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Transcript of Computers!!
By Benjamin Bere
the history of computers
The computer was invented in 1832 by Charles Babbage. Babbage was most popular for as you may have guessed the programmable computer.
Charles Babbage first invented a special calculator that could solve difficult math equations but Babbage dreamed of much more. Not only did he dream it but he designed it. The result was a series of "analytical engines" which turned out to be very powerful computers.
The parts and how they work
The system unit is the core of the computer system. The system unit is usually a rectangle shaped box on or underneath your desk. Inside this box are many electronic components that process information . The most important of these components is the Central Processing Unit (CPU) , or microprocessor, which acts as the "brain" of the computer. Another component is the Random Access Memory (RAM) , which temporarily stores information that the CPU uses while the computer is on. The information stored in RAM is erased when the computer is off.
Almost every other part of your computer connects to the system unit using cables. The cables plug into specific ports (openings), typically on the back of the system unit. Hardware that is not part of the system unit is sometimes called a peripheral device or device.
Your computer has one or more disk drives—devices that store information on a metal or plastic disk. The disk preserves the information even when your computer is turned off.
Hard Disk Drive
Your computer's hard disk drive stores information on a hard disk—a rigid platter or stack of platters with a magnetic surface. Because hard disks can hold massive amounts of information, they usually serve as your computer's primary means of storage, holding almost all of your programs and files. The hard disk drive is normally located inside the system unit.
CD and DVD drives
Nearly all computers today come equipped with a CD or DVD drive, usually located on the front of the system unit. CD drives use lasers to read (retrieve) data from a CD; many CD drives can also write (record) data onto CDs. If you have a recordable disk drive, you can store copies of your files on blank CDs. You can also use a CD drive to play music CDs on your computer.DVD drives can do everything that CD drives can, plus read DVDs. If you have a DVD drive, you can watch movies on your computer. Many DVD drives can record data onto blank DVDs.
Floppy Disk Drive
Floppy disk drives store information on floppy disks, also called floppies or diskettes. Compared to CDs and DVDs, floppy disks can store only a small amount of data. They also retrieve information more slowly and are more prone to damage. For these reasons, floppy disk drives are less popular than they used to be, although some computers still include them.Why are these disks called "floppy" disks? The outside is made of hard plastic, but that's just the sleeve. The disk inside is made of a thin, flexible vinyl material.
A mouse is a small device used to point to and select items on your computer screen. Although mice come in many shapes, the typical mouse does look a bit like an actual mouse. It's small, oblong, and connected to the system unit by a long wire that resembles a tail. Some newer mice are wireless.A mouse usually has two buttons: A primary button (usually the left button) and a secondary button. Many mice also have a wheel between the two buttons, which allows you to scroll smoothly through screens of information.When you move the mouse with your hand, a pointer on your screen moves in the same direction. (The pointer's appearance might change depending on where it's positioned on your screen.) When you want to select an item, you point to the item and then click (press and release) the primary button. Pointing and clicking with your mouse is the main way to interact with your computer.
A keyboard is used mainly for typing text into your computer. Like the keyboard on a typewriter, it has keys for letters and numbers, but it also has special keys.The function keys, found on the top row, perform different functions depending on where they are used.The numeric keypad, located on the right side of most keyboards, allows you to enter numbers quickly.The navigation keys, such as the arrow keys, allow you to move your position within a document or webpage.
A monitor displays information in visual form, using text and graphics. The portion of the monitor that displays the information is called the screen. Like a television screen, a computer screen can show still or moving pictures.There are two basic types of monitors: CRT (cathode ray tube) monitors and the newer LCD (liquid crystal display) monitors. Both types produce sharp images, but LCD monitors have the advantage of being much thinner and lighter.
A printer transfers data from a computer onto paper. You don't need a printer to use your computer, but having one allows you to print e‑mail, cards, invitations, announcements, and other material. Many people also like being able to print their own photos at home.The two main types of printers are inkjet printers and laser printers. Inkjet printers are the most popular printers for the home. They can print in black and white or in full color and can produce high-quality photographs when used with special paper. Laser printers are faster and generally better able to handle heavy use.
Speakers are used to play sound. They can be built into the system unit or connected with cables. Speakers allow you to listen to music and hear sound effects from your computer.
To connect your computer to the Internet, you need a modem. A modem is a device that sends and receives computer information over a telephone line or high-speed cable. Modems are sometimes built into the system unit, but higher-speed modems are usually separate components.
The computer coding is by far the most important part of a computer. You know a toaster right? Well really all a toaster does is you put the bread in and out pops toast. It's Pretty useless compared to a computer. But if a computer didn't have it's coding it would be more useless then a toaster!
Print is the easiest phrase in python. to you use it you type print (What you want it to say.) If you type print "Hello World!" the output would be Hello World!
Binary is a series of 0's and 1's at tell a computer how to do a certain action. For example 1000110 could be print.
Part.... I don't remember:
How computers have "evolved".
Unlike other recent devices, computers didn’t appear on the scene in their current form. The first computers looked more like what printers do today. They processed very limited functions having to deal with strictly text or numbers. You could provide hundreds of early computers with their entire memory using just the hard drive space that your sound and image files occupy. The computer that lead to what we know and love today didn’t come around until the late 1970s. Even though Apple’s revolutionary Apple II was years ahead of its time, it wasn’t advanced enough to allow us to do what we do computers these days. We often take the early computers for granted because of the amount of things we can do with current computers. Without the machines that came before, we wouldn’t have what we enjoy today.
Every type of technology has to start somewhere though. As computer technology started to advance, the steps forward came faster with each new development. When we thought that computers couldn’t progress any further, Apple came out with the iPad. It’s hard to figure out what the next innovation in computing will be until it comes around. There’s always room to make computers smaller, faster and easier to use. Google recently came out with a pair of sunglasses that allow you to navigate the web in your field of vision. This technology is still very much a prototype, but it shows where the world of computing is headed. Eventually, we might see a computer that fits solely on the surface of a contact lens or as some sort of transplant into our brains.
Regardless of the directions computing takes in the future, Dell should remain a player in the world of laptop and desktop computers. They haven’t spread their wings into the world of smartphones or tablet computers yet. It’s only a matter of time before they bring their fast, reliable products into those industries as well. While people are still using laptops and desktop computers, it’s hard to find a brand that will give you the best computer for the money you spent. You may think Dell PCs run you a little more than the average computer in terms of price but they actually have reasonably priced computers and the amount of Dell laptop deals floating around the internet at any given time can get you steal. You won’t regret purchasing a Dell computer regardless of the amount of money you spend on it.
As computers become more popular and affordable, the amount of people who don’t have them will decrease dramatically. You have to know how to use a computer to a reasonable extent these days to thrive in your career. Banking and other tasks we would have been able to do offline in earlier eras have become so convenient thanks to the internet that it’s foolish not to do them on a computer. Our society needs computers to evolve to maintain the progression we’re experience as a result of our evolution.
Part.... I still don't know.
How Apple started
The adopted son of a Mountain View, Calif., machinist, Steve Jobs showed an early interest in electronics and gadgetry. While in high school, he boldly called Hewlett-Packard co-founder and president William Hewlett to ask for parts for a school project. Impressed by Jobs, Hewlett not only gave him the parts, but also offered him a summer internship at Hewlett-Packard. It was there that Jobs met and befriended Steve Wozniak, a young engineer five years his senior with a penchant for tinkering.
After graduating from high school, Jobs enrolled in Reed College but dropped out after one semester. He had become fascinated by Eastern spiritualism, and he took a part-time job designing video games for Atari in order to finance a trip to India to study Eastern culture and religion.
When Jobs returned to the U.S., he renewed his friendship with Wozniak, who had been trying to build a small computer. To Wozniak, it was just a hobby, but the visionary Jobs grasped the marketing potential of such a device and convinced Wozniak to go into business with him. In 1975, the 20-year-old Jobs and Wozniak set up shop in Jobs' parents' garage, dubbed the venture Apple, and began working on the prototype of the Apple I. To generate the $1,350 in capital they used to start Apple, Steve Jobs sold his Volkswagen microbus, and Steve Wozniak sold his Hewlett-Packard calculator.
Although the Apple I sold mainly to hobbyists, it generated enough cash to enable Jobs and Wozniak to improve and refine their design. In 1977, they introduced the Apple II -- the first personal computer with color graphics and a keyboard. Designed for beginners the user-friendly Apple II was a tremendous success, ushering in the era of the personal computer. First-year sales topped $3 million. Two years later, sales ballooned to $200 million.
But by 1980, Apple's shine was starting to wear off. Increased competition combined with less than stellar sales of the Apple III and its follow-up, the LISA, caused the company to lose nearly half its market to IBM. Faced with declining sales, Jobs introduced the Apple Macintosh in 1984. The first personal computer to feature a graphical-user interface controlled by a mouse, the Macintosh was a true breakthrough in terms of ease-of-use. But the marketing behind it was flawed. Jobs had envisioned the Mac as a home computer, but at $2,495, it was too expensive for the consumer market. When consumer sales failed to reach projections, Jobs tried pitching the Mac as a business computer. But with little memory, no hard drive and no networking capabilities, the Mac had almost none of the features corporate America wanted.
For Jobs, this turn of events spelled serious trouble. He clashed with Apple's board of directors and, in 1983, was ousted from the board by CEO John Sculley, whom Jobs had handpicked to help him run Apple. Stripped of all power and control, Jobs eventually sold his shares of Apple stock and resigned in 1985.
Later that year, using a portion of the money from the stock sale, Jobs launched NeXT Computer Co., with the goal of building a breakthrough computer that would revolutionize research and higher education. Introduced in 1988, the NeXT computer boasted a host of innovations, including notably fast processing speeds, exceptional graphics and an optical disk drive. But priced at $9,950, the NeXT was too expensive to attract enough sales to keep the company afloat. Undeterred, Jobs switched the company's focus from hardware to software. He also began paying more attention to his other business, Pixar Animation Studios, which he had purchased from George Lucas in 1986.
After cutting a three-picture deal with Disney, Jobs set out to create the first ever computer-animated feature film. Four years in the making, "Toy Story" was a certified smash hit when it was released in November 1995. Fueled by this success, Jobs took Pixar public in 1996, and by the end of the first day of trading, his 80 percent share of the company was worth $1 billion. After nearly 10 years of struggling, Jobs had finally hit it big. But the best was yet to come.
Within days of Pixar's arrival on the stock market, Apple bought NeXT for $400 million and re-appointed Jobs to Apple's board of directors as an advisor to Apple chairman and CEO Gilbert F. Amelio. It was an act of desperation on Apple's part. Because they had failed to develop a next-generation Macintosh operating system, the firm's share of the PC market had dropped to just 5.3 percent, and they hoped that Jobs could help turn the company around.
At the end of March 1997, Apple announced a quarterly loss of $708 million. Three months later, Amelio resigned and Jobs took over as interim CEO. Once again in charge of Apple, Jobs struck a deal with Microsoft to help ensure Apple's survival. Under the arrangement, Microsoft invested $150 million for a nonvoting minority stake in Apple, and the companies agreed to "cooperate on several sales and technology fronts." Next, Jobs installed the G3 PowerPC microprocessor in all Apple computers, making them faster than competing Pentium PCs. He also spearheaded the development of the iMac, a new line of affordable home desktops, which debuted in August 1998 to rave reviews. Under Jobs' guidance, Apple quickly returned to profitability, and by the end of 1998, boasted sales of $5.9 billion.
Against all odds, Steve Jobs pulled the company he founded and loved back from the brink. Apple once again was healthy and churning out the kind of breakthrough products that made the Apple name synonymous with innovation.
But Apple's innovations were just getting started. Over the next decade, the company rolled out a series of revolutionary products, including the iPod portable digital audio player in 2001, an online marketplace called the Apple iTunes Store in 2003, the iPhone handset in 2007 and the iPad tablet computer in 2010. The design and functionality of these devices resonated with users worldwide. Apple says it has sold more than 300 million iPods, over 100 million iPhones and more than 15 million iPad devices. The company has sold billions of songs from its iTunes Store.
Despite his professional successes, Jobs struggled with health issues. In mid-2004, he announced in an email to Apple employees that he had undergone an operation to remove a cancerous tumor from his pancreas. In January 2011, following a liver transplant, Jobs said he was taking a medical leave of absence from Apple but said he'd continue as CEO and "be involved in major strategic decisions for the company."
Eight months later, on August 24, Apple’s board of directors announced that Jobs had resigned as CEO and that he would be replaced by COO Tim Cook. Jobs said he would remain with the company as chairman.
"I have always said if there ever came a day when I could no longer meet my duties and expectations as Apple’s CEO, I would be the first to let you know," Jobs said in a letter announcing his resignation. "Unfortunately, that day has come."
Jobs once described himself as a "hopeless romantic" who just wanted to make a difference. Quite appropriately like the archetypal romantic hero who reaches for greatness but fails, only to find wisdom and maturity in exile, an older, wiser Steve Jobs returned triumphant to save his kingdom.
this is the end of my long presentation, thanks for listening!