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Chapter 7: Executive Branch at Work

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Kalen Gillingham

on 17 December 2014

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Transcript of Chapter 7: Executive Branch at Work

Financing Government

Paying for Government
Government Spending
The Budget Process
Fiscal & Monetary Policy
Federal government- collects revenue and borrows money to pay for it's operations
Revenue= taxes, fee, and other non-tax sources
Income Taxes:
16th Amendment- Congress can levy an income tax
Income taxes= 47% of federal revenue
Income tax= progressive tax
More wealth= higher income tax rates- Poor (10%)-Rich(35%)


The Federal Bureaucracy

Executive Depts. & Independent Agencies

The Executive Branch at Work

Executive Depts.
The Depts. Today
Independent Agencies
Power & Accountability in the Federal Bureaucracy
executive depts.
oversee areas of gov. responsibility
employs 60% of federal workforce
decides duties of depts./approves budgets
nominates leaders of depts.
approves presidential nominations
1) Health & Human Services:
Contains all agencies and departments of executive branch
2) Defense:
Employs about 2.7 million today
3) Homeland Security:
Top administrators are nominated by the president and approved by the senate and state
Bureaucracy carries out legislative and executive orders
Civilians who work in the federal government
oversees health-related agencies, protects health, provides social services
social security
Medicare (65+)
Medicaid (low-income people)
smaller agencies include CDC & FDA
Spoil System- Government were given out by the president, as political rewards to people who supported the president's policies and election campaign
has largest budget of gov. agencies
oversees U.S. military forces
used to be split into multiple branches
Congress created DOD to bring all under Secretary of Defense (WWII)
created in response to 9/11
refocused gov. efforts
includes the Secret Service & Coast Guard
Civil Service
Pendleton Act-was based on hiring and promotions for government jobs on merit and not on a person's party.
Independent Executive Agencies:
Independent Regulatory Commissions:
What is Federal Bureaucracy?
Government Corporations:
*include 140 independent agencies such as...
oversees a specific aspect of the federal gov.

has MUCH control over operation
nominates top officials, Senate approves
regulates a specific aspect of gov.
nominates a board of 3-7 people, Senate approves
Board is

(includes members from both political parties)
run like businesses, owned (fully or partially) by federal gov.
creates corps. to achieve public goals that private businesses can't address for profit (USPS - breaks even)
Congressional appropriation committees can affect federal operations (boost/cut funds)
Presidents can refuse to give Congress info
Unofficial alliances can form & policy making can become unfair
Congress sets limit for mandatory and discretionary spending.
Mandatory spending is required by laws
A large portion of money goes to govt. programs. Ex, Social Security
1962- was 26% of the budget
2014- was 69% of the budget
Payroll Taxes:
Collected to help pay for Social Security, Medicare, and other social insurance
Also a regressive tax- tax that has a greater impact on the lower class
Medicare= proportional tax
Other sources of Revenue:
Excise taxes and tariffs
Tariffs= taxes on imported goods
Government moving towards "free trade"- tariffs being reduced
Estate tax is another source of revenue

Borrowing Money:
Congress has power to borrow money
Economic depressions have lead to budget deficits
Since 1970, the country has only had a surplus from 1998-2001
U.S. has over $60 trillion in total debt
Federal Budget is a reflection of the nation's priorities
Lasts for one fiscal period (October 1- September 30)
The President's Budget:
In 1921, Congress gave president job of preparing and presenting a budget
The Budget in Congress:
Congress works on improving budget after the president presents it
Discretionary spending- Spending subject to the annual budget process
Congress is able to use judgement when deciding how to allocate this spending.
Monetary Policy- when the government alters the amount of money in circulation and the interest rates at which money is borrowed.
How it is carried out by the federal government:
Sets an amount of money banks must have in reserve.
Adjusting the interest rates they charge people
they cant affect the money supply by buying or selling bonds
when they buy bonds, puts more money in the circulation. When they sell bonds, it reduces the amount of in the circulation.

Each year, Govt' takes in around 20% of the gross domestic product. Government spending and borrowing has an effect, both positive or negative.
Increasing taxes, government spending and borrowing can shift the economy.

Fiscal Policy- Creating the federal budget and tax laws.
Goal- to provide adequate funds for govt' without affecting the overall govt'
Can also be used to boost economy
when economy is slow, they either cut taxes or increase their spending
cut taxes- leaves more money for the people working to spend on items
increase spending- produce more goods and hire more workers.
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