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Respiratory System

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Faith Call

on 1 March 2013

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Transcript of Respiratory System

Respiratory System -The lungs transport dissolved or bound gases to and from the principle site of exchange. -The heart magnifies itself in an unequal division of lung tissue. Diaphragm-a muscular, membranous or ligamentous wall separating two cavities or limiting a cavity. The diaphragm and intercostal muscles produce volume changes necessary for breathing; regular exercise increases respiratory efficiency.

Nose-the organ of smell and entrance to the respiratory tract.

Cilia- are the fine hair-like projections from certain kinds of cells. They line the respiratory tract, and move in rhythmic unison to.

Pharynx-the tube or cavity, with its surrounding membrane and muscles, that connects the mouth and nasal passages with the esophagus. Cartilage-a firm, elastic, flexible type of connective tissue of a translucent whitish or yellowish color.

Capillaries-one of the minute blood vessels between the terminations of the arteries and the beginnings of the veins.

Arteries-a blood vessel that conveys blood from the heart to any part of the body.

Alveoli-an air cell of the lungs, formed by the terminal dilation of tiny air passageways.

Bronchi-either of the two main branches of the trachea.

Bronchial Tubes-Any of the smaller divisions of the bronchi of the lung.

Trachea-air breathing vertebrates.

Nasal Passages-a large air filled space above and behind the nose in the middle of the face. The respiratory system is made up of the organs in your body that help you to breathe. Remember, that Respiration = Breathing. The goal of breathing is to deliver oxygen to the body and to take away carbon dioxide. Faith Call Bronchitis Bronchitis is a respiratory disease that causes inflammation of the lungs which is commonly referred to as a chest cold. The bronchial tubes become inflamed, which narrows the breathing passages. The membranes secretes too much mucus and as a result, the airways clog and excessive coughing occurs to clear out the the extra mucus. Causes Bronchitis Acute bronchitis: The most common
cause of acute bronchitis are due to
viruses and commonly occurs in the
winter. In addition,, tobacco smoke,
fumes, smog, and chemicals in household
cleaners can also cause a person to
develop acute bronchitis. Chronic bronchitis: The majority of cases
of chronic bronchitis is from smoking.
Less common causes are from toxic
gases. People who smoke will have a
longer recovery because the smoke that
is inhaled will continually damage the cilia
that removes debris and excess mucus
from the lung's airways Symptoms Excessive coughing of mucus
Mild fever
Fatigue
Wheezing sounds while breathing
Tightness in chest
Shortness of breath Diagnosis Doctors diagnose acute bronchitis
by checking for symptoms and
seeing how they develop over time.
They use a stethoscope to listen
for unusual sounds from the lungs
as you breathe. Acute bronchitis Chronic Bronchitis To diagnose chronic bronchitis doctors conduct pulmonary function tests, which measures how well the patients lungs are working. They may also take x-rays of the chest. Treatment Acute bronchitis Chronic bronchitis Lots of fluids
Lots of rest
Avoid Smoke
non-prescription
pain reliever if needed If patient is a smoker, they must quit
Bronchial dilators
Steroids
Pneumococcal vaccine
Annual flu vaccine Occurence and outlook in United States Chronic bronchitis 1o million noninstitutionalized adults were diagnosed with chronic bronchitis in the last year.
Those who smoke or is regularly exposed to 2nd hand smoke have the greatest risk of chronic bronchitis. Acute bronchitis Most cases are resolved in 2 weeks
The elderly and people with heart and
lung diseases have greatest risk of getting
acute bronchitis. Asthma Asthma is a chronic disease of the lung's airways. Airway
passages are inflammed and temporarily narrows due to allergies or pollution, making it difficult for the airways to carry oxygen to the lungs. In serious cases asthma can be life threatening. Asthma Causes Symptoms Wheezing
Coughing that won't stop
Shortness in breath
tightness in chest
unexplained fatigue
Difficulty sleeping Allergies
Pets
Air pollution
Exercise
Weather
Smoke
Obesity
Hereditary Diagnosis Pulmonary function test
- Using Spirometer and methacholine challenge tests Chest X-ray Allergy testing Blood test
-measuring levels of immunoglobulin E Checking for symptoms of asthma
(shortness of breath, wheezing (possibly triggered by allergies),
frequent cough, rapid breathing) Treatments Inhaled steroids-prevents asthma attacks and reduces swelling and mucus productions in the airways. Bronchodilators-relaxes muscles that tightens the airways Short-acting bronchodilator inhalers-a rescue inhaler that quickly relieves the symptoms of asthma. Commonly used by people with exercise-induced asthma before they exercise. Long-acting bronchodilators-used with steroid inhaler for control of asthma symptoms when daily steroid inhalers are not effective in controlling asthma symptoms. Asthma nebulizer-a breathing machine typically used for infants, small children, and older adults Occurence and outlook in th United States 18.9 million adults currently have asthma 7.1 million children currently have asthma Athletes Non-Athletes Averages Bibliography According to the CDC Karriem-Norwood, Varnada . "Bronchitis Symptoms Slideshow: Chronic and Acute Bronchitis, Cough, and Treatments." WebMD - Better information. Better health.. N.p., 9 Sept. 2011. Web. 27 Feb. 2013. <http://www.webmd.com/lung/ss/slideshow-bronchitis-overview>. Karriem-Norwood, Varnada. "Asthma Facts Slideshow: Symptoms of Asthma, Causes, and Treatments ." WebMD - Better information. Better health.. N.p., 13 Oct. 2011. Web. 27 Feb. 2013. <http://www.webmd.com/asthma/ss/slideshow-asthma-overview>. CDC/National Center for Health Statistics. "FASTSTATS - Asthma." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Feb. 2013. <http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/asthma.htm>. Karriem-Norwood, Varnada. "Asthma Facts Slideshow: Symptoms of Asthma, Causes, and Treatments ." WebMD - Better information. Better health.. N.p., 13 Oct. 2011. Web. 27 Feb. 2013. <http://www.webmd.com/asthma/ss/slideshow-asthma-overview>. Karriem-Norwood, Varnada. "Asthma Facts Slideshow: Symptoms of Asthma, Causes, and Treatments ." WebMD - Better information. Better health.. N.p., 13 Oct. 2011. Web. 27 Feb. 2013. <http://www.webmd.com/asthma/ss/slideshow-asthma-overview>. Karriem-Norwood, Varnada . "Bronchitis Symptoms Slideshow: Chronic and Acute Bronchitis, Cough, and Treatments." WebMD - Better information. Better health.. N.p., 9 Sept. 2011. Web. 27 Feb. 2013. <http://www.webmd.com/lung/ss/slideshow-bronchitis-overview>. Karriem-Norwood, Varnada . "Bronchitis Symptoms Slideshow: Chronic and Acute Bronchitis, Cough, and Treatments." WebMD - Better information. Better health.. N.p., 9 Sept. 2011. Web. 27 Feb. 2013. <http://www.webmd.com/lung/ss/slideshow-bronchitis-overview>. Karriem-Norwood, Varnada . "Bronchitis Symptoms Slideshow: Chronic and Acute Bronchitis, Cough, and Treatments." WebMD - Better information. Better health.. N.p., 9 Sept. 2011. Web. 27 Feb. 2013. <http://www.webmd.com/lung/ss/slideshow-bronchitis-overview>. Karriem-Norwood, Varnada . "Bronchitis Symptoms Slideshow: Chronic and Acute Bronchitis, Cough, and Treatments." WebMD - Better information. Better health.. N.p., 9 Sept. 2011. Web. 27 Feb. 2013. <http://www.webmd.com/lung/ss/slideshow-bronchitis-overview>. Taken by Christian Brunski (1/25/13) Respiratory Response to Physiologic Challenges Christian Brunski
Charis Burgstahler Bibliography "Dictionary.com | Find the Meanings and Definitions of Words at Dictionary.com." Dictionary.com | Find the Meanings and Definitions of Words at Dictionary.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Feb. 2013. <http://dictionary.com>.

"Labeled Illustration Respiratory System." Gale Science in Context. Detroit : Gale, 2010. Gale Science In Context. Web. 7 Dec. 2012.

Marieb, Elaine Nicpon. "The Respiratory System." Essentials of human anatomy & physiology. 8th ed. San Francisco: Pearson/Benjamin Cummings, 2006. 436-459. Print.

"Respiratory System." World of Anatomy and Physiology. Gale, 2010. Gale Science In Context. Web. 7 Dec. 2012.

"Respiration-Ventilation 3D Medical Animation - YouTube." YouTube. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Feb. 2013. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HiT621PrrO0>.

"What Happens to Your Lungs when you Exercise - The Human Body - A User's Guide - YouTube." YouTube. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Feb. 2013. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ovk5qEQ9vmw>. http://hes.ucfsd.org/gclaypo/repiratorysys.html#Bronchi The diaphragm and intercostal muscles produce volume changes necessary for breathing; regular exercise increases respiratory efficiency.

The passageways purify, humidify, and warm incoming air. The air that releases the lungs has many fewer irritants (such as dust or bacteria) than when it entered the system, and it is warm and damp. The passageways purify, humidify, and warm incoming air. The air that releases the lungs has many fewer irritants (such as dust or bacteria) than when it entered the system, and it is warm and damp. Diseases Andres Pittman Problem What is the result of altering CO2 levels by hypoventilation, hyperventilation, and exercise in athletes as compared to non-athletes? Hypothesis If the test subject is an athlete, then the results will show increased lung capacity, a greater tidal volume, but less minute ventilation as compared to the non-athletes. Background Information Total lung capacity is the maximum amount of air the lungs can hold at a given time.
The average lung capacity is roughly believed to be 6,000 ml.
Increased lung capacity is a measure of greater cardiovascular fitness.
Usually, people do not inhale or exhale their total lung capacity but rather breathe a shallow amount in and out of their lungs, known as tidal volume. Similar Studies/Research Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1981;13(1):21-6.
Ventilatory endurance in athletes and non-athletes.
Martin BJ, Stager JM.
Abstract
Do the ventilatory muscles (VM) of normal persons become fatigued while high ventilation is maintained during strenuous exercise? If so, then one effect of the intense training performed by endurance athletes should be an increase in VM endurance. To investigate this possibility, eight female endurance-athletes and eight female non-athletes were compared in studies of both short-term and long-term maximal ventilation. The two groups were matched for age, body size, and vital capacity. While athletes and non-athletes had similar short-term maximal ventilation (12-s MVV), the athletes displayed greater ventilatory endurance on two-long-term breathing tests. In the first, ventilation was increased 30 1/min every 4 min. Before exhaustion, athletes reached a ventilation that was a significantly greater fraction of their 12-s MVV (75% vs 67%, P less than 0.01), than did non-athletes. Although the energy cost (VO2) of submaximal levels of ventilation was identical in the two groups, athletes reached a significantly greater peak VO2 during this progressive test (P less than 0.05). In the second test of ventilatory endurance, 80% of the 12-s MVV was sustained until exhaustion. Endurance times averaged 11 min for athletes and 3 min for non-athletes (P less than 0.01). While these results do not rule out the possibility of genetic predisposition to high VM endurance in athletes, they are consistent with the possibility that VM training may occur in normal persons during forms of endurance exercise training.

PMID: 7219131 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Similar Studies/Research Cont. Comparison of vital capacity and maximum breathing capacity of athletes and nonathletes
Douglas G. Stuart1 and W. D. Collings
1+ Author Affiliations
1 Physiology Department, University of California Medical School, Los Angeles, California, and Physiology Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan

Abstract
The vital capacity (VC), maximum breathing capacity (MBC) and MBC/VC measurements of 20 athletes and 20 nonathletes were compared. The mean VC score of the athletes was significantly higher than the mean nonathlete VC, but insignificant differences existed between the two groups in MBC and MBC/VC. It is suggested that the difference in VC is due to increased development of respiratory musculature incidental to regular physical training. This increase is not reflected in the MBC since this measurement would appear to be more concerned with the presence or absence of obstructive ventilatory defects that are unaffected by physical training.
Submitted on December 5, 1959

Copyright © 1959 the American Physiological Society Materials Computer
-Vernier Computer Interface
-Logger Pro
Vernier Spirometer
Disposable Mouthpiece
Disposable Bacterial Filter
Nose Clip
Test Subjects Bibliography http://www.ehow.com/about_4813634_lung-capacity.html
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7219131
http://jap.physiology.org/content/14/4/507.abstract
http://www.chacha.com/question/would-breathing-pure-oxygen-help-the-air-hunger-experienced-by-athletes-who-have-just-completed-a-race#sthash.om6MBsmJ.dpuf
ow.com
http://www.ehow.com/how-does_4579147_breathing-paper-bag-help-hyperventilation.html#ixzz2MEjHRXKU Procedure: -Connect the Spirometer to the Vernier computer interface.

-Attach the larger diameter side of the disposable bacterial filter to the "Inlet" side of the Spirometer head. Attach a disposable Spirometer mouthpiece to the other end of the bacterial filter.

-Hold the Spirometer in one or both hands. NOTE: The Spirometer must be held straight up and down during data collection.

-Collect inhalation and exhalation data.
a. Put on the nose plug
b. Click "Collect" to begin data collection.
c. Taking normal breaths, begin data collection with an inhalation and continue to breathe in and out. After 4 cycles of normal inspirations and expirations begin running in place for 40 sec.
d. After 40 sec. of running in place, stand quietly. Continue to breathe into the Spirometer. Data will be collected for 120 sec. Would breathing pure oxygen gas help the air hunger experienced by athletes who have just completed a race? Why or why not? No. What's happening with them is a build up of lactic acid in the muscles and therefore in the blood. What their body is trying to do is compensate for that acidosis by blowing off more oxygen gas. The oxygen gas mask just makes them feel better. How might breathing into a paper bag help someone who is extremely anxious and hyperventilating? When breathing into a paper bag (more calmly and slowly, if possible) it will increase the carbon dioxide level in the bag. Then, as you re-breathe the air you just exhaled, the increased level of carbon dioxide in the air you're in taking will increase the level of CO2 in your bloodstream and restore your calcium levels. Conclusion: -The hypothesis was, in fact, correct. The minute ventilation for the non-athletes was higher than it was for the athletes and the respiratory rate of the athletes was slower than the non-athletes' rate because athletes have greater lung-capacity.

-Next time we would make sure the Spirometer was in fact, held straight up and down.
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