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The Reproductive System

Class notes from a high school anatomy and physiology class on the reproductive system
by

Kelly Quinlan

on 6 May 2013

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Transcript of The Reproductive System

The Reproductive System Fertilization! Female Reproductive System Function: - produce sex hormones
- produce eggs
- provide a nourishing environment in which a fertilized egg can develop into a baby Structures of the female reproductive system Ovary Fallopian Tube Uterus Cervix Vagina Clitoris Urethra Anus Ovaries - Glands that produce sex hormones: Estrogen - activates puberty and controls menstrual cycle
Progesterone - activates changes in relation to pregnancy Ovulation - Releases mature eggs (ovum) the process of releasing a mature egg every month The egg released is the size of a period at the end of a sentence. Fallopian Tubes - Tube that carry eggs away from the ovaries and into the uterus
- Where most fertilization occurs Uterus - hollow, muscular organ
where an egg can grow and
develop.

- The narrow base of the uterus is called the cervix, which can expand to allow a baby to pass through it. Vagina (aka vaginal canal) - Hollow, muscular passageway leading from the uterus to outside the body.
- the walls of the vagina are very elastic, which allows for expansion during childbirth The Menstrual Cycle During the menstrual cycle, an ovary releases a mature egg. The egg travels to the uterus, and if it is not fertilized,
the endometrial
lining is shed and
a new cycle
begins. Menstrual discomfort Some women experience uncomfortable cramps during menstruation. These cramps are caused by contractions of the uterus as it expels its lining. Female Male Toxic Shock Syndrome A rare but serious bacterial infection from keeping a tampon in longer than recommended. Symptoms: - sudden fever
- headache
- vomiting/diarrhea
- rash Medical Checkups Once a girl has reached 18 or has become sexual active, they should get a yearly pap smear by a gynecologist. Pap Smear - a vaginal exam where the doctor collects a sample of cells from the cervix to test for cancer cells. Mammogram - A breast x-ray that can detect breast cancer
- recommended for all women over 40 Breast Exam Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in women so it is important to check yourself regularly. Labia Male Reproductive System Structures Male Reproductive System - Produce sperm
- Produce sex hormones
- deliver sperm to female reproductive system Functions: Testes Male reproductive glands that: - Produce the hormone testosterone, which signals physical changes in puberty and influence sperm production. - Spermatogenesis - production of male sex cells called sperm (or testicles) Scrotum a sac of skin that holds
the testes just outside
the body.


This is because testes need to be kept at slightly lower temperature than the rest of the body for adequate sperm production. Penis external structure through which sperm can leave the body. The end of the penis is covered with loose skin called foreskin. This is often removed after birth in in a surgical procedure known as circumcision. Sperm Pathway of sperm - Male sex cells
- Produced in the testes Sperm are mixed with fluids produced by glands along the reproductive track to form a mixture called semen. 1. Produced in the Testes and stored in the Epididymis 2. Travel through the Vas Deferens to the seminal vesicle. 3. seminal vesicles add fluid that provide energy for sperm 4. The prostate gland adds fluid to protect sperm 5. The bulbourethral gland adds fluid to protect sperm from acidic conditions in the urethra 6. During Ejaculation, muscular contractions force semen out of the urethra 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Erection The penis contains erectile tissue that, when stimulated, fill with blood. This causes the penis becomes larger and more stiff. This can result
from sexual excitement and
tight clothing. An erection can results in ejaculation, or the release of semen, but does not have to. Difficulty developing or maintaining an erection is condition known as erectile dysfunction (ED). Causes:
- heart disease
- high blood pressure/high cholesterol
- smoking tobacco or marijuana
- alcohol abuse
- diabetes
- obesity Vulva Perineum The skin-covered region between the vagina and the rectum
This area may be torn during childbirth (ouch!) Perineum Layers of the Uterus Endometrium - inner lining of the uterus. Each month this lining thickens in preparation for pregnancy and is shed when the egg is not fertilized during menstruation. Vulva Hymen—a mucous membrane that typically forms a border around the vagina in young premenstrual girls Lining of the Vagina A mucus membrane lines the vagina which lubricates and stimulates the penis during sexual intercourse and acts as a receptacle for semen. Vulva The vulva consists of the female external genitals: labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, urethral opening, and vaginal opening Breasts
- The breast tissue lies over the pectoral muscles
- Estrogen and progesterone control breast development - The function of mammary glands is lactation - the production and secretion of milk
- Breast feeding can provide nutrient-rich milk to offspring with many benefits: Lactation Nutrients
Immunity (antibodies)
Emotional bonding Perineum Reproductive Ducts Vas deferens
Tube; extension of epididymis
Extends over top of the bladder
Connects epididymis with ejaculatory duct

Ejaculatory duct
Formed by union of
vas deferens with duct
from seminal vesicle
Passes through prostate gland,
terminating in urethra
Urethra Accessory Reproductive Glands Seminal vesicles
secrete the nutrient-rich part of seminal fluid that provides energy for the sperm
Prostate gland
just below bladder
adds slightly acidic, watery,
milky-looking secretion to
seminal fluid (30% of semen
volume) Bulbourethral gland
Secrete alkaline fluid into the urethra that protects sperm from the acidic environment of the urethra Endometriosis A painful disorder in which the endometrial tissue that forms during menstruation forms outside the uterus and ovaries.

This can be treated by
medication or surgery
depending on the severity. 2-7 days 10-12 days 9-12 days - The labia protect the clitoris, urethra, and vaginal opening

- The clitoris contains sensory receptors that send information to the sexual response area of the brain Ejaculatory duct Warm up: Pretend you have a little sister who has just got her period for the first time. She is confused about what is happening to her body but is too afraid to ask an adult. What would you tell her is happening?
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