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Buddhism "By the Numbers"
Transcript of Buddhism "By the Numbers"
Buddhism "By the Numbers"
Based on the "Buddhist Book of Numbers" and other sources, see:
Music: "For the Ancient Ones" performed by Harry Seavey
Stage 1: One Version of Reality
Stage 2: A Different Version of Reality
Also referred to as "Dukkha", this is the realization that all living beings regularly experience dissatisfaction of one form or another (i.e. hunger, thirst, boredom, etc), which leads to some amount of pain and suffering. The amount of suffering experienced depends on one's ability to find Equanimity with their situation.
Also referred to as Anicca, this is the understanding that all things that arise into existence, including trees, mountains, the Earth, and all stars in the known Universe (not to mention all living beings, including you and me), will eventually fade from existence.
Also referred to as "no-self" or Anatta, this is the realization that our sense of "self" or personality is solely created in our mind, and that this mental construct can be altered and even destroyed, either through time and death, or through contemplative practice (i.e. meditation). Once we are freed from our idea of "self", we are free to become anyone we want to be.
The Three Marks of Existence
The Truth of Suffering (Dukkha)
The Truth of Dukkha (also translated as Dissatisfaction or Suffering) is that all conditional phenomena and experiences are not ultimately satisfying.
The Truth of the an Origin of Suffering
The Truth of the Origin of Dukkha is that craving for and clinging to what is pleasurable and aversion to what is not pleasurable result in becoming, rebirth, dissatisfaction, and redeath
The Truth of the End to Suffering (i.e. Liberation)
The Truth of the Cessation of Dukkha is that putting an end to this craving and clinging also means that rebirth, dissatisfaction, and redeath can no longer arise
The Truth of the Path that Leads to Liberation
The Truth of the Path Of Liberation from Dukkha is that by following the Noble Eightfold Path—namely, behaving decently, cultivating discipline, and practicing mindfulness and meditation—
Right view is the forerunner of the entire path, the guide for all the other factors. It enables us to understand our starting point, our destination, and the successive landmarks to pass as practice advances. To attempt to engage in the practice without a foundation of right view is to risk getting lost in the futility of undirected movement. Doing so might be compared to wanting to drive someplace without consulting a roadmap or listening to the suggestions of an experienced driver. One might get into the car and start to drive, but rather than approaching closer to one's destination, one is more likely to move farther away from it. To arrive at the desired place one has to have some idea of its general direction and of the roads leading to it. Analogous considerations apply to the practice of the path, which takes place in a framework of understanding established by right view.
Energy (viriya), the mental factor behind right effort, can appear in either wholesome or unwholesome forms. The same factor fuels desire, aggression, violence, and ambition on the one hand, and generosity, self-discipline, kindness, concentration, and understanding on the other. The exertion involved in right effort is a wholesome form of energy, but it is something more specific, namely, the energy in wholesome states of consciousness directed to liberation from suffering. This last qualifying phrase is especially important. For wholesome energy to become a contributor to the path it has to be guided by right view and right intention, and to work in association with the other path factors.
Right Concentration (samadhi) is only a particular kind of one-pointedness; it is not equivalent to one-pointedness in its entirety. A gourmet sitting down to a meal, an assassin about to slay his victim, a soldier on the battlefield -- these all act with a concentrated mind, but their concentration cannot be characterized as samadhi. Samadhi is exclusively wholesome one-pointedness, the concentration in a wholesome state of mind. Even then its range is still narrower: it does not signify every form of wholesome concentration, but only the intensified concentration that results from a deliberate attempt to raise the mind to a higher, more purified level of awareness.
Right Moral Discipline
The Noble Eightfold Path
The teachings of the Buddha, the path to Enlightenment. (i.e. the knowledge contained in this Prezi)
The community of those who have attained enlightenment, who may help a practicing Buddhist to do the same. Also used more broadly to refer to the community of practicing Buddhists, or the community of Buddhist monks and nuns.
Depending on one's interpretation, it can mean the historical Buddha (Siddharta) or the Buddha nature — the ideal or highest spiritual potential that exists within all beings
The Three Jewels
The Four Noble Truths
Stage 0: The Two Truths
The Six Realms of Existence
The Human Realm
The Human Realm is the only realm of the six from which beings may escape samsara. Enlightenment is at hand in the Human Realm, yet only a few open their eyes and see it. Rebirth into the Human Realm is conditioned by passion, doubt and desire.
The Hell Realm (Anger)
As the name suggests, the Hell Realm is the most terrible of the Six Realms. Hell beings have a short fuse; everything makes them angry. And the only way hell beings deal with things that make them angry is through aggression -- attack, attack, attack! They drive away anyone who shows them love and kindness and seek out the company of other hell beings. Unchecked anger and aggression can cause rebirth in the Hell Realm.
The Hungry Ghost Realm (Craving)
Hungry ghosts (preta) are pictured as beings with huge, empty stomachs, but they have pinhole mouths, and their necks are so thin they cannot swallow. A hungry ghost is one who is always looking outside himself for the new thing that will satisfy the craving within. Hungry ghosts are characterized by insatiable hunger and craving. They are also associated with addiction, obsession and compulsion.
Animal Realm (Fear/Ignorance)
Animal beings are marked by stupidity, prejudice and complacency. They live sheltered lives, avoiding discomfort or anything unfamiliar. Rebirth in the Animal Realm is conditioned by ignorance. People who are ignorant and content to remain so are likely headed for the Animal Realm, assuming they aren't there already.
The Demi-God Realm (Jealousy)
The Asura (Demi-God) are strong and powerful beings who are sometimes depicted as enemies of the Deva (ee God Realm). Asura are marked by their fierce envy. The karma of hate and jealousy causes rebirth in the Asura Realm. Chih-i (538-597), a patriarch of the T'ien-t'ai school, described the Asura this way: "Always desiring to be superior to others, having no patience for inferiors and belittling strangers; like a hawk, flying high above and looking down on others, and yet outwardly displaying justice, worship, wisdom, and faith -- this is raising up the lowest order of good and walking the way of the Asuras."
The God Realm (Conceit)
In Buddhist tradition, the Deva (God) realm is populated by godlike beings who enjoy great power, wealth and long life. They live in splendor and happiness. Yet even the Deva grow old and die. Further, their privilege and exalted status blind them to the suffering of others, so in spite of their long lives they have neither wisdom nor compassion. The privileged Deva will be reborn in another of the Six Realms.
The Five Mental Afflictions (Kleshas)
The Five Hindrances
The Five Buddhist Precepts
Refrain from Intoxicants that Lead to Heedlessness
Refrain from Killing Other Living Beings
Refrain from Taking That Which is Not Given
Refrain from Sexual Misconduct
Refrain from Telling Falsehoods
The Two Truths, also referred to as Emptiness (Sunyata) or Non-duality, is a fundamental concept in Buddhist philosophy. In practice, it is the realization that there are more than one subjective realities or "truth" that co-exist in any situation at any time, even if those realities may seem mutually exclusive to a single observer.
A Non-dual quiz:
Is the sky blue?
C. Neuther of the above
D. All of the above
This concept is essential to the process of learning, which the Buddha applied rigorously to the entirety of Human experience, or what can be thought of as consciousness. Without the acceptance of this fundamental truth, we can not progress further on the path to achieving happiness independant of conditions.
The Four Immeasurables
The Six Perfections
Thank You and Namaste! :)
Mindfulness exercises a powerful grounding function. It anchors the mind securely in the present, so it does not float away into the past and future with their memories, regrets, fears, and hopes. The mind without mindfulness is sometimes compared to a pumpkin, the mind established in mindfulness to a stone. A pumpkin placed on the surface of a pond soon floats away and always remains on the water's surface. But a stone does not float away; it stays where it is put and at once sinks into the water until it reaches bottom. Similarly, when mindfulness is strong, the mind stays with its object and penetrates its characteristics deeply. It does not wander and merely skim the surface as the mind destitute of mindfulness does.
From the Lotus Sutra
According to the Metta Sutta
The three things that Buddhists take refuge in, and look toward for guidance.
The Six Realms are an allegorical description of conditioned existence, or samsara, into which beings are reborn. The nature of one's existence is determined by karma. Some realms seem more pleasant than others -- heaven sounds preferable to hell -- but all are dukkha, meaning they are temporary and imperfect.
an end can be put to craving, to clinging, to becoming, to rebirth, to dissatisfaction, and to redeath.
You may have known an Asura or two.
Positive Feedback Loop
Negative Feedback Loop
The Buddha explains right intention as threefold: the intention of renunciation, the intention of good will, and the intention of harmlessness. The three are opposed to three parallel kinds of wrong intention: intention governed by desire, intention governed by ill will, and intention governed by harmfulness.
The Buddha divides right speech into four components: abstaining from false speech, abstaining from slanderous speech, abstaining from harsh speech, and abstaining from idle chatter. Because the effects of speech are not as immediately evident as those of bodily action, its importance and potential is easily overlooked. But a little reflection will show that speech and its offshoot, the written word, can have enormous consequences for good or for harm. In fact, whereas for beings such as animals who live at the preverbal level physical action is of dominant concern, for humans immersed in verbal communication speech gains the ascendency. Speech can break lives, create enemies, and start wars, or it can give wisdom, heal divisions, and create peace. This has always been so, yet in the modern age the positive and negative potentials of speech have been vastly multiplied by the tremendous increase in the means, speed, and range of communications.
Right livelihood is concerned with ensuring that one earns one's living in a righteous way. For a lay disciple the Buddha teaches that wealth should be gained in accordance with certain standards. One should acquire it only by legal means, not illegally; one should acquire it peacefully, without coercion or violence; one should acquire it honestly, not by trickery or deceit; and one should acquire it in ways which do not entail harm and suffering for others.
Right action means refraining from unwholesome deeds that occur with the body as their natural means of expression. The pivotal element in this path factor is the mental factor of abstinence, but because this abstinence applies to actions performed through the body, it is called "right action."
The higher stages are referred to as the Formless Jhanas, and can be attained by advanced practitioners.
The non-dual answer is...
The universe and our world is made up of objects that are made of observable parts or particles (i.e. molecules, atoms, sub-atomic particles, etc)
We explore the world with our five sense organs (i.e. eyes, ears, body, tongue, and nose) and we add a sixth sense that processes thoughts, feelings, and intuitions from the brain and central nervous system.
We process the information gathered by our senses into a coherent subjective reality in our minds. This subjective reality may vary from one person to another, even though the same object is being perceived.
We associate our perceptions of objects in our mind with discriminating thoughts and emotions based on whether the stimulus is pleasant or unpleasant.
Do you see a young woman, an old woman, or both?
We form memories about our past perceptions, thoughts, and emotions, and construct a sense of "self" or "ego" based on our past experiences and future goals and aspirations.
The Five Aggregates (Skandhas)
The Three Poisons