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English Civil War Timeline: 1603-1689
Transcript of English Civil War Timeline: 1603-1689
Queen Elizabeth I died at Richmond Palace aged 69. This brought the rule of the Tudor dynasty to an end. Elizabeth I had ruled for 44 years which made her the longest ruling Tudor monarch. Her reign was known as The Golden Age. She died Childless so there was no one to succeed her except for her cousin King James VI of Scotland. This was a significant event in English Civil War history because it was the end of the Tudor dynasty and because after the death of Elizabeth, the new rulers weren't the best decision makers and sparked fury between people in England which led to the Civil War.
English Civil War Timeline: 1603-1689
1603: James VI succeeds Elizabeth I
James VI of Scotland succeeded his cousin Elizabeth I from England. James VI then became James I of England and since James became king, it now meant that the three separate kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland were now united, under a single ruler. James was the first Stuart ruler of England and he believed in the Divine Right of Kings which meant that he believed that the ruler should have absolute power. This idea about absolute power was not very popular with the people and most people disliked it as they were more used to Elizabeth's way of democratic ruling. James had no intentions of helping England thrive and was trying to get as much money as he could since he was burdened by Elizabeth’s Debt and was a selfish ruler. James I's succession affected the English Civil War because it started to affect the lives of people in England such as the the things they were restricted to do and the extra taxes that they had to pay. Also the people who had great problems towards the king, started to get mad and this got us closer to the Civil War.
1604: The War Ends with Spain
In August 1604 James I ended the war with Spain. This was one of James I's first acts of foreign policy. This long war with Spain, had continued for 20 years and finally ended. It also resulted in the Treaty of London, which was largely favourable to Spain. The end of the war eased the English government's near bankrupt financial state. England and Spain were at peace for the next 50 years. This event affected the English Civil War because now that people were not worried about the war against Spain that was going on, they could focus more on their own lives and the way the king was ruling which was not good. So they had more time to think about how they were being ruled and they also had time to plan rebellions and ways to go against/overthrow the king.
On November 5 in 1604, a group of English Catholics, were angry at James I because he failed to close the laws about their religion. They created a plot to blow up the king and parliament by igniting gunpowder barrels closed in a vault beneath the building. The plot was discovered before it could be carried out. The group included Guy Fawkes, which is who the plot is known after. All the men were either killed not wanting to be arrested, or captured and then executed by being hanged, drawn, and then quartered. This Plot affected the English Civil War because now other Catholics were also angry at the King for not closing the laws about their religion so therefore it got people angrier and brought us one step closer to the English Civil War.
1605: The Gunpowder Plot is Discovered
On 27 March 1625, Charles I succeeds his father James I. Charles I, like his father, also believed in the Divine Right of Kings and was always looking for money and ways to earn money. Charles relied on the Duke of Buckingham for advice but the Duke kept leading him into one problem after another, such as wars. He usually refused to listen to the views of parliament and was starting to become like his father which is something that the people did not support. The Event of Charles I's' succession affected the English Civil War because people thought that their would be change in the sloppy and uncivilized ruling, but Charles I made no effort to change that. As you can tell, so far from all of these events, people have been getting more and more restless, uncomfortable, and angry because of all these events in which the rulers are not showing the small amount of respect towards "the people" that they deserve. So, because of this the English Civil War is again getting closer.
1625: Charles I succeeds James I
1642: Beginning of The English Civil War
The English Civil War started in 1642 when Charles I thought he could raise his royal standard in Nottingham. The country split into those who supported the king (Royalists) and those who supported Parliament (Parliamentarians). The Parliament thought that Charles I was being unreasonable with his high demands and the way he kept ignoring the Parliament and their decisions. Charles just wanted power and wealth and promised some of this wealth to many of his supporters. Neither side had armies so now came the task of creating them.
1645: New Model Army is Formed
Parliament organised the New Model Army on February 11, 1645 to stop Charles I's path to get absolute rule over England and so that it could fight Charles I's army. Before the New Model Army, Parliament had many weak, untrained soldiers who badly lost and tied the first few small battles, so they realised that a more effective army was going to be needed. The New Model Army was ran by Sir Thomas Fairfax and Oliver Cromwell, a past House of Commons member. This event was important because now Parliament had a stronger, more well organised army that could attack better and was more well prepared. The New Model Army was also a bit larger than the army that they had been working with before this so now they had an even better chance of defeating the Royalists.
1643:Parliament Allies with Scotland
Fearing that they would be unable to beat the Royalist forces without outside help, the Parliamentarians agreed to an alliance with the Scots. By the terms of the treaty the Scots agreed to send a powerful army to fight Charles I, in return for church reform in England. With the help of Scotland, Parliament now had a large army that went on and defeated the Royalists in many of the battles that led on from there. Since Parliament allied with Scotland, it brought a drastic change to the standings in the war during the moment. All of a sudden, Parliament became a more powerful side in the army and the chances of the Royalists winning the war became slimmer.
As the Parliamentarian win got near, Charles I decided to give up to the Scots because he was unwilling to give up to the Parliamentarians. He made his way to the camp of the Scottish army at Southwell, near Newark, and gave himself up.The Scottish handed him over to the Parliamentarians for £400,000. Still determined not to compromise with his enemies, the captive Charles I managed to stir up a new rumor of violence known as the Second Civil War. Many people in the Parliament and New Model Army then started to think that it would be best to rid of him sooner than later. So in January 1649, Charles I was found guilty for treason against Parliament and was beheaded.
1649: Charles I Surrenders and is Beheaded
1651: Navigation Laws are Created
The Navigation act was enforced in 1651 by the Rump Parliament and Oliver Cromwell. Cromwell wished to create England with a prosperous economy so in order to do this he enforced that English Goods should be transported only on English ships and vessels.This act also banned foreign ships from transporting goods from outside Europe to England or its colonies and banned third-party country' ships from transporting goods from a country elsewhere in Europe to England. These rules specifically targeted the Dutch who controlled a large section of Europe's international trade and even a lot of England's coastal shipping. It excluded the Dutch from essentially all trade with England, as the Dutch's economy was competitive with the English.
1651: Charles II becomes the King of Scotland
On January 1, 1651, Charles II got crowned king of Scotland. Desperate to get his father's throne back, Charles I's eldest son made a deal with the Scottish in which he agreed to take the Covenant himself in return for the promise of Scottish military assistance. Early in 1651, Charles was crowned King Charles II of Scotland at Scone Castle. Then on September 3, 1651, Oliver Cromwell defeated Charles II at the Battle of Worcester which was the last major battle of the English Civil War. Since Charles lost, it led him to escape into exile.
1653: Cromwell becomes Lord Protector
After driving Charles II out of the country and defeating him in war, Cromwell eventually lost patience with the Rump Parliament which he thought couldn't govern properly. When members of the Rump Parliament refused to hold an election unless guaranteed seats, Cromwell went into parliament with a group of soldiers and kicked everyone out. He then became the Lord Protector of England. Cromwell was also offered the crown since no one had been governed without a monarchy and since Cromwell had no official power, but he refused it.
On September 3, 1658 when Oliver Cromwell died, he was succeeded as Lord Protector by his son, Richard. The Commonwealth of England collapsed into a lot of financial chaos and arguments between the military and administration grew greatly. Parliament was once again fading away and thoughts and plans of overthrowing Richard were starting to be heard of. People again began to think of the fact that Cromwell did not actually have any "real" power and he did not deserve to be the ruler. Also as the generations went on, the main reason why all these civil wars happened was starting to be shown again in the rulers so again people were becoming unhappy so many generations later.
1658: Cromwell Dies & is succeded by his son Richard
1660: Restoration of the Monarchy
On May 29, 1660, Richard Cromwell was overthrown by George Monk, one of the army's most capable officers. He realised that only the restoration of the king could end the political problems, and Charles II was invited to return from exile. The king’s restoration was celebrated greatly and it was a very popular decision. Charles found people who stayed with his father during the Civil War and supported him and then rewarded them greatly. Others who went against the king and were with the Parliamentarians, were punished for exile against the king.
1665: Great Plague of London Begins
London's population had increased greatly in the year 1665 and the only way people could to get rid of rubbish was to throw it out into the streets. This would include normal household waste as well as human waste. As a result, London was filthy. But this was a perfect breeding place for rats. The plague was caused by disease-carrying fleas carried on the bodies of rats. Soon the contagious disease was spreading fast, and over the following months more than 100,000 people died. This affected the English economy very greatly as people were unable to work and many people were dieing. This included important people such as people in Parliament and Soldiers.
1666: Great Fire destroys 2/3 of London
The Great fire broke out in a baker's shop in Pudding Lane in the City of London and spread rapidly. Within four days, two-thirds of the city had been destroyed and 65,000 people were homeless. Despite this, the fire was the biggest reason why the great plague came into control as it destroyed majority of the rats and fleas that were infested. So in the end this fire calmed the plague down and didn't injure as many people as the plague was hurting. This fire again hurt the economy of England quite a bit because people lost their homes and had to find places to live and restart again.
1689: Glorious Revolution
1673: Creation of the Test Act
Parliament tried to unite religious views of the country by creating the Test Act. Although this act wasn't heavily enforced, Parliament passed the Test Act on January 1, 1673. This document said that people who were not part of the Church of England could not take part in political matters. This also included attending school at universities, preaching, teaching, holding a public office, or voting. So in other words if you were Catholic, you were not of a lot of use to people in England. This was obviously a big nuisance for the Catholic people in England since they were already criticized a lot in England.
After suffering a stroke, Charles II passed away on February 6, 1685. Charles switched his religion from Church of England to Catholicism on his death bed so that his Catholic Brother could become king and so that the dispute about the Test Act could be finished. He was succeeded by his brother, James, whose attachment to the Catholic faith made many of his loyal subjects very suspicious that he may start a Catholic uprising. Still, James enjoyed a lot of popularity and people were quite happy when he first came to the throne as James II.
1685: James II succeeds Charles II
During James II's path to exile, many felt that William and his wife Mary (James II's daughter) should be termed 'regents' (people who reign), rather than monarchs, because James II, the former king, was still alive. William was not prepared to accept this, and on February 6, 1689 the House of Lords at last concluded the point. The formal declaration of William and Mary as King and Queen took place a week later. This became known as the Glorious Revolution. This was very important because it settled things down in England and people started living normally again. Meaning that they didn't have to worry about unfaithful and untrustworthy rulers. This event led England to have its many good rulers after this and prosper very well economically and politically.