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Greg Wadzinski

on 29 April 2011

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Transcript of 1450-1750

1450-1750 Rise of the Ottoman Empire In 1300, the weakened Byzantine Empire had lost most of it's Turkish provinces. One of these provinces was led by Osman I, who began the Ottoman Empire. The capital of the Empire was Bursa (in Turkey). During the 14th and early 15th centuries, the Ottomans began expanding towards the Byzantine Empire. In 1453, the Ottomans captured the capital of the Byzantine Empire, Constantinople, led by Sultan Mehmed II. The Ottomans worked out an agreement with the Orthodox Church, in which the Church accepted Ottoman rule, and got to keep all of its land. Ottoman Expansion and Growth In the 15th and 16th centuries, the Ottoman Empire expanded greatly, extending it's borders well into Europe and North Africa. The strong Ottoman military and Navy made conquest much easier. Economically, the Ottoman Empire flourished because of its control on the land trade between Europe and Asia. When Sultan Selim I was in control of the Ottoman Empire, he conquered parts of Persia and Egypt. His successor, Suleiman the Magnificient, continued the expansion. He conquered the southern and central parts of the Kingdom of Hungary and later attacked Vienna, but failed due to the Siege of Guns, which is a battle in which 800 Croatian soldiers successfully defended 120,000 Ottoman soldiers from advancing toward Vienna. Under Suleiman's rule, the Empire also captured Baghdad and Mesopotamia, making it's total population about 15 million. Ottoman Decline The ottomans believed that the Sultan was selected through divin "kut", which in Turkish means "favor". This means that all of the members of ruling family had an equal portion of throne. This is why the Ottomans killed the brothers of the Sultan, to get rid of any rivals to the throne. The Sultans abandoned this practice in the late 1500's, and also stopped training their sons to become future Sultans. Because of the lack of power, the Janissaries (the Sultan's private soldiers) took over the power of the Empire. The Ottomans government was soon ruled by a military feudal class.This is considered by most histories to be a main reason for the Ottoman decline. Kara Mustafa took over the military in 1661 with the main intention to conquer Austria. So in 1683, he marched straight for Vienna (the capital of Austria), but was defeated by a group of European forces. This successfully ended the Ottoman expansion into Europe. The end of expansion slowly destabalized the European rule over European territories. During the 18th century, the Ottoman Empire was constantly at war with Russia because Russia was expanding into Muslim territories in Asia. As all of this was happening, the Ottomans population was rising and almost double in the 1700s. Also, the industrialized Europeans were expanding and this expansion got in the way of the Ottomans trade routes. Because the Ottomans still hadn't industrialized, trade was still a major part of their economy. So because their economy was hurting, they could not feed their people, and famine and unemployment struck the Empire. Although the Ottoman Empire didn't officially end until WWI, these are all contributing factors to the decline. Mughal Empire The Mughal Empire The Mughal Empire was founded by Zahir ud-din Muhammad Babur in 1526. Babur defeated the Delhi Sultanate and controlled northern India. He extended the Empire and eventually controlled the majority of India, Pakistan, and Afganistan. Most of the expansion of the Empire occurred under control of Akbar the Great. The Empire sold manufactured goods and cash crops, but trade was limited. Mughal cities were built around political and military centers, and the industries were in the rural areas. The Mughals built a lot of architecture that we still see today such as the Taj Mahal, which was built under emperor Shah Jahan for his late wife. Although the Mughal Empire flourished with architechure, technology, and military power, they began to decline after Emperor Aurangzeb's death. After his death, no Mughal empire could hold on to power for more very long, and they suffered attacks on their capital, Delhi, from Persians and Afganistans. Most of the Mughal territories were taking by 1750, and in 1804, they accepted the protection of the British East India Company. In 1805, the Mughal army was dispand and after 50 years, the British got rid of the last Mughal emperor, which led to the British Raj in 1857. China The Ming Dynasty started in 1368, when Emperor Hongwu took over power. By the 16th century, the Ming economy flourished with trade to Europe. China then became involved in the Columbian Exchange. The Columbian Exchange was a global trading network that exchanged many different things (plants, animals, food, ideas, slaves) from the New World to The Old World. Basically every society was involved in the Columbian Exchange. China traded for huge amounts of silver from Europe and Japan and silver became the basic medium of exchange. But in the later years of the Dynastly, the silver trade was diminished, which ruined state revenues and ultimately the Ming economy. The economy was further damaged after the "Little Ice Age" destroyed all the crops and farms and killed China's agriculture. With the Ming's struggling economy, rebellions soon appeared and the Ming Dynastly fell in 1644. The Qing Dynasty came after the Ming. The Qing Dynasty was very prosperous before 1750, led mostly by Kangxi in 1661, and Qianlong in 1736. Both emperors understood the importance of culture, as well as a strong military. During their reign's, the Qing Dynasty is considered to be in the "Golden Age", which means that empire flourished and there were not many problems. The Qing Dynasty continued chinese traditions, and Neo-Confucianism as well. The Qing Dynasty lasted all the way until 1912, but fell because of rebellions and a weak military. Tokugawa Japan The Tokugawa Shounate ruled from 1603-1868. The Emperor was the religious and political leader, but the shoguns of the Tokugawa's family controlled the military power. In the early 1600's, Christianity was allowed to be practiced, but soon after was banned because it was threatning to the Shogunate. Foreign trade was popular in Japan and it gained a huge profit. In 1635, laws were made that said only inbound could come from China, Korea, and the Netherlands. The most important philosophy in Tokugawa Japan was Neo-Confucianism, which is stressing the importance of morals, education and hierarchial order in government and society. There were 5 distinct classes in the Japan during this time. There was the samurai (the warrior class) the farmers, crasftspeople, merchants, and the eta (outcasts of the Japanese society because of their bad jobs). By 1700, Japan's economy was based on agriculture and commerce. In the mid 1700's, Japan was forced to raise taxes, which caused riots. The socials hierarchy began to break down in the late 18th century, and the government started to corrupt. Also, because Japan did not industrialize and the trade was limited, the last shogun had to resign his powers to the emperor and the Tokugawa reign was over in 1868. Soon after, the Meiji Restoration began and Japan soon became industrialized. Europe There were four major empires during this time period: Portugal, England, Spain, and France. Portugal was manly exploring and coloninizing during this time. Also, Portugal was a major trading center in Europe, using land trade with Africa, and maritime trade with Asia. Spain was also exploring and colonizing. Christopher Columbus' "discovery" of the New World caused disputed between Portugal and Spain over land. They were both alsoAlso, Spain continued to get rid of the Muslims in the surrounding Muslim provinces. England was also colonizing this time. They also practiced mercantilism, which is an economic system where the territory owned by England can only trade with England and nobody else. This made Europe a world super power at this time. France was also colonizing gained most of it's power from Spain. Louis XIV used the system of absolutism, which is a government system that gives all power to the monarch. The Protestant Reformation, led by John Calvin and Martin Luther, was an attempt to add another branch of Christianity. They succeeded in adding the Protestant church all through out Europe. Americas Before Christopher Columbus sailed to the Americas in 1492, there were millions of inhabitants. The Aztecs and Incas controlled most of the land. The Spanish had started to destroy the indigenous populations and began sending Americas crops back to Europe. Also, the Europeans brought over diseases that were very fatal to the Native Americas. The Treaty of Tordesillas split the Americas equally between Spain and Portugual in 1498. Hernan Cortes and Francisco Pizzarro successfully conquered the Aztec and Inca Empires, respectively, for Spain. Soon other countries disputed the Treaty of Toredsillas and England and France began to try to colonize the Americas. Spain had conquered most of western South America, Central America, Mexico, Florida, and New Mexico, while Portugal conquered eastern South America and named it Brazil. England conquered the Thirteen Colonies, while France conquered Acadia, Canada, Louisiana, and Newfoundland. The competition for colonization was fierce and attacks were a common threat.
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