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Eat, Sleep, and Be Well

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Joshua Weingarten

on 9 September 2013

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Transcript of Eat, Sleep, and Be Well

Our bodies are essentially machines. In order to function we need fuel and if we put low quality fuel into it our machines, we are going to malfunction and run poorly. The fuel that our bodies run on is calories. Everything we do can boil down to calorie count. Our calories are constantly being used up. We burn the least amount when we sleep and the most when we are being active.
These nutrients are still necessary for people to live. The difference between them and the major nutrients is that vitamins, minerals, and water do not provide any calories to the body.
MyPlate.gov is the gold standard for the average American diet.
Most of us occasionally have difficulty sleeping. Sometimes it is due to:

too much caffeine
too much stimulation -- TV, video games, heavy reading, etc -- too close to the time we actually want to sleep
lack of a routine sleep/wake schedule
too much alcohol... yes... you read that right... alcohol may help us go to sleep however the sleep is often not deep and restorative and we often find ourselves waking in the middle of the night tossing and turning
There's an old adage that goes something like this: "You can't make up for lost sleep"
Recent research suggests that lack of sleep adds up to
William Dement in his book, The Promise of Sleep, notes that sleep debt is similar to monetary debt in that
it needs to be paid back
perhaps even hour for hour!
1. Sleepiness causes accidents
2. Sleep loss dumbs you down
3. Sleep deprivation can lead to serious health problems
4. Lack of sleep kills sex drive
5. Lack of sleep and sleep disorders are linked to depression
6. Lack of sleep ages your skin
7. Sleepiness makes you forgetful
8. Losing sleep can make you gain weight
9. Lack of sleep may increase risk of death
10. Sleep loss impairs judgement, especially about sleep!
Eat, Sleep, & Be Well
What are your barriers to exercise?
The most common form of exercise in the world is walking. There are great benefits from just walking for 30 minutes a day, but if you want to improve your fitness, more work is necessary.
Get Flexible!
What About Calories?
The Minor Nutrients
Food Labels
Sleep Debt
10 Things to Hate About Sleep Loss
There are countless programs and systems to get healthy. Most of it can be reduced to fairly simple ideas: move your body more, eat healthier foods, get enough sleep.
Why should I?
It has been proven time and time again that exercise releases feel-good chemicals in the brain. Not only do you start to feel better but people who exercise show improvements in other areas:

-More energy during the day
-Exercisers fall asleep faster and have deeper sleeps as long as they don't exercise right before bed
-A strong relationship is seen between people who exercise and a higher GPA by about .5
-It can help prevent a number of heart and metabolic diseases
-Weight control by burning calories
-Exercise can also give a boost to your sex life, regardless of gender, by improving stamina and blood flow
The top 3 excuses for not exercising are
1. Not having enough time
2. Not seeing results, or not seeing them fast enough
3. Not knowing how to get started or feeling embarrassed
Don't have time? Try these simple tips.
Go to class in your exercise clothes
Use a planner to find where you actually have the time
Exercise with a friend
Do your homework while you work out
Sign up for an exercise class

Use this free online schedule: http://www.vertex42.com/ExcelTemplates/weekly-schedule.html
Don't get discouraged if you aren't seeing the results you want to see fast enough. Most people don't start noticing visible changes for 8-12 weeks.
Try setting realistic fitness goals. Follow this link to see common fitness goals and details about them.
If you feel overwhelmed, and aren't sure how to get started, don't worry about it! There are a ton of resources available.
Enroll in a PE class. Some classes HSU offers include: 1. Strength and Conditioning (PE 158), Fitness Fusion (PE 119), Tai Chi (PE 140), Swimming (PE 146), Latin Dance (PE 192), Pilates (PE 289), or Yoga (PE 259)
Try going to the gym. At HSU all students can use the Student Recreation Center for free
Center Activities provides dozens of opportunities for students to get out and be active. Some are free, and some require a small fee so sign up early and get your seat in an exciting activity
Try YouTube! Don't trust any video of a person exercising in their garage, but there are thousands of great videos teaching safe and effective ways to exercise
Here are some of my favorites:
Use your imagination! Get out there and find new resources for yourself
Still not convinced that you can get out and get moving? Take this quick quiz and see what your barriers to exercise really are.

Now let's get fit!
Every exercise plan should be designed to fit each person. There are 3 components that should be considered in every workout plan: aerobic exercise, strength training, and flexibility. Every person will put emphasis on each component differently, but the most effective exercisers include at least some of each type of exercise.
Besides walking other common types of aerobic exercise include
running, biking, swimming, Zumba, dancing, cardio machines, hiking
, and the list goes on and on. Any aerobic training should follow 4 simple rules:

1. It uses large muscle groups repetitively for a sustained period of time. It won't be very helpful to isolate a few muscles for just a minute or two
2. It is done 30-60 minutes a day, at least 3 days a week. The more the merrier!
3. It helps meet the goals you determine for yourself. If you want to get buff, doing long distance running isn't as important to someone who wants to lose weight
4. Make sure the activity is something you won't mind doing for a long period of time. If you hate doing it, what are the chances you'll keep doing it?
Once you start exercising the best way to improve is to increase the length of your workouts. If you run slowly make your runs longer and longer. Once you reach a comfortable distance or length of time, start increasing the intensity by working harder.
The harder you work, the more likely you will be to see positive results.
Remember to make small increases and keep your goals attainable.
A good starting point is at a moderate level of activity, then work your way up to vigorous levels of exercise.
There are a handful of ways to keep track of appropriate intensity levels such as the talk test and monitoring your heart rate.
The talk test is an easy way to check and see if you are working at a moderate level.
While you are working out you should be able to carry on a conversation
Once your speech starts to break, slow, or cause discomfort you are working too hard
Checking your heart rate is the most popular method of tracking intensity.
Follow these steps to find a good heart rate:

1. Check to find your pulse, and count the number of times your heart beats in 10 seconds then multiple that by 6. That number is your heart rate in beats per minute.
If I count 10 heart beats in 10 seconds, then multiply 10 x 6 = 60, my heart rate is 60.

2. Know your maximum heart rate. A good estimation of your heart rate is 220 minus your age.
220 - (your age) = your max heart rate

3. Know what intensity you want to work at. If you are working at a moderate level, your heart rate should be 50-70% of your max heart rate. If you are doing a vigorous workout it should be 70-85% of your max heart rate.

4. Find your heart rate range by multiplying your intensity range and your max heart.
If I am 18 years old my intensity range will look something like this:
.50 x (220 - 18) = 101
.70 x (220 - 18) = 141
My moderate range to work out in would be 101 - 141 beats per minute.

.70 x (220 - 18) = 141
.85 x (220 - 18) = 187
My vigorous hear rate range to work out in would be 141-187 beats perminute.
Watch this video to learn how to check your heart rate.
Strength Training!
There are 3 main benefits that come from resistance training:
increasing muscle size, increasing strength, and improving tendon and ligament strength in the joints
. All types of resistance training will make these changes, but not to the same extent. Be specific with what style of training you do to see the best results.
Lets clear up some common vocabulary before we get started:

1. Each time you lift a weight is 1 rep (1 repetition, get it?)
2. A set is a specific number of reps
3. So if someone is doing 5 sets of 5 reps, they will be doing 25 total lifts
4. A “max” is how much weight someone can lift 1 time. If I can only lift 95 pounds 1 time, 95 is my max
5. Intensity is usually defined as a percentage of that max. So if I wanted to work out at 60% of my max I would be lifting about 57 lbs
Depending on what you want to improve, there are methods to optimize results.

1. Hypertrophy
To get bigger muscles the optimal amount of exercise is 1-3 sets of 8-12 reps. The weight should be between 70-85% of your max weight for that specific exercise
2. Strength
The most gains in strength are seen doing the same amount of lifts; 1-3 sets of 8-12 reps. But a lower intensity can be used, generally 60-70% of your max
3. Endurance
To increase muscle endurance, you should be doing more lifts with less weight. A good rule of thumb is to do 1-3 sets of 10-15 reps at 50-70% of your max
Not all resistance training has to be done using dumbbells and heavy weights. Body weight exercises are some of the most popular exercise routines out there. For most weighted exercises there is a body weight equivalent. Try these!
Instead of bench press just do pushups. To make pushups easier try them from your knees. To make them harder rest your feet on a chair, do jumping/clap pushups, try different hand positions, and play with doing them at different speeds.
Body weight squats are a classic. Make sure not to let your knees go in front of your toes!
Pullups are a great alternative to bicep curls and pulldown machines.
Instead of deadlifts do a back bridge by lying on your back with your knees bent, feet on the floor, and hands on the floor on either side of your head, then push your hips and belly into the air like the picture. Do a bunch of reps by pushing up then relaxing, or try and hold it for as long as possible.
Safety First!
Here are some safety tips to follow no matter what you're lifting:

1. Wear appropriate clothing
2. When in doubt ask for help
3. If using equipment, make sure everything is safely in place
4. Warm up!
5. Practice perfect form. Perfection only comes from practice, and if you practice poor technique you will eventually hurt yourself
6. Be aware of your surroundings. Keep in mind your footing, other exercisers, and possible things you might bump into
7. If you EVER feel dizzy or lightheaded while exercising, stop. Sit down and collect yourself. Collect yourself before pushing yourself too hard
Flexibility training is done to improve your range of motion.
Flexibility training, or stretching, is not about becoming a yoga expert, a world class gymnast, or limbo champion.
Some great reasons to do your stretching are:

1. Reducing risk of injury by making your muscles and connective tissues better able to handle bigger loads
2. Reducing muscle soreness
3. Stretching can help realign tissue and improve posture and balance
4. Reducing the tendency to get low back pain
Keep safe and avoid these common mistakes:

1. Over extension of the spine can cause damage
2. Try to never lock any joints, always keep a slight bend in your joints
3. Never force a motion
4. Don't put unnecessary pressure on your joints
5. Don't do jerky or bouncing movements
Make sure you always warm up BEFORE stretching. Experts generally agree that holding a stretch for 15-30 seconds is fine. IF you stretch with a partner make sure you are communicating well to minimize risk of hurting each other.
There are two main types of stretching:

Dynamic stretching should be done before you exercise, but after you are warmed up. Here are some very basic examples of dynamic stretching:

Static stretching should be done after a workout. Static stretching is what most people think of when they think about stretching. Stetches like toe touches, quad stretches, and holding your arm across your chest are some classics examples.
Most people only consider their calories when they are concerned about gaining or losing weight.
3500 calories
is what it takes to gain or lose
1 pound
. For those who want to lose weight the best strategy is to improve nutrition and exercise. Reducing calories by
500 calories a day
results in
1 pound lost per week
, and this is the recommended healthy weight loss goal. The best strategy to achieve that calorie loss is to split it up between proper nutrition and exercise. 250 extra calories burned coupled with cutting down on junk food is all it takes for many people.
The Major Nutrients
Carbohydrates are not evil! Carbs are the body's primary fuel source. Eating
1 gram
of carbs results in
4 calories
. Carbs are broken down in the body as sugars and fiber, and are necessary for healthy bodily function.
We get our calories from 3 major nutrients: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Each of the major nutrients has specific functions and can be broken down into calories.
Proteins are the body's building blocks. Eating
1 gram
of protein is the same as
4 calories
. When you body runs out of carbs, and can't use fat as fuel, your body will start breaking down muscle for the protein to use as fuel.
Fats are an essential part of the diet, no matter what celebrities and television tell you. Fat tissue is a storage tissue that holds the most fuel, but is also an endocrine organ. Your fat cells produce and pump out hormones just like your other hormone producing organs.
1 gram
of fat breaks down into
9 calories
, more than twice the amount of the other major nutrients.
When your body needs to use fat as fuel it will burn carbs to break down fat. Without enough carbs, our bodies are really bad at breaking down fat into energy. Always remember that
“Fat burns in the carbohydrate flame.”
*Fun Fact*
Alcohol is not a major nutrient, but it can still be broken down into calories. 1 gram of alcohol amounts to 7 calories!
There are two types of vitamins:
Fat Soluble and Water Soluble
Fat Soluble Vitamins dissolve in fat, therefore they stay in our bodies longer than the other type.
Vitamins A, D, E, and K
are fat soluble
Vitamin A - is necessary for growth, it enhances our immune system and is essential for our eyesight
Vitamin D - is incredibly important for bone formation
Vitamin E - works as an antioxidant by protecting your body's tissue from damage
Vitamin K - it's main function is in blood coagulation, making sure we don't bleed to death
Water Soluble Vitamins dissolve in water and are eliminated through urine. The water soluble vitamins are
B Complex, Vitamin C, and folate (folic acid)
Vitamin C - has a lot of functions, but mostly it preserves the body
B Complex - this series of vitamins functions primarily in energy production, nervous and immune system function, and iron absorption
Folate - is essential for the formation of RNA and DNA
Minerals are classified as Essential Minerals and Trace Minerals
The Essential Minerals are
calcium, iron, and zinc
Calcium - plays a major role in bone and teeth formation
Iron - is important in red blood cell production
Zinc - essential for growth and development, as well as immune function, and helps with fertility
The Trace Minerals are
iodine and chromium
Iodine - is a component of hormones, so it plays a role in growth and development
Chromium - assists in regulating blood sugar
Our body is as much as 60% water, so it needs a lot of it! The Institute of Medicine says that the average person needs between
2.2-3 liters
of water! Fortunately some of that comes from food and drinks other than water. As long as you rarely feel thirsty and are producing about

6.5 cups of colorless or light yellow urine a day
, you are probably doing fine. Remember to drink water before, during, and after exercise.

If you are concerned about cutting calories you could always substitute soda and sugary drinks for a big cup of water.
Half of your plate should be dedicated to fruits and vegetables with slightly more veggies. The other half should be split between protein and grains.
Check out page 3 to maximize your eating power:
More resources on healthy eating habits:
This graphic is a great lesson in how to effectively read food labels.
There are a couple things to consider when examining food labels:

1. It is not Whole Wheat unless one of the first ingredients listed on the back is "whole _____"
If it says "enriched flour," "bran," or "wheat germ" it is not whole wheat
2. Some fats are good. Too many are bad. Try to avoid trans fats! Look in the ingredients list, if it says "hydrogenated" or "partially hydrogenated" it contains trans fats
3. Trust your judgement and continue to educate yourself about your food!
Check this out to see what your limits are:
Hard Day's Night?
What about counting sheep?
Scientists at Oxford University found that subjects took slightly longer to fall asleep on nights they were instructed to distract themselves by counting sheep or were given
no instructions at all

The New York Times
Sleep Hygiene... What?!
Okay, it's a weird term... sleep hygiene... what does it mean really? Tidy sleep? Clean sleep?

Merriam Webster defines HYGIENE as:

1. a science of the establishment and maintenance of health
2. Conditions or practices (as of cleanliness) conductive to health
sleep hygien
e is:
the establishment and maintenance of good sleep practices (habits/routines), to promote good, health-enhancing sleep
Tips for creating good sleep hygiene/healthy sleep practices:
1. Keep a regular sleep schedule
2. Naturally regulate your sleep cycle
3. Create a relaxing bedtime routine
Make a cup of herbal tea
Read by a soft light
Listen to soft music
Do some easy stretches
Wind down with a favorite hobby
Make simple preparations for the next day
Ways to naturally regulate your sleep:
- Take off your sunglasses in the morning and let light onto your face
- Spend more time outside during daylight
-Let as much light into your home/workspace as possible
If necessary, use a light therapy box
Boost Melatonin Production at Night
- Turn off your TV and computer 1/2 - 1 hour before bed
light suppresses melatonin which is needed for sleep. TV and computers can stimulate your mind, making it more difficult to sleep.
- Don't read from a backlit device, like an IPAD, at night
- Avoid bright lights before bed; use low wattage bulbs instead
-When it is time to sleep, make sure the room is dark
- Use a flashlight to go to the bathroom at night
Low light and darkness signal yo your body it's time to sleep!
Some research suggests that music at bedtime, both classical and music containing delta waves, helps with sleep
Music for Sleep
Delta Waves Sleep Music
Classical Music for Sleep
It worked on my dog!
He started snoring!
Could not use the dog as a test subject.
He was already asleep!
If you play this on a computer, laptop, or iPAD, just remember to turn the light on the screen down. It's that whole melatonin thing...
- Stay away from big, fatty, spicy, and acidic meals at night
- Sorry folks but -
Avoid alcohol before bed
- Cut down on caffeine/avoid drinking it after lunch
- Quit smoking -
nicotine is a stimulant
Get Stress and Anxiety in Check
Practicing relaxation techniques before bed is a great way to wind down, calm the mind, and prepare for sleep.

- Deep breathing
Close your eyes, and try taking deep, slow breaths. Make each breath even deeper than the last
- Progressive muscle relaxation
Starting with your toes, tense all the muscles as tightly as you can, then completely relax. Work your way up from your feet to the top of your head
- Visualizing a peaceful, restful place.
Close your eyes and imagine a place or activity that is calming and peaceful for you. Concentrate on how relaxed this place or activity makes you feel
Ways to Get Back to Sleep
- Stay out of your head.
Focus on the feeling and sensations in your body
- Make relaxation your goal, not sleep.
Try a relaxation technique, which can be done without even getting out of bed
- Do a quiet, non-stimulating activity.
If you've been awake for more than 15 minutes, try getting out of bed and reading a book
- Postpone worrying and brainstorming.
If you wake during the night feeling anxious about something or with a brainstorm, briefly write it down and postpone worrying/thinking about it until the next day
Sleep Tight
Be Well
The difference between them is only that you need much more of the Essential Mineral to function
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