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Future of Moldova: question of Transnistria & possible union

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Alex Melnic

on 12 June 2015

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Transcript of Future of Moldova: question of Transnistria & possible union

Transnistrian problem
Any analysis of Moldovan socio-economic life cannot overlook the role played by the Transnistrian market, although this economy is not accounted for in official Moldovan economic statistics. Transnistria relies on three principal sources of income: legal trade, Russian subsidies and illegal trade (smuggling).
Content:
1.Introduction
2.Short History
3.Problems of Republic of Moldova
4.Transnistrian Problem
5.Major Actors
6.Side Effect of |The Problm
7.Conclusion
Short History:
1359 – the establishment of Moldova by Bogdan Ist
Consequences:
Significant Actors
Conclusion 1:
The recent EU enlargement has brought the Republic of Moldova into direct proximity with the EU and NATO. With few prospects of joining either organisation in the foreseeable future, there are concerns in the Republic of Moldova that a new "iron curtain" has descended across Europe and that it bears the overwhelming burden of this development. This must not be allowed.
Side effect of the problem
Constitution mentioned a Moldovan nation and language, and did not mention a shared Romanian cultural heritage as the Romanian Parliament had expected. The Moldovan Parliament accused Romania of interference in its internal affairs and infringement of its sovereignty. Nevertheless, the Republic of Moldova has adopted several of Romania's national symbols, including the colours of the national flag - red, yellow and blue; the national monetary unit the leu; and the coat of arms representing "the aurochs with a star between its horns". In 1992 Romania served briefly as a mediator in the Transnistrian conflict, but Russia did not welcome this.
Future of Moldova: question of Transnistria & possible union with Romania
1457 – 1504 – consolidation of Moldova under Stefan cel Mare

XVIth – XIXth century – Moldova subdued by Ottomans, Hungarians and Russians
1812 – 1856 – it was annexed by the Russian Empire
1856 – 1878 – Bessarabia – was returned to Romania
1878 – 1918 – returned to Russia
1918 – 1940 – reattached to Romania
1940 – 1989 – occupied by the Soviet Union
1991 (27 august) – declaration of independence of Republic of Moldova

Introduction:


1) Republic of Moldova borders Romania on the west and Ukraine on the north, east and south, and comprises the eastern part of the Romanian Principality of Moldavia (1359-1859). It has a long history of occupation, which continues to colour its political and economic culture.
2)The Transnistrian "frozen conflict"is one of the major problem of the country. . The region proclaimed independence from the Republic of Moldova in 1990, and engaged in a bloody confrontation with the Moldovan army in 1992. Although the warring parties signed a cease-fire that year, this failed to resolve the central source of contention..

3)Transnistria remains a haven for organised criminal groups, which are engaged in illegal arms sales, smuggling, and money laundering. It hosts the largest post-Soviet army depot in Kolbasna, the Russian (formerly Soviet) 14th Army and several Soviet era armament factories
-Shadow economy (black economy )
-Transnistrian Conflict
-Corruption
-Imports higher than exports
-Unemployment
-High investement -low efficiency in educational system


Problems faced by Republic of Moldova:

Romania was the first state to recognise the independence of the Republic of Moldova. After initially enjoying a friendly rapport in the early '90s, Moldovan-Romanian relations subsequently turned rather cold.
To avoid visa problems, a significant number of Moldovan citizens have applied for Romanian citizenship.
To avoid visa problems, a significant number of Moldovan citizens have applied for Romanian citizenship. Since August 2007, there has been a surge in the number of requests to reacquire Romanian citizenship (estimates vary from 450,000 to 800,000). It is somewhat paradoxical that 21% of the Republic of Moldova's population aspire to Romanian citizenship, although the 2004 census revealed that only 1.9% declared themselves ethnic Romanian.
Conclusion 2:
First and foremost, the Republic of Moldova should continue to advance internal reforms. Its institutions must be strengthened, anti-corruption programmes must be implemented and the business and investment climate improved. Secondly, it would be well advised to promote its regional interests externally in a more assertive fashion. The Republic of Moldova and its supporters should lobby for better market access to the EU, and work to have the Transnistria issue placed higher on the EU agenda. Ukraine's support should be secured to help tackle the Transnistrian problem.
Conlusion 3:
The EU's experience in institution building could help the Republic of Moldova become a more viable state capable of sustaining a stronger economy. This will ultimately require extending greater market access to the Republic of Moldova, as well as targeting aid to help advance the Republic of Moldova's transition process. The EU should continue to challenge the status quo of the Transnistrian "conflict" and work to achieve a solution. More needs to be done to deal with the problem of border control and smuggling, which poses myriad security risks. Border problems in this region are also contributing to human trafficking in Europe. Finally, NATO should continue to assist that country in modernising its security structures and help Moldovan society ensure the democratic control of its military.
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