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The French Revolution

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Andrew Arnold

on 10 October 2017

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Transcript of The French Revolution

The French Revolution
Section 1: The Revolution Begins
Section 2: Reform and Terror
Section 3: Napoleon and the Empire
Section 4: Collapse of the Empire
Section 5: Congress of Vienna
Setting the Stage:
In the 1700s, France was the most advanced country in Europe. It was the center of the Enlightenment. However, it wasn't as wonderful as it seemed.
The Old Order:
3 large social classes:
The 1st Estate:
members of the Roman Catholic Church
Known as the
Owned 10% of land/paid 2% in taxes
The 2nd Estate:
Owned 20% of land/paid almost nothing in taxes
The 3rd Estate:
everyone else
97% of the total population
varied economic conditions
about 2% of the total population
middle class
bankers, factory owners, merchants, skilled artisans
paid high taxes
lacked privileges
City Workers:
poor workers
apprentices, laborers, servants
low wages
often hungry
80% of total population
their income to the nobles, clergy, and taxes
angry at the other estates
would steal to survive
Forces of Change:
resentment + other factors
Enlightenment Ideas:
ideas spread -> 3rd Estate
success of American Rev. inspired hope
3rd Estate questions ideas of
, and
Economic Troubles:
French economy was in decline
taxes were high
A Weak Leader:
Louis XVI
was weak and indecisive
Marie Antoinette (queen) did not help
3rd Estate worried
Dawn of the Revolution:
Estates-General: 1789
assembly of all 3 Estates
first time in 175 years
crop failures = shortage of grain
bread costs double
Government fell into debt:
royalty spending lots of money
paying for the American Rev.
paying war against Britain
interfered with the government
from the royal family of Austria, France's enemy
nicknamed "Madame Deficit"
ignored advice to stop spending
Out of control debt:
Louis XVI did not want to cut spending
decided to
impose taxes on the nobility
2nd Estate calls a meeting of the
National Assembly:
3rd Estate demands they meet together
names themselves the National Assembly
3rd Estate bands together
medieval rules:
- must meet and vote in separate rooms
- each estate has one vote
- 1st/2nd would almost always outvote the 3rd
Tennis Court Oath:
3rd Estate is locked out
1st/2nd Estate
join the 3rd Estate
broke into a tennis court
pledged to stay until they had created a new constitution
Storming the Bastille:
Louis stations troops around Versailles
rumors spread:
mob storms the Bastille looking for gun powder
people begin to gather weapons
- "Louis used force to dismiss assembly"
- "foreign troops were coming to massacre French citizens"
killed the guards; ransacked the fort
The Great Fear:
more rumors spread
peasants arm themselves with farm tools:
- broke into nobles' manors
- destroyed legal papers that bound them
- burned down houses
Women's March:
- women rioted over bread costs
- broke into Versailles
- forced Louis and Marie Antoinette to return to Paris
Setting the Stage:
Peasants are revolting, nobles and clergy are scared, and the royalty has been moved from Versailles to Paris. The National Assembly must do something!
Assembly Reforms France:
Declaration of the Rights of Man:
influenced by our Declaration of Independence
State Controlled Church:
assembly took over Church lands
profit from the sale of Church lands helped pay debt
Louis Escapes:
1791- Royal family tries to flee to the Netherlands
caught near the border
returned to Paris under guard
Church officials to be paid and elected by state
- liberty
- property
- security
"liberty, equality, fraternity"
rights include:
- resistance to oppression
- freedom of speech
- freedom of religion
offended peasants
Divisions Develop:
A Limited Monarchy:
constitutional monarchy
Louis RELUCTANTLY approved
Factions Split France:
food shortages/debt still remained
- Radicals:
3 groups form:
New Constitution Created:
created a new Legislative Assembly:
power to create laws
opposed the idea of monarchy and wanted extreme changes
- Moderates:
wanted some changes, but not as much as the radicals
- Conservatives:
liked limited monarchy and wanted only a few changes
Nobles and others who left France and hoped to undo the Revolution and restore the monarchy
Shop owners that wanted even bigger changes.
"those without knee breeches"
represented the common man
War and Execution:
monarchs prepared troops
Austria/Prussia: urged France to restore Louis
Prussian forces advancing on Paris
"don't hurt the monarchs!"
Feared the spread of revolution:
French Assembly declared war in April, 1792
begins poorly for French:
French angered!
riots started -> killed nobles and clergy
A new "NEW" Legislature:
National Convention
deposed the monarchy
Legislative Assembly
adult male citizens can vote
Jacobins take Control:
called for the death of Louis supporters
king reduced to a common prisoner
Jacobins = radical orginization
king sentenced to death
War Continues:
pushed Prussians/Austrians back
Jacobins drafted 300,000 people
French win at Valmy:
French army was 800,000 now!
The Guillotine:
Reign of Terror:
Maximilien Robespierre:
destroyed old French traditions
new calendar/NO SUNDAYS
Reign of Terror:
must protect France against the enemy
Robespierre executed
France losing the war
Leader of the Jacobins:
people feared it would get out of control
formed the
Commission of Public Safety:
- trial in the morning/execute in the evening
- anyone considered an enemy EXECUTED
- 40,000 people executed!
Created a new new NEW legislature
- 2 house legislature
- 5 man executive body, called the
Setting the Stage:
Napoleon started as a relatively obscure officer in the French army to the emperor of France (1795-1799)
NB Seizes Power:
Napoleon Bonaparte:
joined the revolutionary army during the Revolution
sent to military school age 9
NB gets famous:
1795: protects National Convention
considered a savior of France
scares royalist army away
Born in 1769 in Corsica:
Directory gives him an army:
- defeats the Austrians in Italy
- leads army into Egypt
- becomes a great hero
Coup d'Etat:
Directory losing control
considered a savior of France
Napoleon seizes power
new new new new NEW group formed:
- called the French Consulate
- run by 3 consuls
- Napoleon is one of them
- Austria, Britain, and Russia sign peace agreement
NB Rules France:
The Plebiscite: 1800
people wanted a strong leader
voted on new constitution
Restoring Order:
established a national banking system
Reformed tax collection/metric system
Vote of the people.
Fired corrupt officials
NB Crowned Emperor: 1804
Decided to name himself "emperor"
Pope waited with a crown at Notre Dame
French voters support him
TOOK the crown from the Pope
- crowned himself
- symbolizing he is more powerful than the church
gave NB all power
NB called "First Consul"
France a mess because of Revolution
created Lycees:
gov. run schools. Open to any male
Signed the Concordat:
agreement between NB and Pope Pius VII
gave church freedom
Church CANNOT interfere with gov.
Napoleonic Code:
uniform set of laws
limited free speech/press
restored slavery in French colonies
NB Creates an Empire:
Loss of American Territories:
French lost due to disease
revolt due to slavery
Conquering Europe:
NB wins a series of battles
British/Russia/Austria/Sweden join forces
Most famous was Austerlitz, 1805
NB loses
Horatio Nelson (British) split the French fleet
battle of the Southwest of Spain
NB wants it ALL!
Sells Louisiana for 15 million (1803)
Napoleon cuts losses in America
empowers America against British
gets money to conquer Europe
NB unpredictable
Soldiers! I am pleased with you. On the day of Austerlitz, you justified everything that I was expecting of you. In less than four hours, an army of 100,000 men, commanded by the emperors of Russia and Austria, was cut up and dispersed. 120 pieces of artillery, 20 generals, and more than 30,000 men taken prisoner- such are the results of this day which will forever be famous. And it will be enough for you to say, "I was at Austerlitz," to hear the reply: "There is a brave man!"
Speech! Speech! Speech!
Only power left, the British Navy
British fleet dominates for 100 years
Napoleon gives up invading Britain
The French Empire:
All others under puppet governments/alliances
by 1812: most of Europe under NB's control
Empire is huge, but unstable
only lasts about 5 years (1807-1812)
Setting the Stage:
NB's wife, Josephine, has not given him an heir to the throne. He divorces her and marries Marie Louise, grandniece of Marie Antoinette. Gave birth to Napoleon II.
3 Costly Mistakes:
1. Continental System:
intended to destroy Britain's economy
no communication with Britain!
Established a "blockade" of all European ports
Effects of the Blockade:
British smuggle goods anyway
allies ignore blockade
waste of money/unpopular
2. Peninsular War:
Spain objects
NB sends army through Spain
Portugal refuses to agree with blockade
Spanish use guerilla warfare (hit and run)
NB loses 300,000 soldiers
became a symbol of rebellion against the French
NB removes Spanish king and puts his brother Joseph in control
3. Invasion of Russia: 1812
Russia uses "scorched-earth policy"
NB sends 420,000 soldiers to Russia
Russia refuses to stop trading with Britain
NB looses most of his army
cold/snow makes it worse
French army nearly devastated - 10,000 left
Russia retreats
burns grain fields/kills livestock
NB's Downfall:
NB Suffers Defeat:
continually defeated
not trained well
NB creates another army (Oct. 1813)
pushed back to Paris
April 1814 - Napoleon Surrenders
banished to Elba -> island off Italy
The 100 Days:
Napoleon escapes Elba
Louis XVIII assumes throne
Britain responds by sending an army to Belgium
marched to Paris, gaining soldiers
Prussian army arrives
NB starts winning
British vs. NB at Waterloo,Belgium 1815
after 2 days, NB is defeated
NB banished to St. Helena
dies 6 years later (1821)
Setting the Stage:
European leaders want stability and peace. Many meet to discuss what can be done to preserve peace.
The Plan:
Congress of Vienna:
Klemens von Metternich:
Russia, Prussia, Austria, Great Britain, and France
Leaders met in secret:
- most influencial
2. Balance of Power:
keep France JUST strong enough to prevent other nations from causing war
weaken France, but don't punish
Make sure no nation can pull a NB
3. Restore the Royals:
would stabilize political relations/restore order
royal families should be restored
Supported the idea of "Legitimacy"
Beyond Vienna:
Conservative Europe:
- would base their nations on Christian ideas
Holy Alliance: Russia, Austria, Prussia
Conservative = doesn't want change
- Austrian
- NB was a result of FR and democracy
1. Contain France:
39 German states combine to become German Confederation
Netherlands/Dutch republic combined
The Congress did the following:
Switzerland becomes independent
- 3 goals
Sardinia given Genoa
ensured 40 years of peace between the 5 major powers
1st time many nations work together
Importance of Vienna:
- hopefully stop revolutions in their nations
- nations would help each other if a revolution happens
Concert of Europe:
Nationalism spreads:
- extreme pride in one's own country/heritage
murdered royal guards and put the royal family in prison
paid nearly all the taxes
most effected by changes in food price
Journal Entry:
Write a brief journal entry describing your feelings about King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. Make sure you include examples from the notes to back up your entry.
Date it March 21, 1789.
Journal Entry:
Write a brief journal entry describing your feelings about King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. Make sure you include examples from the notes to back up your entry.
Date it March 21, 1789.
can accept or reject declarations of war
rise of fear and paranoia
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