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Anatomy and Physiology Commonly Used Prefixes/ Suffixes/ Roo

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Maggie McCarthy

on 3 September 2013

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Transcript of Anatomy and Physiology Commonly Used Prefixes/ Suffixes/ Roo

Anatomy and Physiology Commonly Used Prefixes/ Suffixes/ Roots
CEPHAL- Head/ Skull
Examples:
-Encephalitis- inflammation of the brain
- Cephalization- the concentration of sense organs, nervous control, etc., at the anterior of the body, forming a head and brain during the course of an embryo's development
ARTH- Joint
Examples:
-Arthritis- painful inflammation and stiffness of joints
-Arthralgia- pain in a joint

ITIS- Inflammation
Examples:
-Dermatitis- a skin condition where skin becomes red, swollen, and sore resulting in skin irritation
-Peritonitis- inflammation of the peritoneum typiccally caused by a bacterial infection

CEREBRO-Brain
Examples:
-Liquor cerebrospinalis- a clear bodily fluid occupying the subarachnoid space and ventricular system around and inside the brain and spinal cord
-Cerebral- of the cerebrum of the brain
AUTO- Self/Same
Examples:
-Autonomic nervous system- the part of the nervous system responsible for control ofbodily functions such as breathing and heart beating
-Autoimmune- of or relating to disease caused by antibodies or lymphocytes produced against substances naturally in the body

OTO- Ear
Examples:
-Otic- of or relating to the ear region
-Otoplasty- plastic surgery to reshape the outer ear


ENDO- Within/ Inner
Examples:
-Endocrine- relating to or denoting glans that secrete hormones or other products directly into the blood
-Endodermis- an inner layer of cells in the cortex of a root and some stems

HISTO-Tissue
Examples:
-Histogensis- the forming of new tissue
-Histology- the study of the formation of tissue structure
INTER- Among/Between
Examples:
-Interarticular- existing or acting between the adjacent surfaces of a joint
-Interparietal bones- inbetween the parietal bones and occipital bones
INTRA- Within
Examples:
-Intraarticular- situated or occurring with in, or administered by entry into a joint
-Intramembranous ossification- a process during fetal development of the mammalian skeletal system forming bone tissue
PERI- About/Around
Examples:
-Peritonitis- inflammation fo the peritoneum typically caused by a bacterial infection
-Periosteum- a dense layer of vascular connective tissue enveloping the bones except surfaces of joints

PHAGO- Eating/ Devouring
Examples:
-Phagocytosis- the ingestion of bacteria or other material by phagocytes and ameboid and protozoans
-Phagosome- a vacuole in the cytoplasm of a cell that contains a phagocytosed particale inclosed in the cell membrane
ANTI- Against/ Opposite
Examples:
-Antibody- a blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen
-Antidiuretic- a drug that limits the formation of urine
DYS- Difficult, Bad
Examples:
-Dyspepsia- abnormal integestion
-Dysentery- a disease of the intestines producing diarrhea with blood and mucus caused by several micro organisms

CYTO/CYTE- Cell/ Cellular
Examples:
-Cytoplasm- the living substance or protoplasm of a cell outside the nucleus
-Cytology- branhc of biology that deals with the formation, structure, and function of cells

MYO- Muscle
Examples:
-Cardiomyopathy- chronic disease of the heart muscle
-Dermatomyositis- inflammation of the skin and underlying muscles tissue involving the degeneration of collagen, discoloration, and swelling
MYEL-Bone
Examples:
-Myelin- a mixture of proteins and phopholipids forming a whitish insulating sheath around many nerve fibers
-Myelenceohalon- the posterior part of the hind brain in developing vertebrates, forming the medulla oblongata in adults
HEMO/HEMA-Blood
Examples:
-Hemoglobin- a red protein that transports oxygen in the blood of vertebrates
-Hemal- of or having to do with the blood or blood vessles
HEPA/HEPATO-Liver
Examples:
-Hepatitis- a disease where the main symptom is inflammation of the liver
-Heparin- glcoside present in the liver and other animal tissues that prevents the blood from clogging
NEPHRA- Kidneys
Examples:
-Nephritis- inflammation of the kidneys
-Nephron- any of the numerous functional units of the kidney serving to filter waster matter from the blood

GASTRO- Stomach
Examples:
-Gastrointestinal- of the stomach or intestines
-Gastroenterology- branch of medicine dealing with the stomach or intestines
EPI- On/ Upon/ At
Examples:
-Epidermis- the outer, protective layer of skin of vertebrate animals
-Epicardium- the inner layer of the pericardium

HYPER- Above/Higher
Examples:
-Hyperextension- an excessive joint movement where the angle of the bones continues past its healthy point of motion
-Hyperhidrosis- excessive and profuse persipiration
HYPO-Below/ Lower
Examples:
-Hypothyroidism- abnormally decreased activity of the thyroid gland
-Hypothalamus- the region of the brain under the thalamus controlling temperature, hunger, thirst, etc.
CHONDRO- Cartilage
Examples:
-Chondromalacia- soft cartilage under the knew cap, presumably causing pain to the front of the knee
-Chondrosarcoma- a malignant neoplasm of cartilage cells

HYDR/HYDRO- Liquid
Examples:
-Hydrocephalus- a condition in which fluid accumulates in the brain, enlarging the head and sometime causing brain damage
-Hydrotherapy- the medical treatment of disease by means of water or water cure
POLY-Many
Examples:
-Polyploid-having three or more sets of chromosomes
-Polymer- a chemical compound found in polymerization such as nylon or cellulose
CARDIO-Heart
Examples:
-Cardiovascular- of or relating to the blood vessels and heart
-Cardiology- a branch of medicine dealing with the heart of the diagnosis and treatment of diseases
AN/A- Without/ Not
Examples:
-Anatomical- connected with the study or practice of anatomy or dissection
-Anemia- condition resulting from an insufficiency of hemoglobin or red blood cells causing weakness, pallor, palpitation, and fatigue

OSTEO- Bone
Examples:
-Osteoarthritis- degeneration of joint cartilage and the underlying bone
-Osteoporosis- a condition where bones become brittle and fragile from tissue loss

ANGIO- Container
Examples:
-Angiospermous- having the seeds enclosed in an ovary
-Angioedema- recurrent large circumscribed areas of subcutaneous edema
PULMO/PNEUMA/PNEUMO- Lung
Examples:
-Pneumococcus- the bacterium that causes lobar pneumonia
-Pneumonia- a bacterial or viral disease in the lungs where they become inflammed accompanied by chest pains
SCLERO- Hardening
Examples:
-Sclerosis- abnormal hardening of body tissue
-Scleroderma- a chronic hardneing and contraction of the skin and connective tissue
PATH-Condition
Examples:
-Pathogen- an agent capable of producing disease, especially a microorganism or virus
-Pathological- dealing or concerned with diseases, accompanying diseases
OSTOMY- Opening
Examples:
-Tracheotomy- a surgical procedure to create an opening through the neck into the trachea
-Colostomy- a surgical operation in which a piece of the colon is diverted to an artificial opening in the abdominal wall so to bypassa damaged part of the colon
VASO- Vessel/ Duct
Examples:
-Vasoconstriction- constriction of the blood vessels
-Vasomotor- of or having to do with the nerves and nerve centers that regulate the size of the blood vessels
TRACHEO_ Windpipe
Examples:
-Trachea- a large membranous tube reinforced by rings of cartilage, extending from larynx to the bronchial
-Tracheomalacia- a condition characterized by flaccidity of the tracheal support cartilage which leads to tracheal collapse
OLGIO-Few/Little
Examples:
-Olgihydramnios- a condition in pregnancy characterized by a deficiency of amniotic fluid
-Olgiomenorrhea-abnormally light or infrquent menstruation
BRACHIO- Arm/Upper Arm
Examples:
-Brachial- the upper arm region of the body
-Brachioradialis- the muscle of the forearm that act to flex the forearm at the elbow
ERYTH- Red
Examples:
-Erythrocyte- a red blood cell
-Erythomycin- drug related to streptomycin, used against certain bacterial infections
ECTOMY-Removal
Examples:
-Appendectomy- a surgical operation removing the appendix
-Vasectomy- the surgical cutting and sealing of a part of each vas deferens
SCOPY-View Inside
Examples:
-Colonoscopy- visual examination of the colon from the cecum to the rectum
-Endoscopy- visual examination of the interior of a hollow body organ by use of an endoscope
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