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IGCSE Physical Education 1.3. Skeleton & Joints

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Rob Myatt

on 3 November 2016

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Transcript of IGCSE Physical Education 1.3. Skeleton & Joints

Joint Capsule
Provides a protective barrier to all of the below!
Synovial joint construction
Also known as cartilaginous joints.

Bones use cartilage as padding.

Smalls movements are possible between the bones.

No joint cavity.
Slightly moveable joints
Joint definition
‘A joint is a place where two or more bones meet.’
Different types of joint
Combination of movement at several joints.
e.g. tennis serve, passing in any sport.
Relevance to Sport
There are FOUR types of bone in the human body:
Types of Bone
Blood Production
Which large bones contain bone marrow?
e.g. femur, fibula, tibia.
Bone Examples
Red
Collect and transfer carbon dioxide and oxygen.
Blood Production
TASK
:
State which bone protects an organ or number of organs.
Protection
The body is jointed = allows movement.
Different joints = different movements.
Movement
Provides a frame for posture.
Shape and Support
Shape and support.

Movement.

Protection.

Blood production.
Functions of the Skeleton

1.3. Skeleton & Joints
Also known as synovial joints.

Complex construction in the joint.

Different joint construction = different movement.

Movement is dependent on arrangement of muscles,
their tendons & ligaments.
Freely moveable joints
Also known as fibrous joints.

No possible movement!

No sporting significance.

Held together by fibrous connective tissue.
Fixed / Immovable Joints
Synovial Fluid
Synovial membrane puncture = leakage of synovial fluid.
Physiological Problems
Opening a joint / Straightening.
Increase the angle at a joint.
Types of joint movement
There are 4 major functions:
What permits movement in the human body?
Tennis Serve
Extension
Which bone(s) protects that organ?
Produced in the bone marrow of long bones.
What would happen if we didn’t have a skeleton?
Freely moveable in all directions.

Ligaments are used to keep the joint stable & prevent dislocation.


Hip
Shoulder


Flexion and extension
Abduction and adduction
Rotation
Ball & Socket
Examples:



Movement allowed:
Movement in one plane only.

Opens until straight.

Limited movement – shape of the bone & ligaments.


Elbow
Knee


Flexion and extension.
Hinge
Examples:



Movement allowed:
Examples:


Movement allowed:
Pivot
Part of the bone fits into another ring of bone.


Atlas (C1) & Axis (C2) Vertebrae.


Rotation.
Condyloid
Example:


Movement allowed:
Rounded end (condyle) into hollow end (elliptical cavity).

Back and forward, side to side.

Ligaments prevent rotation.


Wrist


Flexion and extension.
Abduction and adductions.
Saddle
Bones shaped like saddles & fit together.

Bone shape prevents rotation.


Thumb.


Flexion and extension.
Abduction and adduction.
Example:


Movement allowed:
Gliding
Flat surface meeting flat surface.

Little movement is possible in all directions.

Limited movement due to tight joint capsules & ligaments.


Vertebrae.
Carpal bones in the hand.


Gliding.
Examples:



Movement Allowed:
Types of Synovial Joint
How many different movements at different joints
in the body can you see/think of?
Quick quiz
2. How many bones are in an adult human body?
206
3. How many bones are in each hand?
27
1. How my bones does a newborn baby have?
Approx. 300
We create movements using the joints.
Circle and name each joint on your skeleton sheet.
What type of movement is allowed at the following joints?
Knee joint


Shoulder joint


C1 + C2 vertebrae (Top of the spine)
= extension/ flexion


= adduction / abduction / rotation (full)


= rotation (partial)
What damage could occur to that organs if it didn't have protection?
Question
:
Why do organs need protection?
Answer
:
To prevent injury, long-term damage or possible death.
Which organs are in the human body?
THINK ABOUT...
List of organs:
Brain
Lungs
Heart
Liver
Kidneys
Stomach
Spinal cord
Can be changed and manipulated.
Change of position = organs must still function!
Flexion
Abduction
Adduction
Rotation
Closing a joint / Bending.
Decrease the angle at a joint.
Limb moves away from an imaginary centre line.
Limb moves towards an imaginary centre line.
Circular movement around a fixed point.
Shape & Support
Where are the muscular attachments? Where is there ‘shape’?
e.g. clavicle, pelvic bone.
Movement
Where are there connections between bones?
e.g. knee, ankle, elbow.
Protection
What needs to be protected?
e.g. cranium/skull (brain), rib cage (lungs/heart), vertebrae (spinal column)
Long Bones
e.g. femur
Short Bones
e.g. carpals/tarsals
Flat Bones
e.g. skull
Irregular Bones
e.g. vertebrae
Stability and flexibility.
e.g. change of direction, complex movements.
Exercise assists motor skill development at a young age.
The body becomes accustomed to movements and balances in association with other body systems.
Body growth.
Skeleton growth should occur at the same rate as muscular growth.
Blood production.
Increase in exercise = increased need for red blood cells.
Long bones increase production of these cells.
Joint function:
‘Joints hold our bones together and allow us to move."
Three main groups:
Fixed / immovable joints (fibrous).
Slightly moveable joints (cartilaginous) .
Freely moveable joints (synovial).
EXAMPLE:
Cranium (skull) - 8 large flat bones.
BUT...
Moveable as a baby.
Fuses after 24 months.
EXAMPLE:
Vertebrae.
Ribs and sternum.
EXAMPLE:
Knee
Hip
Shoulder
Hyaline Cartilage
Covers the head of bones & joint socket.
Hard, tough, slippery layer for protection & reduction of friction.
Synovial Fluid
Lubricates the joint for friction free movement.
Synovial Membrane
Protective barrier for synovial fluid.
Ligaments
Hold bones together.
Prevent dislocation.

White
Fight foreign organisms that enter the body
(infections, parasites).
What do red and white blood cells do?
1. Cranium / Skull
2. Mandible / Jaw Bone
3. Clavicle / Collar Bone
4. Sternum
5. Humerus
6. Rib / Rib Cage
7. Vertebrae / Spinal Column / Spine
8. Pelvic Bone
9. Radius
10. Ulna
11. Carpals
12. Metacarpals
13. Phalanges
14. Femur
15. Patella
16. Tibia
17. Fibula
18. Tarsals
19. Metatarsals
20. Phalanges
Pre-Unit Homework Answers
Hyaline Cartilage
Deterioration = joint rubbing.
Arthritis.
Ligaments
Loose ligaments = dislocation of joint.
Tear/Snap = extreme pain & discomfort.
Takes a long time to heal.
! ! ! Old age = deterioration of all aspects ! ! !
We're going to create a table to record the information.

Start by creating a table with 5 columns and 6 rows, with each row big enough to fit the picture you have.

Column 1 is the space to stick your picture.

Columns 2 to 5 have the following headings:
Joint Name
Joint Description.
Examples.
Movement Allowed.

Stick the picture and make notes of the information on the presentation
How to make the joints memorable!
Full transcript