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The Cold War

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Derek Null

on 7 December 2018

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Transcript of The Cold War

The Cold War
The Cold War
a period of tension between the U.S. and the Soviet Union.
- Not an actual full-scale war
- 1940s - 1991 (approximately)
WHAT CAUSED THIS TENSION?
Causes of the Cold War: WWII Disagreements
U.S.
- You signed a nonaggression pact with Hitler!
U.S.S.R.
- Where were you guys when we were fighting Hitler?
Causes of the Cold War:
WWII Disagreements
U.S.
- Eastern European countries must have free elections!
U.S.S.R.
- Eastern European countries must have communist governments loyal to U.S.S.R.
We liberated
Eastern European
countries from Germany.

Our armies still control these countries.

We’ll decide what goes on!


Cold War
Satellite Nations -
countries dominated by the Soviet Union.
Cold War
So what's the big problem?
Communism and Capitalism are incompatible.

Another war is inevitable.

We must build weapons rather than goods.
Arms Race!
Space Race!

Why can't capitalism & communism coexist?
They are basically the opposite way of doing things..
Allow me to demonstrate...
Why are capitalism and communism incompatible?
USA Capitalism
USSR Communism
People own property

People control economy
Compete for resources

Wealth can be spread unequally

Democracy
, elect leaders
Government owns property

Government controls economy

Wealth is spread "equally"

Totalitarian
government
Greed plays a role
Both countries want access to trade and resources of Eastern Europe
Fear plays a role
Eastern European countries will become friends or enemies depending on the economic system they have.
Can the U.S. allow more Communist countries?

Can the USSR allow Capitalist neighbors?
Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Poland
Conflict 1:
What to do with Germany?
Containment
- US policy to stop the spread of USSR influence and communism
Remember how Germany was divided up after WWII?
Germany was divided into 4 sections

So was the Capital--Berlin
What to do with Germany?
US, Great Britain, France
Want to reunite Germany!
USSR
Don't want to reunite Germany!
Decision is made to reunite Germany
USSR decided to hold US, British & French section of Berlin HOSTAGE!
Blockaded city
People faced starvation
What should Allies do?
Surrender Berlin?
Go to war?
Berlin Airlift -
Allies flew supplies

to West Berlin to help hostages
Food, Fuel, Medicine
1948-1949
Soviet Response
Harassed the planes

Knew if they fired on the planes, it may start WWIII
Airlift was successful

Embarrassed the Soviet Union

Soviet's gave up blockade after 11 months
CONTAINMENT!!!!
It's tough to contain communism alone...

North Atlantic Treaty Organization
- alliance created to contain communism and promote democracy
Warsaw Pact
- alliance created in response to NATO for communist coutries in Eastern Europe
NATO's goal: contain Communism and prevent a Domino Effect
Domino Theory
- if one country is influenecd by communism, other will follow
We will discuss more on this during our Asia unit!
Have you ever heard of the terms 1st World, 2nd World or 3rd World?
1st World
Democratic & industrial nations influenced by U.S.
2nd World
Communist nations that support USSR
3rd World
Everyone else-75% of the world!
Arms Race
a race between the United States and Soviet Union to build up their supply of weapons
Especially, nuclear weapons
How could war be prevented?
By having bigger, better & more weapons
Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD)
- neither side will attack with nuclear weapons because it will result in complete annihilation of both sides
Nuclear Weapons
Atomic Bomb
Hydrogen Bomb
(H-Bomb)
Meanwhile, a Space Race is also occurring...
Space Race
-
Race between Soviet Union & United States for supremacy in spaceflight capability
Directly related to nuclear arms race
USSR took the lead in the Space Race by launching
Sputnik
- the first satellite (Oct.4, 1957)
The U.S. won the "moon race" by landing Apollo 11 on the moon (July 20, 1969)
(1955-1975)
Would a nuclear war ever occur?
...it almost did...
Cuban Missile Crisis
(October 1962) U.S.A. obtains evidence of the Soviet Union building missile bases in Cuba.

If completed, nuclear missiles would be able to reach the U.S.A. in minutes!
Fidel Castro
Prime Minister of Cuba
(Came to power during a revolution)
Nikita Khruschev
Political Leader in USSR
Cuban Missile Crisis
Any missile attack from Cuba will result in an all out attack on the Soviet Union.



NUCLEAR WAR!
You're the President...
you decide!
Should the U.S. invade Cuba?

What is the missiles are ready to launch?

Does this mean all out war with the Soviet Union?
End of Crisis

U.S. & USSR reach agreement.
U.S.
won't invade Cuba & removes missiles from Turkey
USSR
removes missiles from Cuba
The Move Toward Unity
The destructivness of two world wars caused Europeans to seek unity
Is unity possible?
If unity is possible--in what form would unity come?
In 1957--a treaty
was signed by six western Europe countries which
created the
European Economic Community (EEC)
West Germany, France, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxemboug, & Italy
EEC
The
6 members could trade freely
No taxes!
"protective" tax on imported goods from non-EEC countries
Encourages cooperation between EEC countries
In
1973--Britain, Denmark & Ireland join
The European Union
Various other countries join the EEC until....
1992--a treaty was signed between 12 countries creating the European Union (EU)
Will create:
A single currency
Foreign & security policies
The EU's Four Freedoms
The free movement of;
goods
services
people
money
The Euro
Euro (single European currency)
replaces member country's currency
Today...

The EU has grown to 28 countries from the original 6
EU Map Activity!
Review!
How was Germany divided after World War II?
This leads to...
Division of Europe!
German Democratic Republic
Federal Republic of Germany
West Germany East Germany
US, France & Britian's Zones
Soviet Union's Zone
Democracy

Capitalism
Booming industrial economy by the 1950's
Wealthy & better standard of living

Freedom of Religion
Totalitarian Dictator
(Stalin)

Communism
Limited industrialization
Low standard of living
The Berlin Wall
1961 - Nikita Khruschev (USSR) ordered the building of the Berlin Wall
Why?
- To stop the refugees from East Berlin escaping Communist rule & fleeing to West Berlin
Berlin Wall Video!
German Reunification
Downfall of East Germany:
#Money&GovernmentProbz
Angry protestors lead mass demonstrations against the East German government.

1989 - WALL COMES DOWN!
Boarder between West & East Berlin opened
Oct. 3, 1990
Reunification of Germany
East & West Germany unite as one Germany

Continuation of the Federal Republic (West Germany)
Brandenburg Gate - A national symbol of unity
Video Activity!
Write down as many concepts, vocabulary or people that we discussed in class that you hear mentioned in the video!
Winner gets a fantastic prize!!!
Capitalism & Democracy or Communism?
Joseph Stalin
Leader of U.S.S.R. (Soviet Union)
Capitalism & Communism CANNOT COEXIST!
Stalin says...
Review!
The Marshall Plan
WHAT?
13 Billion
(100 Billion Today)
paid to Western European countries


WHY?
Bad Economic Conditions in Europe after WWII

Fear that Communism could spread in the poor economic conditions

GOAL:
Stop Communism by attacking poverty, hunger, despair


"An Iron Curtain has descended across the continent"
- Winston Churchill
Full transcript