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THE MIDLANDS

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ivana buffa

on 11 May 2016

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Transcript of THE MIDLANDS

THE MIDLANDS
THE HEARTLAND - THE HEART OF ENGLAND
heart/center of England
RELIEF
hills and plains (flat dry land) within a triangle
the southern part of the Pennines is a kind of natural border
There is a mountainous area - the Cotswold Hills
the soil is reddish
COUNTIES
Staffordshire
Shropshire
Worcestershire
Derbyshire
Nottinghamshire (Robin Hood Legend)
Herefordshire
Leicestershire

CLIMATE
wet towards the west
drier towards the east
a marked contrast between E & W
Non-extreme temperatures
ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES
the most productive area in terms of industry
the most intensive industrial area
heavy industries and light industries
Produced in Sheffield.
Most of the finest cutlery comes from Sheffield.
fine steel elements
1- CUTLERY (a set of cutlery)
HEAVY INDUSTRIES
2- STEEL MAKING
-
steel
is the combination of coal & iron
-Steel is used to manufacture different products
-important for heavy industry
engineering
building construction
trucks, automobile industry=cars
farming machines
the making of ship parts
machinery, tools used in mining
Coal (carbón) & iron (hierro) are raw materials. They’re the result of
mining
(the work of getting coal, iron out of the earth)
5-GRANITE QUARRYING
GRANITE = RAW MATERIAL
QUARRY-cantera
industrial town
4- COAL MINING/ PRODUCTION - MINES - COALFIELDS
coal tar-alquitrán
heat
steam engine
When the coal is burnt it produces
tar-heat
produces

steam (vapor)
and then

power
like electricity
STEAM ENGINE -
máquina a vapor
(INVENTION-INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION)
Coal mining is the basis of its economy
Coal is used to cook our food & heat our houses
The greatest use of COAL is POWER
coal-fuel-combustible
STOKE-ON-TRENT
"The Potteries"
china clay
raw material
6- POTTERY - cerámica
POTTERY MANUFACTURING
CHINA CLAY (in the Southwest) MANUFACTURING
clay=raw material (bathroom, wall tiles,floors)
The
Black Country
is an area of the West Midlands
During the Industrial Revolution, it became one of the most industrialized parts of Britain with coal mines, iron foundries (fundición) and steel mills (acerías) producing a high level of air pollution.
Gases / smoke gave the area a black aspect.
It's called BLACK COUNTRY because of the contamination
In the past the pipes (tuberías) were made of clay (arcilla)
Now they’re made of plastic
6- Motor vehicle-automobile industry
MORRIS
7-SHIP BUILDING
8- SHEEP FARMING
9- CEREAL FARMING
CATTLE
= dairy & beef cattle. The growing of both of them.
10- FRUIT FARMING=MARKET GARDENING
(fruit, vegetables, flowers)
People get together to buy /sell their products. Present in every small village.
11-ARABLE FARMING
(the growth of grass land/grass for the animals/pastures)
IMPORTANT CITIES
Birmingham
second largest city in England, after London
a commercial type of city
services sector, insurance, bank, transportation
large industrial area
cars /trucks/ lorries/buses
England has been known by a couple of cars.
Morris- Austin-Leyland (lorries and buses) - Jaguar (very expensive)
Jaguar, Morris cars (Oxford), Hillman cars (Coventry)
and Leyland buses and trucks (Lancashire)
centers of motor car manufacturing
sheep farming - cría de ovejas
cattle rearing
arable farming: grass & pasture
fruit farming
market gardening
cereal farming -cultivo de cereales
porcelain - one of the final products
pottery = final product
Lady Godiva
11th century legend
the wife of the earl of Mercia (high rank in the British aristocracy- nobleman/tenant)
noblewoman, countess
Peeping Tom is a nickname given to men who enjoy peeping women
Oxford university:
the oldest university in Britain-mid 12th C
high reputation for academic achievement
separate colleges
St. George, Trinity, Christ Church College
Oxbridge
Morris car factory
Liverpool
Birmingham
the chief city of the Midlands
the second largest city in the UK after London
it's famous for engineering
commercial type of city
Coventry
William Shakespeare
Stratford-upon-Avon - tourism
Shakespeare's house
Globe Theatre in London
thatching -thatched roofs-Medieval times
manufacturing of war elements in the past (planes, weapons)
steel making center
light steel tools
punting- going along the river on a punt (boat)
OXFORD DONS
Trent is the largest river
steel (acero)is the raw material
CORBY & SHEFFIELD
Stoke-on-Trent
Cities where motor- vehicle industry is carried out
7- ship building industry - Liverpool
on the river MERSEY
fruit growing
new cathedral
the old cathedral
COVENTRY
- Until 1940s it had the most important cathedral . It was destroyed during WWII
- the Pope asked to design a new cathedral on the basis of the old one.
- Nowadays it's a monument
Peeping Tom of Coventry
mixed farming: the keeping of animals & the raising of crops on one farm
potato growing
cattle rearing
hop growing
rich agricultural land
market for wool, corn & cattle
main centre of hosiery (stockings/tights), knit wear & footwear industries
important railway centre
railway engineering
textile industry
Rolls Royce
it was the largest market place in England
commercial centre
large industrial town (coal mines)
known as the QUEEN OF THE MIDLANDS
Raleigh bikes
Liverpool
Oxford
south of the Pennines
Welsh Mts
Cotswold Hills
canals - punt: narrow boat

in the center / not so much coast
cutters/razors/cut throat razors
liquid made by heating coal-heat-power
the Black Country
smoke gave the area a black aspect
service industry: provision of services to businesses- (insurance-bank-transportation)
buying and selling of old clothes -important form more than 800 years
a new altar was made with the fallen stones of the old cathedral
major port- ship building industry-
tourist attraction-successful pop group
1564-1616
leading poet/dramatist=playwright
buried in the Holy Trinity Church (Stratford -upon Avon)
his father was a rich citizen
he married Ann Hathaway (3 children)
1599- the famous GLOBE THEATRE was built in LONDON
tragedies (Hamlet-Othelo- King Lear- Romeo & Juliet)

Literature
Eg. He realized he was watching the lovers like a common PEEPING TOM
Peep Show (hole for a man to peep at)
used to refer informally to the universities of Oxford & Cambridge, esp when they're distinguished from other universities
THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
the phase used to describe Britain's progress in the 18th C & 19th C from being an agricultural to an industrial country.
Britain was the first country to change in this way
many important machines were invented
discovery of the steam power from coal
invention of the steam engine
CONSEQUENCES:
many factories were built - production of wide variety of goods in large quantities
new methods of transport (canals & railways) for transporting coal & goods
the populations of cities grew (people moved from the countryside to work in factories)
1760-1990
child labor (cheap) -consequences of the industrial revolution
shire:
an area of a state or a country that it has its own government to deal with local matters.
shire= county (the original term for county)
an old English word introduced at the Norman Conquest of England
a traditional name for the division of land
the Thames
the Severn
estuaries
coalfield: an area where there's coal under the ground
industrial revolution
a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam
BRITISH COALFIELDS
STEAM ENGINE
meat
growth of grass land for animals
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