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Stevens Family History Timeline
Transcript of Stevens Family History Timeline
Designed and built by Colonel John Stevens (III) at Hoboken, N.J. in 1804, was the first steamboat propelled by twin screws. Colonel John Stevens (III) seeking to overcome the tendency of his 1802 screw propelled steamboat to move in circles, designed two propellers, with "wings" like those of a windmill, which were designed to revolve in reverse directions, and installed them side by side in "The Little Juliana", which made her first recorded appearance in May, 1804. She was named after Colonel John's eldest daughter "Juliana."
"The Little Juliana" was in existence three years before Robert Fulton's Clermont was put in operation. 1868 John Stevens (I) laid the first stone in the foundation of the Stevens family in America. When he landed in 1699 he was an indentured youngster of seventeen. His father, Richard Stevens of St. Clement Danes, the Strand London, had followed the prevailing custom of binding him for seven years to one of the most prominent citizens of New York, Barna Cosans. John Stevens (I) acted as an apprentice to Cosans who was Crown Attorney, Clerk of the Royal Council, Register and Examiner in Chancery. After completing his apprenticeship he practiced law in New York until 1714.
As was natural in a boy who reached America in the year of Captain Kidd and the Adventure Galley, he went a-privateering with Colonel William Peartree, once the mayor of New York City. The adventure did not likely offer great profit. However, when his indenture term expired he had sufficient means and standing to become, in 1708, one of the thirteen original patentees of the kayaderosseras tract.
In 1716, John was appointed clerk of the Chancery Court. This tribunal had been established in New Jersey in 1702 and was kept incessantly busy with litigation among settlers who found themselves, under the crown government, suddenly invested with property or disposed of it.
John Stevens married Ann Campbell November 28, 1706, the eldest daughter of John Campbell. Through his marriage to Ann he was a father of nine children. They were John Stevens who died in infancy, Sarah Stevens, Mary Stevens, Ann Stevens, Campbell Stevens, John Stevens Jr. known as Honorable John, William Stevens, Lewis Stevens, and Richard Stevens.
He was prosperous citizen of barely sixty when he died in 1737. “This Indenture made and Concluded on this Six and Twentieth day of February Anno Dm 1699, and in the Twelfth Year of the reigns [sic] of William the third King of England &c, Between John Stevens Son of Richard Stevens, late of the parish of St. Clement Dane in the County of Middx [Middlesex] of the one part and John Cosans of the parish aforesaid Gunmaker [sic] acting for and in behalfe of his Son Barna [Barne] Cosans of the City and Province of New Yorke in America Gentleman of the other part Witnesseth That the said John Stevens by and with the Consent of his parents witnesses to the presents Doth promise with the first Opportunity of Shipping to Transport himselfe for New Yorke aforesaid where being Arrived Shall during the space of Seaven Years to be accounted from the date hereof the said Barna [Barne] Cosans will faithfully and truly serve, his secrets keep, his lawful Commands every where gladly Doo, hee [sic] shall doo noo [sic] Damage to his said Master nor see it to be Done of Others but to his power Shall lett [sic], or forthwith give notice to his Said Master of the Same, the Goods of his Said Master he shall not wast [sic, nor lend them Unlawfully to Any Hurt to his Said Master hee [sic] shall not doo [sic] cause or procure to be done, hee [sic] shall neither buy nor Sell without his masters License, Tavernds [sic, Taverns] Innds [sic] or Alehouses he shall not haunt, All cardes Dice Tables or any other unlawfull [sic] Game he shall not play, Nor from the service of his Said Master Day nor Night Shall absent himselfe [sic], but in all things, as an [the word “honest” apparently was written on a bit of paper that’s missing in the photo of the original, but provided by Francis Bazley Lee in Genealogical and Memorial History of the State of New Jersey. Only the letters “h” and “o” appear in the photographed original.] dilligent [sic] and faithfull [sic] Apprentise Shall and will demeano [demeanor] and behave [Only the letters “beh” appear in the photo of the original. This word was provided by Lee in his history, noted above.] himselfe [sic] towards his said Master and all his during the Said Term. And the Said John Cosans on behalfe [sic] of the said Barna Cosans Doth Covenant and promise that he the Said Barna [Barne] Cosans his said Apprentise in his Art or practice of a Lawyer or Attorney which he now Useth [sic] Shall teach and Instruct or Cause to be taught and Instructed the best Way and Manner that he can finding and providing for his said Apprentise meat Drink Lodging Washing and all of Appareell [sic] hoose [hose] & Shoes during the said terms of Seaven Years. And to the performance of all and every The Covenant aforesaid Either of this Said parties bindeth [sic] himselfe [sic] unto the other firmely [sic] by these presents. Jn [unknown abbreviation] Witnesses hereof the said parties have hereunto put their hands and Seales As Day and Year aforesaid.
“Sealed & Told in the presence of Us
Going first Duely Stampt John Cosans [wax seal]
Sara [or Lara] Collingwod
Edmund Fuller [or Ruller] E exc: Jenkins [hand drawn seal] ofs [or obs]”
Source: Transcribed from a photo of the original indenture contract, Courtesy of the Stevens Institute of Technology, S.C. Williams Library, Special Collections and Digital Initiatives Librarian, Mr. Adam Winger. “George By ye Grace of God of Great Brittain [sic] France & Ireland King Defender of ye Faith, &c. [etc.]: To John Stevens Gent: Greeting reposeing [sic, reposing] Especiall [sic] Trust and Confidence in ye Fidelity Ability and Integrity of you ye Sd [Said] John Stevens have thought fitt [sic] to Constitute and appoint and Doo [do] by These presents Constitute and appoint you ye Sd [Said] John Stevens to be and aft [after] of Clarks [sic, Clerks] of our Court Chancery of our province of New Jersey in America To have hold exercise and enjoy ye Sd [Said] office or place of and ye Sd [Said] Clarks [sic, Clerks] of our Sd [Said] Court of Chancery as aforesd [sic, aforesaid] unto you ye Said John Stevens for and during our pleasure Together with such and ye like fees powers profitts [sic] benefits perquisites advantages and appurtences [sic, appurtenances] to ye Sd [Said] office Belonging or appertaining as how and; or Shall from Time to Time be appointed by ye Governor or Commander In Chief of ye Said province to be taken for or In Respect of ye Execution of the Said office. In Testimony whereof We have Caused ye Seal of our Said province of New Jersey to be hereunto affixed Witness our Trusty and well beloved Robert Hunter Esqr our Capt. Generall [sic] and Governor In Chief of our provinces of New Jersey New York and Territories thereon Depending in America and Vice Admirall [sic] of ye Same &c [etc.] Att [sic] Fort George in New York this Twenty Ninth day of September Anno Domini 1716 and ye third year of our Reign.
[signed] Barclay pro [sic, probably an abbreviation for proprietor] Secrty [Secretary]”
Source: Photograph of the Original Chancery Appointment document for John Stevens, dated 29 September 1716, Courtesy of the Stevens Institute of Technology, S.C. Williams Library, Special Collections and Digital Initiatives Librarian, Mr. Adam Winger. Mary Spratt, the wife of Honorable James Alexander and daughter of John Spratt, of New York, the "Jack Spratt" of Mother Goose fame, and Maria de Peyester, his wife. She was born in New York City on April 17, 1693. She was the widow of Samuel Provoost and two sons were born from this marriage, John and David Provoost. Her husband left her and her two sons a large estate in mercantile business, the profits of which in those days were enormous.
On January 5, 1721 she married James Alexander, a young and rising lawyer whom she often turned to for advice. Mrs. Alexander contained the business of her first husband, with her two sons. During the French and Indian War, Mrs. Alexander secured a contract to supply the Royal Troops with clothes and provisions. Through this marriage, she was the mother of William Alexander, (Lord Stirling), who was a Major-General in the Continental Army, and of Elizabeth Alexander, who married the Honorable John Stevens II.
She died in New York City, April 18, 1760. Elizabeth Alexander Stevens: 1726-1800.
She was granddaughter of the Honorable John Spratt, of New York City, the "Jack Spratt," of Mother Goose Fame. She was also the sister of William Alexander, "Lord Stirling", a Major-General of the Continental Army.
On June 30, 1748, in Old Trinity Church, New York City, she married the Honorable John Stevens II. She brought great property to her husband and bound him closely to her family. Honorable John member of the Colonial Assembly from 1751, when appointed to the Royal Council in 1762. He was Vice President of the Legislative Council or Upper House of the New Jersey Legislature and a member of the Governor's Privy Council during the Revolution, and presided over the New Jersey Convention that ratified the Federal Constitution.
Elizabeth should be also remembered as the mother of two children. Her daughter, Mary Stevens, was to become wife to Robert R. Livingston, the chancellor of New York State, who enters so largely into the story of American history; her son Colonel John Stevens (III) whose achievements played an equally vital role in American history. Major General William Alexander (Lord Stirling) 1726-January 17, 1783.
Lord Stirling was the much admired and close friend of General George Washington, and his services during the Revolutionary War would take many pages to tell in full. He married Sarah Livingston, daughter of Phillip and Catherine Van Brugh Livingston. Lord Stirling's brother-in-law, Phillip Livingston was a member of the Continental Congress 1774-1778, and a signer of the Declaration of Independence. Lord Stirling was a close friend of his brother-in-law Honorable John Stevens II, who married his sister, Elizabeth (Alexander) Stevens. When George Washington arrived in Trenton, N.J. in 1789 on his way to New York for his inauguration as the First President of the United States, "the most prominent matrons of the town" greeted him at the bridge over the Assunpink Creek, on the north side of which an arch had been erected. On the side of the arch which appeared to the Presidential party, there was inscribed, "The Defender Of The Mother's Will Be The Protector Of The Daughters", beautifully ornamented with flowers.
As he passed through the arch he saw six little flower girls on one side, among whom were Sarah and Elizabeth Cox. On the other side thirteen young ladies among whom were Esther and Mary Cox, to represent the several states, and behind them stood twenty-two of the "most prominent matrons of the town", among whom were Mrs. John Cox and her daughter, Mrs. Rachel (Cox) Stevens, the wife of colonel John Stevens (III). Colonel John Cox 1752-1793; He was a son of William and Catherine (Longfield) Cox, of New Brunswick, N.J. He was a Lieutenant-Colonel of Philadelphia Associates, a militia organization, at the battle of Princeton, but was later commissioned a Colonel in the Continental Army, and appointed Quartermaster General under General Nathan Greene. He owned the iron foundry at Batsto, and the rolling mill at Mount holly, both in New Jersey, which supplied the Continental troops with munitions. He was a member of the Legislative Council 1781-1782.
While in Trenton the family made their home in "Bloomsbury Court." On November 15, 1760, he married Esther Bowes, his second wife, daughter of Francis and Rachel (Le-Chevalier) Bowes, and had six daughters, who were known as "The Six Lovely Coxes" and as "The Cox Beauties."
Colonel John Cox was more renowned by the younger officers for his five beautiful daughters than his war efforts. The “Cox Beauties” were known from end to end of Jersey and beyond. Continentals swarmed about the girls at Bloomsbury Court whenever Trenton was in American hands. In the old print of George Washington’s triumphal entry into the Jersey capital on his way to be inaugurated President, beneath the banners that proclaimed him “Defender of Mothers” and “Protector of Daughters”, the Cox sisters appear in front rank of the “flower-laden maidens” who touched his heart and inspired him to notes of appreciation.
Colonel John Cox died in Philadelphia on April 28, 1793. Video Honorable John Stevens II 1699 Indenture Service Agreement 1716 Appointment as Chancery clerk John Stevens I (1682-1737) James Alexander was a leading lawyer, a mathematician, and an astronomer of some note. He was long the surveyor general of New Jersey and New York, the owner of almost boundless acres, and perhaps the most powerful member of the Society of East Jersey Proprietors. In science, as in politics and business, he was in correspondence or in direct contact with all the leading minds at home and abroad. He again became prominent as counsel for Zenger, leading the earliest fight for free speech and an uncensored press on this side of the Atlantic. His life was so full of activities and important events that an account of it, from his papers in libraries and historical societies would be an almost complete history of the period. James Alexander (1691-1756) Mary Spratt Alexander (1693-1760) John Stevens (II) was born on October 21, 1716 during his mother’s visit to New York City. Over fifty years of Jersey history is full of instances of the public and often distinguished acts of him who became generally known as “Honorable John Stevens.” At age twenty-one when his father died, John (II) was the controlling spirit under which he and his brother Campbell began the operation of a small fleet of merchantmen. Frequently, he sailed as master of his own vessel.
Honorable John’s demonstrated promise as a rising young citizen that brought him the favorable notice and friendship of James Alexander. The business connection flourished into a personal relationship. In 1748, Honorable John married Elizabeth Alexander, the daughter of James Alexander.
Honorable John formed a partnership with his brother-in-law William Alexander who became Lord Stirling and one of George Washington’s top generals during the Revolutionary War.
On June 9, 1763, Honorable John was appointed to the council of Governor Bernard, an office in which he remained active until that body held its last meeting under Governor William Franklin, the son of Benjamin Franklin.
Stevens was a vocal opponent of the Stamp Act. When the act went into effect in 1765, he was one of a committee of four (with Robert Livingston, John Cruger, and Beverly Robinson) to prevent the issue of stamps in New York City.
In 1776, after the Provincial Congress had become the New Jersey Legislature under the state's first Constitution, Stevens was elected Vice-President of Council of New Jersey, holding the office of chairman of the joint meetings of the legislature until 1782. He represented Hunterdon County in the legislature during that period. He was president of the convention of New Jersey when the state ratified the United States Constitution on December 18, 1787. Major General William Alexander (Lord Stirling) 1726-January 17, 1783. Elizabeth Alexander (1726-1800 New Jersey Treasury John Smyth wrote February 26th 1776: “I would propose…the chest be removed to Mr. Stevens’, who will receive the taxes that are still to be paid in, and the county collectors may be desired to attend at his house for that purpose.”
Honorable John administered the office of treasurer until on July 15th he was allowed to stand security for his son’s (John III) assuming it. His signature is seen is in the third position on the last colonial currency printed under the crown. The date is March 25th 1776.
As state treasurer during the revolution Colonel John had the duty of collecting every possible penny for the Continental armies. His vouchers and reports were often written upon blank half sheets of old letters or upon torn ends of cancelled indentures. The treasurer’s office was moved from place to place in the State and established wherever Colonel John found a place to hang his three-cornered hat. The two Stevens’ were called upon not only to keep the State’s accounts but also supply her, from time to time, out of their private purses.
One great hardship fell upon Colonel John as former treasurer. Several states and the Continental government repudiated various issues of paper money, which became valueless. The stroke of a pen destroyed the face value of thousands of notes that remain in the Stevens Family Collection. 1780 By 1760 honorable John purchased No. 7 Broadway as winter quarters for the family. The Stevens house was one of four which is seen in every print of Bowling Green as it once was. The Kennedy mansion, later the home of Washington, began the block; Richard Watts was at No. 3, with the Van Cortlandts next to him and the Livingstons beyond at No. 9. From windows of the house many of the city’s sixteen thousand inhabitants could be seen walking along those crooked winding streets about Battery Park. Bowling Green An Act to More Effectually Prevent Horse Stealing; 1780 In 1776, after the Provincial Congress had become the New Jersey Legislature under the state's first Constitution, Stevens was elected Vice-President of Council of New Jersey, holding the office of chairman of the joint meetings of the legislature until 1782. He represented Hunterdon County in the legislature during that period. New Jersey's Ratification of the United States Constitution John Stevens II was president of the convention of New Jersey when the state ratified the United States Constitution on December 18, 1787. Notice John Stevens II signature On June 9, 1763, Honorable John was appointed to the council of Governor Bernard, an office in which he remained active until that body held its last meeting under Governor William Franklin, the son of Benjamin Franklin.
Stevens was a vocal opponent of the Stamp Act. When the act went into effect in 1765, he was one of a committee of four (with Robert Livingston, John Cruger, and Beverly Robinson) to prevent the issue of stamps in New York City. Rachel Cox Stevens “The wealth and prosperity of a nation may be said to depend, almost entirely, upon the facility and cheapness with which transportation is effected internally” John Stevens, 1806 (John Stevens: An American Record prescript)
John Stevens was “5 feet 7 inches” European Passport application 1810
“On land, he began twenty years ahead of his American contemporaries a single-handed fight for the recognition of steam. In the face of skepticism and ridicule, he gained on great objective in that fight by building and operating the first “steam-carriage” ever run upon rails on the American continent.” (Turnbull, 5).
John Stevens: “a progressive farmer and fervent horticulturist; a close student of law and an eager amateur in medicine, metaphysics, and political economy; a philanthropist, an advanced naval architect, and a foremost mechanical engineer.” (Turnbull 6). Villa Stevens Colonel John Cox (1752- 1793) Esther Bowes Cox Bloomsbury Court; The Trent House Colonel John Stevens (III) purchased the former William Bayard estate for about $90,000 on March 16, 1784. Shortly after Colonel John Stevens purchased the Island of Hoboken he commenced to build his mansion in 1785, which was completed in 1787. It was either razed or partially destroyed by fire, the latter is generally believed to be the fact, about 1851-1853 and replaced by the Castle Stevens.
Colonel John Stevens considered "the bold eminence" upon which his house stood as an American Gibraltar, and the name "Castle Point" was really a corruption of the Colonel's earlier term, "The Point of Castile." Colonel John Stevens lived here during the summer months from 1785 to 1814. From 1814 onward he lived here all year long. The mansion was built in the Colonial style and contained about twenty rooms. Colonel John Stevens and Rachel Cox were married on October 17, 1782.
One anecdote handed down through the family: “The Colonel awoke early one morning with his head full of plans for a new engine. Mrs. Stevens still slept beside him and, having no paper and pencil at hand, he sketched between her shoulders, with his finger, the angles of eccentric and connecting-rod. As she awoke, he asked: “Do you know what figure I am making?” “Yes, Mr. Stevens, the figure of a fool!” In 1804 Colonel John debuted his work on steam power. James Renwick reported the activities of the Stevens boys one summer day that year. “As we entered the gate from Broadway, we saw what we, in those days, considered a crowd, running toward the river. On inquiring the cause, we were informed that “Jack” Stevens was going over to Hoboken in a queer sort of boat. On reaching the bulkhead by which the Battery was then bounded, we say lying against it a vessel about the size of a Whitehall rowboat, in which there was a small engine but no means of propulsion. The vessel was speedily underway, my late much-valued friend Commodore Stevens, acting as coxswain, and I presume the smutty-looking personage who fulfilled the duties of engineer, fireman, and crew, was his more practical brother Robert L. Stevens.” This engine and boiler, from Stevens's Little Juliana, represent the first successful use of a screw propeller. The "oldest surviving steam power plant built in America," according to its exhibit label, Stevens's engine was displayed at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893 and then sent to the Smithsonian. William Bayard was known to Colonel John as “a man of wealth and refinement.” who owned present day Hoboken. Yet during the Revolution Bayard had decided that the crown would win and had his lands confiscated as a proscribed loyalist. The Phoenix is famously known for being the first steamship in the world to sail upon the ocean seas. The Phoenix also owns the distinction for being powered by the first condensing double-acting engine made on the American continent (at Belleville).
Prohibition from operation on the Hudson River forced the Stevens’ boat, “Phoenix” for service in Philadelphia. On June 10, 1809 under command of his son Robert, Colonel John sent the “Phoenix” to Philadelphia and out over the Atlantic Ocean. A great and daring venture for the time.
The Colonel’s telescope, on its tripod in the piazza of Stevens Villa swept the eastern horizon, while every cloud was watched and every fractional change in the barometer was noted. A small schooner joined the voyage as an escort. In the opinion of the experts, when the open sea had its way with “that tea-kettle”, the schooner might possibly save one or two of the crew. During the voyage “a fierce storm overtook them. The schooner in company was driven out to sea and was absent many days,” but the Phoenix made it safely to harbor. The Phoenix Documents tending to prove the Superior Advantage of Railways over Canal Navigation. Encouraged by his success with steamboats, Colonel John Stevens III was convinced that steam energy could be used on land as well. In 1812, (13 years before the first steam carriage on a circular track) he wrote an extensive pamphlet championing the cause of the as yet nonexistent railroad over the contemporary popular canal systems. Few people were interested in his outrageous claims: “outstanding velocity (100 miles per hour) is considered here as merely possible. It is probable that it may not in practice be convenient to exceed 20 to 40 miles per hour. Actual experience however, can alone determine this, and I should not be surprised at seeing steam carriages propelled at the rate of 40 to 50 miles per hour.” Circular Railway Colonel John Stevens (III) determined in his belief in a steam railroad, decided to bring his vision to the people, since those in official capacity would do no more than listen to his pleas. Accordingly, in 1825, he built the country's first locomotive and ran it around a circular track on "The Green" in Hoboken, N.J. It was not much of a locomotive compared to locomotives today. He called it simply "The Steam Wagon" and visitors to Villa Stevens had to batten down their beaver or tuck in their skirts and ride behind the snorting beast.
The Stevens railroad was simple. The 16-foot "Steam Wagon" was run by a steam driven gear which meshed into a rack between the tracks (wooden rails covered strips of iron). One section of the 630-foot long track was deliberately raised 30 inches on one end to prove the engine could run up hill. Around and around at 12 miles per hour rode the hardy visitors ever fearful that the spark throwing demon would split its sides and blow them to their destiny. Many refused to go near it. The "Steam Wagon" proved the point. It was six years before New Jersey started to build its first railroad. T-Rail About 1830 Robert L. Stevens was travelling to England to purchase locomotives and rails for the Camden and Amboy line. He began whittling on a scrap of lumber to occupy himself on the long voyage. Obsessed with his new-born railroad he created the prototype of the T-rail---the universal standard in continued use today. John Bull Locomotive In England Robert approached Robert Stephenson concerning the type of locomotive he needed and together they developed the “John Bull.” When it arrived in Bordentown, Issac Dripps, the 22 year old mechanic Stevens hired was bewildered. The engine had been shipped disassembled, instructions not included. By miraculous ingenuity the young Yankee put together a machine the likes of which he had never seen before. John Bull in Smithsonian Camden & Amboy Railroad:
When considering that Robert L. Stevens was compelled to begin to lay track and provide engines and cars for a railroad, with no experience to guide him, and with no experienced railroad men to consult, we can form the some idea of the responsibility which rested upon his shoulders and the perplexing problems he was called upon to solve. Robert knew no such word as fail and thus began the fulfillment of Colonel John’s railroading prophecy from 1812. For the first time two major cities, New York and Philadelphia were connected by a railroad. The Stevens Ferry Boat Fleet
In 1811 the Colonel purchased a commercial ferry license in New York State and operated a horse powered ferry while building a steam ferry, the "Juliana." When the "Juliana" was put into service from Hoboken to New York, the Stevens inaugurated what is reputed to be the first regular commercially operated steam ferry in the world. The Stevens-owned Hoboken Ferry Company became a primary conduit for New Jersey commuters traveling daily to work in New York City; a fleet of ferries, including the Stevens designed first screw ferry "Bergen" and the fabulous "Netherlands crossed the Hudson scores of times a day. Chancellor Robert R. Livingston Jr. was a noted lawyer. He served the Continental Congress in 1775-1776. He was a member of the committee of five appointed to draft the "Declaration of Independence", but did not receive his signature because of his being in New York to attend the Fourth New York Provincial Congress of 1776-77, which under his direction as Chairman of the Committee prepared the first Constitution of that State.
In 1771, Mary Stevens, daughter of Honorable John and Elizabeth (Alexander) Stevens married Chancellor Robert R. Livingston, Jr. Chancellor Robert Livingston (Colonel John’s brother-in-law) administered the Oath of Office to General George Washington as the first President of the United States of America, at Federal Hall, Wall Street, New York City, on April 30, 1789. After Chancellor Livingston administered the Oath of Office to the newly inaugurated President, and President Washington kissed reverently the Bible, the Chancellor stepped forward, waved his hand and cried out, "Long Live George Washington, President of the United States." Robert Livingston Stevens: John Cox Stevens; Yacht America Race Stevens Castle Edwin A. Stevens Martha Bayard Stevens Mary Picton Stevens Stevens Battery The Stevens Battery: the First Ironclad Vessel to be Actually Placed Under Construction
The war of 1812 had impressed upon the Colonel the need for adequate naval defense of New York Harbor. In 1815 the Colonel advocated the construction of an iron-clad warship. Robert, Edwin and John Cox Stevens carried out extensive experiments firing shells against iron plating.
On April 14, 1842 Congress allotted $250,000 to the Stevens Battery Construction. A dry dock was prepared in Hoboken. The construction did not move smoothly as changes in design were continually required. The Battery never sailed was finally scraped, but principles worked out during her attempted realization changed naval warfare forever.
“The Stevens Battery although never launched, and therefore never in actual conflict, yet for 20 years, from 1840 to 1860, she was potentially effective for the protection of New York and its harbor from any attack which might have been made by a foreign fleet.” Naugatuck Stevens Institute of Technology Henry Morton 1699 1716 1763-1765 1760 1776 1787 1804 1812 1808 1825 1830 1844 1851 1862 1870 1851