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3.1a

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by

Miss Hewitt

on 15 August 2013

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Transcript of 3.1a

IGCSE Biology
3rd year
Characteristics of living organisms
All living organisms follow the 8
life processes:
M
ovement
R
eproduction
s
ensitivity
G
rowth
R
espiration
E
xcretion
N
utrition
Cell Structure
* Many cells are specialised to
specific jobs, and are adapted
to do them
An example of an adaptation is the Palisade cell, which contains lots of chloroplast for photosynthesis
* All cells have common features
and structures in the cytoplasm,
called organelles
Cell Membrane
Controls what goes in
and out of the cell
Cell Wall
Maintaining the shape and structure of a plant cell
Nucleus
Where the genetic
material (that is in
every cell) is kept
Cytoplasm
This is where all of
the cells reactions
take place, it is a jelly
like substance
Chloroplast
This is where Photosynthesis
takes place
Vacuole
Where food & water is
stored in plants
Mitochondria
This is where respiration
takes place
Ribosome
The place where protein
is produced
There are a few differences between animal cells and plant cells. Some of these are:
Animal cells do not have
a vacuole

Animal cells do not have a cell wall
Animal cells do not have
chloroplasts

Variety of living organisms
Different cells can be split into 5 main groups
Plants
Animals
Fungi
Monera
Protists
#Multicellular Organisms

#Contain chloroplasts (can carry out photosynthesis)

#They have cell walls made of cellulose, these support the cell

#They store carbohydrates as starch /sucrose
Examples:
Flowering plants
(Cereal)
Herbaceous legumes
(Peas or Beans)
#Multicellular

#No chloroplasts (no photosynthesis)

#No cell wall

#Usually have nervous systems

#Can move from one place to another

#Usually store carbohdrates as glycogen

#They digest food in an internal chamber, unlike fungi and plants
Examples:
Mammals
(Humans)
Insects
(Housefly)
#Cannot carry out photosynthesis

#Bodies are organised into a mycelium
made of thread like structures called
hyphae

#Cell walls are made of chitin

#The hyphae contain many nuclei

#They feed by extracellular secretion
(saprotrophic nutrition)
#Single celled organisms

#Prokaryotes (lack nuclei)

#Contain a circular chromosome
of DNA

#Some carry out photosynthesis

#Mostly feed off dead or living
organisms
Examples:
Mushroom
Yeast
Examples:
Lactobactillus
Pneumococcus
#Microscopic single celled organisms

#Some have features of animal cells

#Others have plant cell features, and
have chloroplast

#If unsure what type of cell it is as it
has characteristics of more than one
type of cell, it is probably a protist
Examples:
Chlorella
Amoeba

Revise what 'living' means
•Identify and give examples of the eight characteristics of living organisms
You have 2 min as a pair to decide….

What features make Jack Bauer alive (and awesome!)?

What features makes my lunch non-living?
What makes something living?

Have a look at the two pictures below…
Homeostasis
Movement
– Animals move to find food and keep away from predators, plants move to face the light

Reproduction
– The ability to produce offspring to keep the species in existence

Sensitivity
– Responding to the environment

Nutrition
– Animals need food for respiration, plants need minerals from the soil

Excretion
– Getting rid of waste

Respiration
– Turning food (glucose) into energy

Growth
– Growing larger and stronger  becoming adult size

Homeostasis
Controlling internal conditions
Sort the cards into piles to identify which key characteristic they are examples of
Mneumonic Time
Full transcript