byzantines (3rd Rome--Moscow)
The Formation of Eastern Europe and Kievan Rus, cont.
Religion
Few Rus were Christian
988
Conversion of Rus ruler Vladimir
Emperor Basil II sent sister Anna to marry Vladimir in exchange for an army of Rus; To seal alliance, Vladimir was baptized then general population became Christian
Top down religious adaptation.
Rejection of Judaism/Catholicism/Islam and why
The Formation of Eastern Europe and Kievan Rus, cont.
Relationship between Rus and Byzantium
Started with trade but continued with war
Ended with common religion
Beginning of 10th century
Rus had special trade privileges at Constantinople
Relations deteriorated
Rus unsuccessfully attacked Constantinople in 941
Resumed peaceful trade with Byzantium
The Formation of Eastern Europe and Kievan Rus, cont.

• 863
Brothers Cyril & Methodius went out as Christian Orthodox missionaries to the Slavs
Devised an alphabet for Slavic people based on Greek forms
Ancestor of modern Cyrillic alphabet, used in Bulgaria, Serbia & Russia today

Russia
Came under increasingly strong influence from Byzantine Empire
Vikings
Scandinavian adventurers moved southward & conquered area around Kiev
Rus, Viking conquerors, sailed Dnieper River, crossed Black Sea in search of slaves/fur
The Formation of Eastern Europe and Kievan Rus, cont.
850 – 950
Contours of modern Eastern Europe took shape
Slavic settlements
Khagan--Ruler of the Bulgarians
Byzantine empire struggle with the Bulgars
Conquest & control over the Balkans
Struggle began under Emperor Nicephorus I
Wage war against the Slavs
Set up new Christian diocese
Organized new military theme
Forcibly resettled Christians in area to counteract Slavic paganism

The Formation of Eastern Europe and Kievan Rus
Dynatoi gained power
New social hierarchy of Byzantium
Resembled Western Europe; Land owned by aristocratic (war)lords
But farmed by poor peasants bound by tax & service obligations to the fields they cultivated; In West they were called serfs
The Dynatoi: A New Landowning Elite, cont.
Powerful military families/warlords
Began to compete with imperial power
The Dynatoi
“Powerful men”--New hereditary elite
Rich on plunder & new lands from aggressive wars
Exercised power locally
The Dynatoi: A New Landowning Elite
Ceremonies
--were serious, sacred, & displayed concentrated power of imperial majesty
Prosperous agricultural
economy organized for trade
Byzantine commerce
--balanced state regulation & individual enterprise
Emperor
controlled craft & commercial guilds
Entrepreneurs
organized most of the markets
Foreign merchants
were welcomed & increased international trade
Foreign policy
controlled by Government
Regulated fees
to pay and services rendered
Imperial Power, cont.
Between 750 and 850
Byzantium held off Muslim attacks & began to rebuild
After 850
Byzantium expanded with military victories & brought new wealth & power to imperial court
Emperors supported vast program of literary/ artistic revival
New landowning elite--Began to control countryside
The Byzantium Emperor & Local Elites

New political entities in the East
Rus nickname of vikings (Ancestor of concept 'Russia'), Bulgaria, & Serbia
Grew up in shadow of Byzantium
1050
Contours of what were to become modern Europe & Middle East slowly developing
From Centralization to Fragmentation (750 – 1050) cont.
750 – 1050
People became conscious of unity & uniqueness
Rulers at first dominated strong united political communities, but by the end they fragmented into smaller local units
Byzantium
Military triumphs brought imperial prestige
Renaissance(French for rebirth)— Revival of culture and art in Constantinople
New elites dominate the Byzantine countryside
From Centralization to Fragmentation (750 – 1050) cont.
Collect taxes
Administer justice
Fight on horseback
German kings make Catholic polities

Czechs & Bohemia
Wenceslas I, or Vaclav the Good was the duke of Bohemia from 921 until assassinated in 935 in a plot by his brother, Boleslav the Cruel.
Wenceslas becomes a Martyr

The Poles converted to Catholicism in 966
Magyars--King St Stephen I 1000-1038 1st king of Hungary
Ottonian Kings, cont.
Ottonians presided over a renaissance of learning
Learned churchmen taught
Noble women in Germany also acquired education
Noblewomen wrote books

Kings of Germany--Faced resistance from dukes
Powerful princes & regional rulers
Salians, succeed Ottonians
Balance of power among German dukes
German vassalage--beneath dignity of free men
Salian kings
Strong nobles will keep Germany fragmented
Ottonian Kings, cont.
Otto I, II, III
Didn’t divide kingdom for sons
Patrilineal pattern of inheritance
Disgruntled royal kin led revolts against Ottonian kings
Ottonians and German clergy more harmonious
Otto I appointed bishops gave extensive lands
Well being of church depened on him
Bishops could collect revenue
Call men to arms
Became royal officials
Kings claimed rights to select bishops
Invest in them; who picks the bishop--Pope or king?
Ottonian Kings

Created marches
Pope crowned him emperor in 962
Claimed the Middle part of Treaty of Verdun
Agent of roman imperial renewal
Empire
Tribute and plunder
Otto I Son of Henry I
German fragmentation
5 large duchies emerged in Germany
Last Carolingian king died 911
Royal title went to duke of Saxony
Henry I
Setup forts
Organized army
Tool Lombard crown--Defeated Maygar army in 933
Emperors and Kings in Central and Eastern Europe, cont.


Ile-de-France (“island of France”)

Independent castellans controlled nearby areas
King of Franks
Only territorial in sense of “King of France”
Just another local leader
Capetian kings had considerable prestige
Anointed with holy oil & idea of unity
Inherited from Charlemagne
Political communities in Italy, England, and France
England was not a unified state in modern sense
King’s control was often tenuous
Many royal officials were great land-owners
Political fragility
Danish king Cnut the Great ruled part of England from 1017–1035
Strong connection between England and Scandinavia
Kept administrative, ecclesiastical & military apparatus intact
Scandinavian traditions had largely merged with those of the rest of Europe; Vikings were no longer seen as an alien culture
Political communities in Italy, England, and France
Religious reform
Scholars to translate works
Gregory the Great
St. Augustine into Anglo-Saxon
Old English
Psalms
Vernacular
Hebrew, Greek, Latin by scholars
Latin language used in writing
Spoken language became as written language as well
Alfred’s reforms strengthened:
Defense
Education
Religion
Royal power
Consolidated control over Wessex & fought Danish kings
Recognized as the first king of the English
Political communities in Italy, England, and France
Northern and central Italy
Cities were the centers of power
Marketplaces & artisans and merchants’ home
Members of lower classes supported by elite
Peasants in countryside became renters
Paid in currency

Most of England was rural
Alfred the Great--King of Wessex
Divided army into two parts
Defending fortified captions
Mobile unit
Navy
Political communities in Italy, England, and France
Patrilineal families
Younger sons without an inheritance. Who is in class is first born?
Without prospect of marrying or founding a family
Lived at the courts of the great; went into military or priesthood
by joining the Church as clerics or monks
Bypass daughters
Worked against aristocratic women
Who lost their power
Inherited wealth
Widows and daughters inherited property
Warriors & Warfare
Majority of the population
Barely noticed by the upper classes
Except as source of revenue
Cultivation & warmer climate
Able to support a larger population
Population increase but threat of food shortages
Three-field system became more prevalent
Heavy taxes
Horses more effective than oxen (switch from ox to horse collar)
Surplus food
Better standard of living
After the Carolingians: The Emergence of Local rule, cont.
Three groups: The Prayers, Fighters, Workers
Hierarchies of dependency
Linked by personal bonds
Upper classes were free
Monks & Knights
Warrior was lord of several vassals
Vassal of another lord
Monasteries normally had vassals to fight for them
Abbots in turn were often vassals of a king or other powerful lord
Vassalage--Strengthen ties what little public power remained
After the Carolingians: The Emergence of Local rule, cont.
Central European monarchies formed under influence of 'Germany'
Local allegiances mattered most to societies of Europe
Between lord & vassal/castellan & peasant/bishop & layman
Public power and private relationships
Personal loyalty
Warriors were drawn into networks of dependency
Faithful men--Vassals of local lords
Fiefs--Grants of lands in return for their military service
Feodum “fief” Feudalism
Social and economic system created by the relationship among vassals, lords, and fiefs
After the Carolingians: The Emergence of Local rule, cont.
955
Germany king Otto I
Defeated a marauding party of Magyars at Lechfield
Cessation of Magyar raids
Made Otto a great hero to his contemporaries
Magyars soon converted to the Roman form of Christianity
Hungary’s position made it a frontier region
Vulnerable to invasion and immigration
Also open to new experiments in assimilation and integration
Viking, Muslim, and Magyar invasions
Final onslaught western Europe experienced from outsiders
Viking, Muslim and Magyar invasions
Danes had become Christian
Kings in the south built an effective monarchy
Royal mint
Local agents
1000
Danish monarch
Extended its control to parts of Sweden, Norway and England
Under King Cnut also spelled Canute
1017-1035
Parts of Southern Europe attacked by Muslim adventurers from North Africa, Sicily, and northeastern al-Andalus
Viking, Muslim and Magyar invasions
Viking, Muslim and Magyar invasions
Vikings were merchants, sailors, and pirates
Settle in Iceland and Greenland
Around 1000 a few landed on the coast of North America
Vikings were considered Pagans
Attacked monasteries and churches
Stole Reliquaries, chalices, crosses
No more convenient than storehouses of plunder
Hit British Isles hard by 876 parts of England called Danelaw
Viking, Muslim and Magyar invasions
Each family had its own manse; consisted of a house, a garden with small sections of arable land
Families also worked the demesne--large manse of the lord
Peasant household of the Carolingian period & precursor of modern nuclear family
Three field system
Planted one third of the arable land in the fall with winter wheat
One third in the spring with summer crops
Remaining third kept fallow to restore its fertility
Crops rotated only two thirds of the land was cultivated each year
Land & Power
843
European-wide empire of Charlemagne had dissolved
Formal ties of vassalage & oaths of fealty (faithfulness)
Carolingian Ideal, shared by educated laymen & churchmen alike
Conquest and Christian belief
Aristocrats could not hope for new lands
Local traditions such as different languages also undermined imperial unity
Some people disagreed with the imperial ideal
Primacy of the family & personal ties
Smaller, more intimate units
Charlemagne’s Successor’s, 814-911
Art served Carolingian political and religious goals
Models from Italy and Byzantium
Illustrate Bibles
Transmitting models of the past
Modern typefaces
Based on clear and beautiful letter forms
Called Caroline minuscule
Invented the ninth century to standardize manuscript handwriting
Charlemagne
Use of paper
Byzantine parchment, expensive
Islamic scholars wrote on a paper which was cheap
Spoke to a broad audience

Meanwhile in Italy...
Papacy claimed imperial power
In 760s papal chancery(writing office) made 'Donation of Constantine' declared Pope the recipient of the 4th C. emperor Constantine’s crowns, cloak & military rank
Given control of Rome, Italy & all western regions
Document proved to be a forgery
Imperial claims of Carolingians versus Byzantines
Who was the real emperor?
The Rise and Fall of the Abbasid Caliphate, cont.
Later caliphates
Al-Andalus experienced political fragmentation
Caliphate of Cordoba broke up in 1031
Small independent rulers (taifas) took power
Unity of Commerce & Language
Measure of unity through trade networks & Arabic
Language of the Qur’an, Commerce, & government from Baghdad to Cordoba
Open borders
Muslim merchants brought tin from England; salt and gold Timbuktu
West-central Africa
Amber, gold, and copper from Rus
Slaves from every region
The Rise and Fall of the Abbasid Caliphate, cont.
Followers of Islam were from different:
ethnicities/customs/regions
Grwoing globalization (Asia/Europe/Africa)
Tenth and early eleventh century with local traditions with local rulers
Fatimid's trace roots/authority back to Fatimah
Daughter of Muhammad
Wife of Ali
909 CE
Region of North Africa; Tunisia
True Imam
must be a ‘descendant of Ali’
The Rise and Fall of the Abbasid Caliphate, cont.
Regional Diversity in Islamic Lands
Splintering of the Islamic world
Sunni and Shi’ite split became more polarized
Western Europeans called Muslims--Saracens
Latin for ‘Arabs’
The Rise and Fall of the Abbasid Caliphate, cont.
750
Civil war ousted Umayyads, Abbasids the new caliphate
Found uneasy support in Shi’ites & non–Arabs
Center of Islamic rule shifted from Damascus, roots in Roman tradition to Baghdad withroots of lavish Persian courtly models:
Centralized administration
Large staff
Control over appointment of regional governors
The Rise and Fall of the Abbasid Caliphate, cont.
Abbasids
New dynasty of caliphs
Brought unity, then decline to Islamic world
Contributed to fragmentation
11th century
Islamic world had clear sense of unity based on:
Language
Commerce
Artistic and intellectual achievements
The Rise and Fall of the Abbasid Caliphate
Christianization of Europe
Southeast = orthodox Byzantine Christianity dominated
West/Northwest = Roman Catholicism
Slavic realms adopted Byzantine form of Christianity
Northern area/Scandinavian = Roman Church
Rus converted to Byzantine Christianity:
Rus made themselves heir to Byzantium with its church, customs, art and political ideology;
Russia saw itself as the 3rd Rome
The Formation of Eastern Europe and Kievan Rus, cont.
Scholars wrote:
summaries of classical literature, encyclopedias of ancient knowledge & commentaries on the classics
copied religious manuscripts & theological commentaries
Merged classical and Christian traditions
illuminated manuscripts
The Macedonian Renaissance, cont.

870 – 1025
Basil I ->867 – 886
Founded the Macedonian imperial dynasty
Macedonian Renaissance
Dynasty drew on an intellectual elite
Persisted in studying the classics
Icons
Restored in 843
a scholarly elite thrived again
The Macedonian Renaissance
Emperors negotiated privileges for their traders
Byzantine merchants guaranteed protection in Syria
Byzantine trade flourished in Middle East
Venetian intermediaries middle men traded into Western Europe
Imperial Power, cont.

From Centralization to Fragmentation (750 – 1050) cont.

600 – 750
Fast spread of Islam
Slow decline of Byzantine
Hints of stable political & economic development in impoverished Europe
From Centralization to Fragmentation (750 – 1050)

NVCC--Annandale
Professor Timothy M. Hudenburg
History 101
Chapter 9 Outline
Leaders of Slavic tribe known as Polanians
Accept baptism & Protection of pope 966
Polish loyal to Roman Catholic Church
Westward looking
but had contact with the East & Orthodox Christians

966 Mieszko I of Poland
10th century
Caliphs were figureheads only
Independent regional rulers collected taxes, handled own armies
Key power center of Byzantine empire was Constantinople
The Rise and Fall of the Abbasid Caliphate, cont.
Launched massive attack against Bulgarians took city of Pliska
816 both sides agreed to temporary peace
Emperor Basil II -> Led Byzantines in slow methodical conquest
Known as “Bulgar-Slayer’ & blinding of the Bulgar Army
Brought entire region under Byzantine control
Byzantine form of Christianity; Orthodoxy in Eastern Europe
Especially after 1056
The Formation of Eastern Europe and Kievan Rus, cont.
Phocas on a coin

An example: The Phocas family from Armenia
Possessed military skills
Exhibited loyalty to the emperor
gathered high positions in the army & at court
Gained independent power
Nicephorus Phocas was declared emperor at Constantinople from 963 to 969
Though was outside capital on family’s great estates
The Dynatoi: A New Landowning Elite, cont.

Kiev
Known as Kievan Rus
From Kiev the Byzantines imported:
Furs
Slaves
Waxes
Honey
Amber
To Kiev the Byzantines sent:
Religion Orthodoxy & alphabet
Prestige
Imperial Power, cont.
Tagmata--New mobile armies—elite troops
Aggressively pushed outward in 850
1025CE expansion of Byzantium empire (bottom pic)
Extended from the Danube to Euphrates (North to South)
Military victories-brought prestige & wealth
Byzantine emperors
Demand services and money
Used wealth to create a lavish court culture
Byzantine Imperial Power
Western Europe
Charlemagne began new Carolingian dynasty
Forged a huge empire
Cultural Renaissance
Disintegrates within a generation of Charlemagne’s death
Power fell into the hands of local lords; slow rise of local feudalism
From Centralization to Fragmentation (750 – 1050) cont.
Vassals needed lords to provide:
food, clothes, house, weapons, & soldiers
Islamic world
Dynastic revolution in 750 CE
Umayyad ousted & replaced by the Abbasids
Abbasid caliphs moved capital from Damascus to Baghdad
Ushers in an Islamic renaissance nearly 600 years before Europe's renaissance
The Carolingian Renaissance
<-Byzantine Empire
The Carolingian
Cordoba
Granada
Granada
Pope Leo III upset balance among powers
799 accused of adultery & perjury
Pope fled northward and on Christmas day, 800, Leo put emperor’s crown on Charlemagne’s head
King Karl the Great/ Charlemagne, 1st Holy Roman emperor
Exalted king of the Franks a downgrade to Byzantine ruler
Pope as “emperor maker”
Charlemagne
Feared Byzantine reaction & objected to papal crowning
Pope power over imperial office
God’s emperor who governed the Roman Empire along with his many duties; attacks on Saxons in 'Germany'
A very simplified view of what develops in to the Middle Ages
Full transcript