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Transcript of Utilitarianism-Ch4
Suicides on the Golden Gate Bridge
Should a Barrier be built
to prevent suicides?
What is torture?
Is it every justified?
Do the ends justify the means?
John Stuart Mill
Utilitarianism Founded By:
Morals - basis for law
Principles of Utility
"Greatest Happiness Principle"
The option that gives greatest unit of happiness
Utilitarians (teleological) meaning it stresses the end goal.
The Intrinsic Good: Pleasure or Happiness
Even if we choose the best results,
How do we know the consequences are good?
Seek Pleasure/Avoid Pain
Does Fame Provide Happiness
Varying Degrees of Happiness
So, How do we Calculate Pleasure?
Keep In Mind,
Utilitarianism is Not EGOISTIC
Its difficult to measure
Ends & Means
We ought to maximize happiness
Do the ends really justify the means?
Act- actions based on the act
Rule-actions based on the rule
(cc) photo by medhead on Flickr
2 Types of Utilitarianism
When is okay to cheat?
Never or Always
Remember Rule Utilitarianism
is based on A "RULE OF THUMB"
the act that best satisfies most preferences
the policy that is
Some pleasures more
valuable than others
Utilitarianism- Generally Considered absolute, not relative
Cost is NOT
included when measruing happiness.
Promotes Utility - Not pleasure
Is it acceptable if it saves a soldier?
What moral reasoning permits this?
Supporter of liberty
Bad choices better than Gov't coercion
Original utilitarians were progressive . . . and optimistic.
"A sacriﬁce which does not increase
or tend to increase the sum total of happiness, considers as wasted" - Mill
Quality or Quantity? Bentham & Mill had different opinions
Bentham - some pleasures better than others