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IGCSE Physical Education 1.3. Skeleton & Joints
Transcript of IGCSE Physical Education 1.3. Skeleton & Joints
Provides a protective barrier to all of the below!
Synovial joint construction
Also known as cartilaginous joints.
Bones use cartilage as padding.
Smalls movements are possible between the bones.
No joint cavity.
Slightly moveable joints
‘A joint is a place where two or more bones meet.’
Different types of joint
Combination of movement at several joints.
e.g. tennis serve, passing in any sport.
Relevance to Sport
There are FOUR types of bone in the human body:
Types of Bone
Which large bones contain bone marrow?
e.g. femur, fibula, tibia.
Collect and transfer carbon dioxide and oxygen.
State which bone protects an organ or number of organs.
The body is jointed = allows movement.
Different joints = different movements.
Provides a frame for posture.
Shape and Support
Shape and support.
Functions of the Skeleton
1.3. Skeleton & Joints
Also known as synovial joints.
Complex construction in the joint.
Different joint construction = different movement.
Movement is dependent on arrangement of muscles,
their tendons & ligaments.
Freely moveable joints
Also known as fibrous joints.
No possible movement!
No sporting significance.
Held together by fibrous connective tissue.
Fixed / Immovable Joints
Synovial membrane puncture = leakage of synovial fluid.
Opening a joint / Straightening.
Increase the angle at a joint.
Types of joint movement
There are 4 major functions:
What permits movement in the human body?
Which bone(s) protects that organ?
Produced in the bone marrow of long bones.
What would happen if we didn’t have a skeleton?
Freely moveable in all directions.
Ligaments are used to keep the joint stable & prevent dislocation.
Flexion and extension
Abduction and adduction
Ball & Socket
Movement in one plane only.
Opens until straight.
Limited movement – shape of the bone & ligaments.
Flexion and extension.
Part of the bone fits into another ring of bone.
Atlas (C1) & Axis (C2) Vertebrae.
Rounded end (condyle) into hollow end (elliptical cavity).
Back and forward, side to side.
Ligaments prevent rotation.
Flexion and extension.
Abduction and adductions.
Bones shaped like saddles & fit together.
Bone shape prevents rotation.
Flexion and extension.
Abduction and adduction.
Flat surface meeting flat surface.
Little movement is possible in all directions.
Limited movement due to tight joint capsules & ligaments.
Carpal bones in the hand.
Types of Synovial Joint
How many different movements at different joints
in the body can you see/think of?
2. How many bones are in an adult human body?
3. How many bones are in each hand?
1. How my bones does a newborn baby have?
We create movements using the joints.
Circle and name each joint on your skeleton sheet.
What type of movement is allowed at the following joints?
C1 + C2 vertebrae (Top of the spine)
= extension/ flexion
= adduction / abduction / rotation (full)
= rotation (partial)
What damage could occur to that organs if it didn't have protection?
Why do organs need protection?
To prevent injury, long-term damage or possible death.
Which organs are in the human body?
List of organs:
Can be changed and manipulated.
Change of position = organs must still function!
Closing a joint / Bending.
Decrease the angle at a joint.
Limb moves away from an imaginary centre line.
Limb moves towards an imaginary centre line.
Circular movement around a fixed point.
Shape & Support
Where are the muscular attachments? Where is there ‘shape’?
e.g. clavicle, pelvic bone.
Where are there connections between bones?
e.g. knee, ankle, elbow.
What needs to be protected?
e.g. cranium/skull (brain), rib cage (lungs/heart), vertebrae (spinal column)
Stability and flexibility.
e.g. change of direction, complex movements.
Exercise assists motor skill development at a young age.
The body becomes accustomed to movements and balances in association with other body systems.
Skeleton growth should occur at the same rate as muscular growth.
Increase in exercise = increased need for red blood cells.
Long bones increase production of these cells.
‘Joints hold our bones together and allow us to move."
Three main groups:
Fixed / immovable joints (fibrous).
Slightly moveable joints (cartilaginous) .
Freely moveable joints (synovial).
Cranium (skull) - 8 large flat bones.
Moveable as a baby.
Fuses after 24 months.
Ribs and sternum.
Covers the head of bones & joint socket.
Hard, tough, slippery layer for protection & reduction of friction.
Lubricates the joint for friction free movement.
Protective barrier for synovial fluid.
Hold bones together.
Fight foreign organisms that enter the body
What do red and white blood cells do?
1. Cranium / Skull
2. Mandible / Jaw Bone
3. Clavicle / Collar Bone
6. Rib / Rib Cage
7. Vertebrae / Spinal Column / Spine
8. Pelvic Bone
Pre-Unit Homework Answers
Deterioration = joint rubbing.
Loose ligaments = dislocation of joint.
Tear/Snap = extreme pain & discomfort.
Takes a long time to heal.
! ! ! Old age = deterioration of all aspects ! ! !
We're going to create a table to record the information.
Start by creating a table with 5 columns and 6 rows, with each row big enough to fit the picture you have.
Column 1 is the space to stick your picture.
Columns 2 to 5 have the following headings:
Stick the picture and make notes of the information on the presentation
How to make the joints memorable!