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Transcript of Mexican Americans
Questions and Discussion
Limitations of Interventions
Barriers to Treatment
Degree of Acculturation
Assessment Methods & Measures
Culturally Based Interventions
Family Therapy - Important because of focus on family and a more collectivist culture
Therapist must understand language barriers, dealing with different ages, different levels of acculturism
2012 HES Conference: Culturally Based
Family Intervention for Mexican Americans
History of Mexican Americans
"Mestizo" Race --- 17-1800s
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo --- 1848
Bracero Program --- 1942
"Zoot Suit" Riots--- 1943
"Operation Wetback" --- 1954
AB540 and DREAMers --- 2001-today
Mexican American Families
Assessment Methods & Measures
Measures for Acculturation
Multiphasic Assessment of Cultural Constructs
Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans II
view a culture as "unique with a defining or identifiable worldview rather than as a study of sociocultural factors"
A term for "mixed blood" offspring of Spanish settlers in colonial Latin America with indigenous peoples of the land.
Mestizo used as a racial category in 18th century ... limited ones opportunities and brought about inequality and discrimination
Today in the US, “mestizo” may be used to describe a “non-white” person with mixed Spanish and Native American heritage .
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo - 1848
Ended the Mexican–American War
The US paid $15 million for several Mexican territories including ownership of CA
Mexican homes suddenly within US borders
Mexican-Americans become a disenfranchised minority
The Bracero Program
Zoot Suit Riots
Due to limitations in Bracero program in 1954 "Operation Wetback" was devised by the Immigration and Nationalization Service.
Unfortunately, common practice of this intense border enforcement focused on Mexicans in general and not just "illegal aliens," as was intended.
Examples of Mistreatment and abuse:
"Wetback" is a derogatory term
deported to unfamiliar places, where they would struggle to find their way home
reports of beating and jailing illegal immigrants & other abusive treatment
California's Assembly Bill 540 passed in, 2001
allows undocumented students to pay in-state tuition instead of out-of-state tuition at any state college or university.
Prior to this, despite having excelled in high school, many students were denied this and any financial aid based on immigration status.
Attend a CA high school for a min. of 3 years
Graduate from a CA high school or pass the Proficiency Exam (CHSPE)
Enroll in an accredited and qualified CA college
If applicable, fill out an affidavit to legalize immigration status as soon as eligible
Provides a path to citizenship for children who were brought to US by no choice of their own.
Qualifications for conditional permanent resident status:
• came to the U.S. prior to the age of 15
• lived here for at least 5 years before 2011
• have graduated from a U.S. high school
• can demonstrate “good moral character”
Heterogeneity of Latinos
22.8% live in poverty
lack of transportation
lack of clinics in rural areas
Barriers to Treatment
Perception of Mental Illness
physical ailments more concerning
Belief in Fatalism
Lack of control over environment
Based in Three Different Healing Cultures
LA Clinic reported 63% of Hispanis utilized traditional healing
Abrego, L. (September 01, 2008). Legitimacy, social identity, and the mobilization of law: The effects of assembly bill 540 on undocumented students in California. Law and Social Inquiry, 33, 3, 709-734.
Chiodo, J. J. (January 01, 2013). The Zoot Suit Riots: Exploring Social Issues in American History. Social Studies, 104, 1.)
Cohen, D. (2011). Braceros: Migrant citizens and transnational subjects in the postwar United States and Mexico. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Gonzales, Manuel G. (2009). Mexicanos, Second Edition : A History of Mexicans in the United States. Retrieved from http://www.eblib.com
Macias, T. (2006). Mestizo in America: Generations of Mexican ethnicity in the suburban Southwest. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
Cuéllar, I., Arnold, B., & González, G. (1995). Cognitive Referents of Acculturation: Assessment of Cultural Constructs in Mexican Americans. Journal Of Community Psychology, 23(4), 339-356.
Gutierrez, G. (January 01, 2002). Ethnopsychological Method and the Psychological Assessment of Mexican Americans. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 24, 3, 259-277.
Kouyoumdjian, H., Zamboanga, B. L., & Hansen, D. J. (2003). Barriers to Community Mental Health Services for Latinos: Treatment Considerations. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10(4), 394-422.
Ortiz, I., & Torres, E. (2007). Curanderismo and the Treatment of Alcoholism: Findings from a Focus Group of Mexican Curanderos. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 25(4), 79-90. Retrieved April 8, 2014, from the WorldCat database.
Santiago-Rivera, A. L. (1995). Developing a Culturally Sensitive Treatment Modality for Bilingual Spanish-Speaking Clients: Incorporating Language and Culture in Counseling. Journal Of Counseling & Development,74(1), 12-17.
Rosenberg, A., Almeida, A., & Macdonald, H. (2012). Crossing the Cultural Divide: Issues in Translation, Mistrust, and Cocreation of Meaning in Cross-Cultural Therapeutic Assessment. Journal Of Personality Assessment, 94(3), 223-231.
Maria is a 16-year old, Mexican American, female, living in the San Fernando Valley in Los Angeles, California. She's coming into therapy for the first time because of her frequent panic attacks. She's gone to the school nurse several times when the attacks have affected her performance at school. Once a straight A student, her grades have slowly slipped into C's. Maria's parents are now forcing her to see therapist as they have ruled out any physiological cause.
Maria talked mostly about her anxiety for the first four sessions. It was on the fifth session when Maria reveals that her anxiety and what she refers to as "attacks" started about a month ago when she discovered she was attracted to a female classmate.
Maria never considered she was a lesbian, as she has not been attracted to women in the past. She is now starting to question her sexuality as she and her classmate are starting to see each other on a consistent basis. Her parents are Mexican immigrants from Mexico, speak very little English, and are strict Catholics
Maria is the eldest of two younger sisters, 12 years old and 9 years old respectfully. Maria describes her parents as loving, but unsure of they would accept her as she's always been taught that sexuality is a "sin" and have been less than accepting of other family members whom have "come out of the closet."
Maria feels an extreme sense of guilt and shame for her feelings for her girlfriend, but also doesn't feel like her feelings are going to go away either. Maria is now becoming more depressed as she feels torn between her parents, her religion, and her girlfriend.
Culturally Sensitive Techniques
"Language Switching" - technique used successfully by trained therapists
Depends on degree of bilingualism
Folktale or "Cuento" Therapy - modeling behavior through stories
"Dichos" - creatively using Spanish proverbs
Faith/Religion/Spirituality - may be incorporated in therapy
- can be problematic because of language barriers
- empowering the client to develop their maximum potential through choices and respect for other
- ideal to combine elements of different approaches depending on the client
Allowed Mexicans to take temporary agricultural work in the US (1942 - 1964)
More than 4.5 million "bracero"s were legally contracted for work in the US making it the largest U.S. contract labor program
Supposed to have safeguards to protect workers, but In practice, many of these rules were ignored and workers suffered
Opportunity or Exploitation?
“Treaty of Peace, Friendship, Limits and Settlement”
During World War II, riots broke out in Los Angeles, between American sailors & Marines -- and local Latino youths.
The servicemen ridiculed & resented the Latino males attired in "zoot suits" because the zoot-suiters were not wearing military uniforms and fighting for their country.
Questioned their patriotism
Wool used to make the "zoot suits" was rationed during wartime.
Development, Relief & Education for Alien Minors
Centro Latino for Literacy
Hispanic Community Affairs Council (HCAC)
Latino Coalition for a Healthy California (LCHC)
Have an Impact on Behaviors, Compliance, & Treatment