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Shaz, Shontelle, Ziyu Presentation
Transcript of Shaz, Shontelle, Ziyu Presentation
reduce the need to travel? Content THE REALITY OF IT ALL: SELF SELECTION IN LONDON
Background to the debate
Theory - relationship between the urban structure and transport needs
Conclusion WAIT A SEC,.....THERE IS A LITTLE BIT MORE THEORY OUR CASE STUDY 3 kinds of approaches Based on:
Close proximity of homes to stores, restaurants, schools, parks and public transit
Bike friendly streets
Mixed-used public spaces
Enough people to support a variety of businesses
[New York Daily News, 2011] Most Walkable City in the USA (2011) Achievement of Sustainable Streets Outcomes DOT Sustainable Streets (2008) Mayor Bloomberg’s PlaNYC 2030
A Greener, Greater New York Planning initiatives “residents of denser, transit served urban neighbourhoods use less land and travel less, their environmental footprint is smaller than for those who live in less dense locales” Glaeser and Kahn (2008) High Density and mixed-use
Case study: New York City A bit of theory OUR PRESENTATION High density and Mixed use development Improving public transport links Pedestrianization Background: Key drivers of change Growing prosperity Urban Sprawl New Realism Growing prosperity has permitted the dispersal of goods, services and human commodities (housing).
Rationalisation of services to create repeat economies of scale has resulted in fewer facilities which cannot usually be accessed unless you have a car.
As prosperity has grown mobility has increased loosening the spatial links between the location of housing, jobs and services. Having prosperity has caused many with the means to ‘choose’ to increase the distance between their housing and jobs or leisure space.
To capture the benefits of prosperity (and respond to local demand) business, developers and planners have created retail parks, leisure and other services in out-town areas.
At the same time this has coincided with a rationing of services in deprived inner-city areas, which have poorer access to leisure and service provision, e.g. schools, retail, hospitals and libraries.
In the last few decades there has been a notable shift in the approach to thinking about transport and its integration in planning. At the root of this has been an overall shift in approach to understanding the impact of growing transport (mainly car travel) upon the social and environmental wellbeing of communities.
Reducing support for car travel (parking) reducing the need to travel (home/work spaces) and promoting environmentally friendly modes (Train and bike travel) are examples of new-realist approaches.
Not just an academic or planning practice concern, the CBI (Confederation of British Industry) have also argued that successive governments had failed to see the link between economic growth, transport and the environment. (1995)
Density Accessibility Mixed Use Locations Density has great influence on car dependence ( Newman and Kenworthy, 1999)
The lower the density of the city, the more it costs to operate passenger transport systems
Through multiple analysis, density appears to be the dominant explanatory variable for the level of transport energy use
Low-density cities in the US and in Australia
Medium-density European cities
Densely-settled Asian cities of Singapore, Hong Kong and Tokyo
density is not significantly correlated with wealth, either positively or negatively
However, development of densities can enable public transport, walking and cycling to be viable options.
probably means building 'nodes and corridors' of high-density development rather than bulldozing the low density suburbs of the car era.
denser urban environments, rather than car-dependent suburbs.
important to increase density within 'nodes' or 'urban village' sub-centres of a city, as well as providing 'corridors' of viable public transport linking these nodes. Shontelle's Activity Spaces there are, still,
needs for quality human interaction (Castells, 1989; Castells and Hall, 1994)
'The new world will largely depend, as the old world did, on human creativity; and creativity flourishes where people come together face-to-face' (Hall, 1997:89) A conceptual outline of the sustainable city as it would develop from the car city
Revitalise the inner city
Focus development around the existing rail system
Discourage further urban sprawl
Extend the public transport system and build new urban villages in the suburbs Trend towards re-urbanisation:
an opportunity for achieving sustainable urban form Several steps achieving sustainable urban form: Urban Density relating to Energy Consumption 'Good accessibility is crucial to achieving sustainable transport, since it may reduce the length of journeys or the need to travel by car, thus reducing CO2 emissions and energy use.' (Reneland, 2000) Spatial,
Access to services, such as food shops, post offices, chemists, libraries, schools and public transport. Reneland's national-scale research project: Accessibility in Swedish Towns The concept of accessibility relating to density (Reneland 1998a) Sustainable development, mixed land use and design were central themes in the last Conservative government’s approach to planning in the UK (DoE, 1997)
The new Labour government has announces its intention to update planning guidance, and it is even more strongly committed to sustainable development and the integration of land use and transport planning (DETR, 1998)
Planning Policy Guidance 13: Transport:
By providing a wide range of facilities at the local neighbourhood level, the need for people to use cars to meet their day-to-day needs will be reduced. (DoE and DoT, 1994, para.3.17) Self-contained land use
Reducing the need to travel, especially by car
Encouraging sustainable trips on foot, by cycle, and by bus Multi-purpose trip chains
Effectively reducing car trips in car-dominated communities
Self-contained for shopping and leisuring
but except for employment
Encourage walking and cycling
Deter car use for light food shopping trips
Discourage car use for eating out
Little evidence for car ownership
Not for mode choice for heavy food shopping and commuting
Little influence on housing-jobs
(Van and Senior) Calculates the optimal and actual walking distance from every point in the city to the closest amenity in every category http://walkshed.org/nyc Population: over 8 million in a land area of 800 km sq (United States Census, 2011) References 45 Swedish Towns
Fifteen years (1980-1995)
Accessibility to basic service
Differences in accessibility between towns Small towns does not offer good accessibility to all services in comparison with larger towns
Access to services increases as the population of demand group increases Accessibility-Population Density Mokhtarian and Cao (2008) There are difficulties in quantifying the absolute and/or relative extent to which the built environment affects travel behavior
Crane (1996) Plans to reduce car travel which follow the philosophy of pro transport /land planning approaches may increase car travel. In many circumstances, planners have failed to account for other socio-cultural variables.
Simmonds and Coobe (1997)The impact of more compact land use pattern only has a weak influence on travel choice Looking for most sustainable location for future housing development
Allocation of substantial new housing will have a significant impact on the future travel demand and patterns of sustainability. Intensification: reduce mean trip length around other main towns
Extensification: shorter mean trip length around the edge of the towns, in line with the location of the new development
Decentralisation: reducing mean trip length of the rural residents (closer job opportunities)
New town: reducing trip length substantially, as it is self-contained How does self selection complicate the relationships? Principles to be applied at the strategic level:
Allocate the maximum amount of housing to existing larger urban areas
Avoid any significant incremental expansion of housing in villages and small towns where this is likely to result largely in car commuting to urban centres
Avoid the development of small new settlements Benefits of mixed use: http://www.capitasymonds.co.uk/news__events/news/southall_gasworks_gets_mayoral.aspx http://www.plan4sustainabletravel.org CEOS for Cities (2010) New York City’s Green Dividend, available at: http://www.ceosforcities.org/city-dividends/green/special-reports/new-york-city/ [accessed 8/11/2012]
Crane, R (1996) Cars and Drivers in new Suburbs: Linking access to travel in nontraditional planning, Journal of American Planning Association, 62: 51-65
Crane, R (1996) On form versus function: Will the new urbanism reduce traffic or increase it?, Journal of Planning and educational research
NY Daily News (2011) New York is the most ‘walkable’ city in the US, available at: http://articles.nydailynews.com/2011-08-02/entertainment/29860045_1_walkable-big-apple-grocery-stores [accessed 2/11/2012]
City Data (2010) New York – New York, available at: http://www.city-data.com/city/New-York-New-York.html [accessed 14/11/2012]
Jenks, M., Burton, E. & Williams, K. (2001) Achieving Sustainable Urban Form, E & FN Spon, London
Mokhtarian, P.L , Cao, X (2008)Examining the impacts of residential self-selection on travel behavior: A focus on methodologies
New York City DOT (2012) Sustainable Streets, available at: http://www.nyc.gov/html/dot/html/about/stratplan.shtml [accessed 14/11/2012]
Simmonds, D AND Coombe, D. (1997) 'Transport effects of urban land use change', 'Traffic engineering and control, Vol, 38, pp 660-665
Wright, A. (2010) Designing the city of New York: the Commissioners’ Plan of 1811, available at: http://www.nypl.org/blog/2010/07/30/designing-city-new-york-commissioners-plan-1811 [accessed 20/11/2012] Government Approach: PPG 13 Examined the influence of mixed uses on travel patterns Four types of development strategy PPG13 (transport), Relating to Housing development