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CYW206 Chapter 12
Transcript of CYW206 Chapter 12
Cognitive Development Information Processing Intellectual Development,
Creativity, and Achievement THE END! :) Moral Development:
The Child as Judge Moral Development: The Child as Judge
On a cognitive level, moral development concerns the basis on which children make judgments that an act is right or wrong.
Jean Piaget and Lawrence Kohlberg believed that moral reasoning follows similar cognitive-developmental patterns worldwide.
The moral considerations that children weigh at a given age may be influenced by their cultural settings, but also reflect their orderly unfolding of cognitive processes. As we grow older, we get an idea of how intelligent we are compared to our peers, siblings and friends.
- Intelligence cannot be seen, felt or be measured physically.
- Intelligence: is usually perceived as a child's underlying competence, or learning ability (Rathus, 2011). Language Development
and Literacy Children's language ability grows more sophisticated in middle childhood.
-They learn to read
-They are exposed to many linguistic experiences which affect their cognitive development Piaget: The Concrete-Operational Stage Piaget: The Concrete-Operational Stage
According to Jean Piaget, the typical child is entering the stage of concrete operations by the age of 7, until the age of 12.
In this stage, children begin to show adult logic but usually focus on tangible objects as opposed to abstract ideas.
Adding numbers and subtracting numbers are examples of an operation.
Concrete-operational children are able to simultaneously focus on more than one aspect of a problem or situation. Conversation
The concrete-operational child knows that objects can have several properties or dimensions, unlike the pre-operational child.
For example, a 7-year-old girl would say that the flattened ball of clay still has the same amount of clay as the round one. Transitivity
Researchers can assess whether children understand the principle of transivity by asking them to place the objects in a series, or in order, according to some property or trait they possess.
Placing objects in such a way is called seriation.
If asked, pre-operational children would be unable to place ten sticks in order of size. While if a concrete-operational child from age 7-12 was asked, they would be able to arrange the sticks in proper sequence. Class Inclusion
Concrete-operational children are able to differentiate subclasses of objects.
For example, a 4-year-old may see many dogs, but not understand that dogs are animals. As opposed to, a 7 to 8-year-old understands that “dog” is part of a larger class “animal” and notices the differences between the two. Applications of Piaget’s Theory to Education
Piaget believed that learning involves active discovery.
1. Teachers should use interesting and stimulating materials, rather than simply try to impose knowledge on children.
2. Instruction should be geared to the child’s level of development.
3. Learning to take into account the perspectives of others is key to cognition and morality.
4. Teachers should promote group discussions and interactions among their students. Piaget’s Theory of Moral Development
After observing children playing games and making judgments, Piaget concluded that children’s moral judgments develop in two overlapping stages: moral realism and autonomous morality. Stage 1: Moral Realism (Objective Morality)
This stage emerges at about the age of five.
Children consider behavior correct when it conforms to authority or to the rules of the game.
They perceive rules as embedded in structure of things.
Consequence of seeing rules as absolute is that the children think that negative experiences are punishment, even if it was an accident.
Also, children at this stage believe that the amount of damage is more important than the intentions of the child. Stage 2: Autonomous Morality
When children reach the ages of 9 to 11, they begin to show autonomous morality.
Moral judgments become more self-governed.
Children see rules as agreements subject to change when circumstances warrant breaking rules.
They can now focus on multiple dimensions, thus they consider both the rules and the motives of the wrongdoer.
Children in this stage also have greater capacity to empathize.
Decentration and increased empathy allow the weighing of intentions more heavily than the amount of damage done.
Accidents are less likely to be considered crimes. Table 12.1 Kohlberg's Levels and Stages of Moral Development Kohlberg emphasizes that the perspectives of others is important when viewing the world.
His theory indicates the answers that arise in children and adults occur based on different reasons. They are classified by looking at the levels of moral development they reflect.
He argued that developmental stages of moral reasoning follow the same sequence in all children. Stating children progress at different rates and not all reach the highest stage
Kohlberg has three levels of moral development. Two levels are based on early and middle childhood, both of which have two stages. (four all together) The Preconventional Level
Children base their moral judgements on the consequences of their behavior.
Stage 1 and 2 types of moral judgement used more frequently by 7-10 year olds and declines after that
- Oriented towards obedience and punishment
- Good behavior to avoid punishment
- Good behavior allows people to satisfy their own needs and others The Conventional Level
Right and wrong are judged based by family, religious, societal standards.
Stage 3 and 4 types of judgments emerge during middle childhood and after 7 years old.
- Good to meet needs and expectations of others
- Moral behavior is considered "normal" or doing the same thing as others
- Moral judgements based on rules that maintain social order
- Showing respect for society and duty is highly valued Theories of Intelligence Thurstone:
- Intelligence consists of several specific, independent factors or primary mental abilities.
> Visual-spatial, perceptual speed, numerical, semantics, rapid word acquisition, reasoning Spearman:
- He noted people seem more capable in some areas than in others. Sternberg's "Triarchic" Theory of Intelligence:
- Analytical Intelligence:
> Academic ability, problem solving, acquiring new knowledge
- Creative Intelligence:
> Ability to cope with new situations and to profit from experience
> Ability to perceive similarities and differences, fostering adaptation
- Practical Intelligence:
> "Street smarts": enables people to adapt to the demands of their environment, both physical and social Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences:
- Verbal: language skills
- Logical/mathematical: math and reasoning skills
- Spatial: visual orientation
- Bodily/Kinesthetic: athleticism
- Musical: composing and playing
- Interpersonal: relating to others
- Intrapersonal: self-insight
> Individuals may show great "intelligence" in one area without little or no ability in others. Different Tests:
Throughout years, there are many ways to measure intelligence
1) The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (SBIS) OR IQ TEST
IQ=Intell. Quotient - MA=Mental Age - CA=Chronological Age
2) Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)
- used on school-aged children.
- Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI):
- Preschool children- Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
The test is based on verbal and physical task to acknowledge verbal and
spatial- relationships concept The test:
The test may include racial and inherent in intelligence which may not be suitable to many African-American or Latin- American due to cultural differences. Psychologists have tried to construct culture-free intelligence test to help improve scoring, however, it was proven that middle-class children were outperforming lower-class children due to the ability of materials such as pencils, pens and papers being more accessible.
“The test do not predict academic success as well as other intelligence tests, and scholastic aptitude reminds the central concern of educators” (Rathus, 2011). The Scores:
Average IQ = 100
50% of the children score 90-110
95% attain scores between 70-130.
Below 70 = mentally retarded. Differences in Intellectual development:
The gifted students can be talented in one or more subjects where they have high ability in one or more academic subject (i.e. Sports, music, dance, drama, arts, etc).
A gifted student can be recognized as:
-Good memory and retains what is heard or read.
-Bores with routine tasks, doesn't usually benefit from any drill and repetition.
-vocabulary and linguistic ability is often quite advanced.
-Natural curiosity, make inquiries.
-Can be very assertive and hang tight to their own beliefs
-Depending on the level of interest, can have a long attention span.
-Good sense of wit, imagination and creativity.
-Prefers complex ideas and activities of an investigative nature.
-Can conceptualize and generalize thoughts and ideas with ease.
-Reaches levels of abstract thought at an earlier age and is interested in cause
-effect relationships earlier than peers.
-Often exhibits a wide range of interests.
- Can be very task-committed, goal-oriented, and self-directed when the activity is within their area of interest.
-Can become totally absorbed in certain areas, focusing all attention intensely on those areas.
-Needs to be engaged and will become frustrated with inactivity or boring and or repetitive tasks.
-Can be a perfectionist.
-Can be quite sensitive. Children’s information processing includes the following:
- Selective attention
- Memory capacity and also the understanding of the processes of memory
- The ability to solve problems ex; finding the correct formula and applying it Development of selective attention
-The ability to focus and block out distractions advances gradually through middle childhood
-Children tend to focus their attention on to one element of a problem at a time, this is a major reason why they lack conservation
-Concrete-operational children can go to multiple aspects of a problem at once Developments in the storage and retrieval of information
- Psychologists use the term memory to refer to the processes of storing and retrieving information
- Psychologists divide the memory into three major processes: sensory memory, working memory and long-term memory Sensory memory
- When we look at an object and blink our eyes, the visual impression of the object lasts for a fraction of a second, this is sensory memory Working memory (short-term memory)
- When children focus on a stimulus in the sensory register, it is retained in the working memory, which is also called short-term memory
- Up to 30 seconds after the trace of the stimulus decays Long-term memory
-Long-term memories can last days, years or even a lifetime
-Sometimes it may seem like we have forgotten or lost a memory but it is most likely that we cannot find the right cues to retrieve it Development of recall memory
- Children’s memory is a good indicator of their cognitive ability Development of Metacognition and Metamemory
- Children’s awareness and control of their cognitive abilities is termed metacognition
- The development of metacognition is shown by the capability to formulate problems, maintaining focus on the problem and checking answers
- Metamemory is an aspect of metacognition that refers to children’s awareness of the functioning of their memory
- As children develop, they are more probable to use selective rehearsal to remember important information By: Courtney, Natali, Amanda, Neelo Vocabulary and Grammar
- By 6 years old, children have a vocabulary close to 10,000 words
- 7-9 year olds begin to understand that words can have different meanings.
- Durring middle childhood, children can understand passive sentences, use connectives and and learn to form indirect object- direct object constructions. Reading Skills and Literacy
- Millions of people worldwide are not literate. they cannot
access contemporary knowledge.
- In the U.S. their are people who cannot read or write.
- Reading involves perceptual, cognitive, and linguistic processes (a mix of visual and auditory information).
- Children become familiar with their own written language by TV programs, books, street signs, names of stores and restaurants and written words or sentences.
- Children exposed early to these are better prepared for learning to read. Methods of Teaching Reading
- Children learn through the integration of images and sounds.
- Sight Vocabulary is based on words that can only be read by recognition.
There are 2 methods they could use:
The Word-Recognition Method:
- Associates image aspects with sounds.
- This creates the verbal words we speak
- Usually attained by rote learning, or extensive repetition.
The Phonetic Method:
- Learn to connect multiple letters with sounds.
- Use skills to sound out and decode new words. Bilingualism: Linguistic Perspectives on the World
- Around 47 million U.S. residents spoke another language including English sat home in 2000.
- Bilingual Children (speak 2 languages) do not have more academic problems than other children who speak 1 language.
- At one point in the Century it was believed that storing two linguistic systems crowed the child's mental abilities.
- Children who are bilingual can separate the two languages from an early age.
- Linguistics believe children of more than one language have an advantage since it contributes to the complexity of the child's Cognitive process.
- These children have more cognitive flexibility.