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Nutrients

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karoline moriarty

on 29 April 2014

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Transcript of Nutrients

Macronutrients
By Karoline Moriarty

Carbohydrates
Most other carbohydrates are made up of one or more sugars linked together.
2 sugars linked together are called a
disaccharide
, which include;
lactose (milk sugar found in animal foods)
maltose (2 molecules of glucose)
sucrose (glucose+fructose=white table sugar)

Monosacchardies and disaccharides together form a simple carbohydrate. Many sugar molecules linked together form a
polysaccharide
, which are complex carbohydrates. They include starches and fibers and are found in plants.
Lipids
Water is an essential nutrient that provides the body with energy but is also needed to;
Transport nutrients, oxygen, waste products
-blood is 90% water, and it helps transport oxygen, drugs, nutrients, hormones. It helps carry Carbon dioxide away eliminates wastes in urine.
For
body structure/protection
-makes up most of the volume in body cells. It also serves as a lubricant and cleanser (Tears, saliva). Even muscle is composed of 75% water, 25% of bones are water.
Chemical reactions-
The addition of a water molecule can break apart to substances, the loss of water molecule can bind molecules, helps transport substances to kidneys and lungs
Body temperature regulation-
Sweat is mostly water and when sweat evaporates from the skin, heat is lost and causes body to cool itself. The water in blood regulates the increase or decrease in heat lost at body surfaces.
The adult body is made up of 60% water!
We need more water than we need protein, fat, or carbohydrates, and the human body cannot survive without it for more than 4 days!
Choosing a Healthy Diet
There are many helpful tools and resources that can help you decide what/ how much you should be eating. Try
choosemyplate.gov
for;
diet and exercise tracking tools
pyramid guides
meal guides
and more!
What is Nutrition?
Nutrition is the study of the interactions that occur between the body and food. It involves the understanding of nutrients our bodies need, what foods contain them, how are bodies use them, and their effect on our health.
What are Nutrients?
Nutrients are substances that serve three specific functions in the body:
provide energy-fuel to stay alive (energy used by the body is measured in calories)
provide structure-help form body structures
help regulate processes that keep us alive-body functions and processes (homeostasis)

The foods we eat are often strongly influenced by our culture, society, economics, and technology.
There are over 40 different kinds of nutrients that our bodies do not make on their own, or do not make enough of, therefore need to be consumed through the process of eating a variety of different foods.
Nutrients-->Cells
The food we eat is digested and the nutrients are absorbed. Digestion is the process that breaks down food into small particles, absorption brings these substances in the body where they are needed by the cells.
The digestion system digests and manages the absorption of nutrients. The main part of the digestive system is the gastrointestinal tract. It is composed of accessory organs that help with digestion.
Six Classes of Nutrients
The nutrients the body needs come from 6 different classes:
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Water
Vitamins
Minerals
Water
Protein helps with
growth
maintenance
repair of body structures
synthesis of regulatory molecules

The different arrangements of amino acids make for different proteins...some the body can produce, others it can not, and must be consumed in the diet. These are called
essential amino acids.
Fish, dairy, and eggs can supply the human body with the essential amino acids it needs.
Plants such as nuts seeds, vegetables and legumes can also supply the amino acids that are essential to the human body.
Protein

Proteins can be broken down to produce energy. They are
made up of folded chains of amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. These chains are connected by a peptide bond. The amino acid order in the polypeptide chains determine the structure and function of a protein.

Protein Function
Proteins provide the structure for hair and nails, as well as the framework for bones.
They form muscle structure and allow muscles to contract.
Protein hormones speed the rate of chemical reactions in the body and regulate various body processes.
Proteins in the cellular membrane contribute to transportation of various substances as well as communication with other cells.
Proteins in the blood help transport materials as well as regulate water distribution and fluid acidity levels.
Proteins made by the immune system help protect the body from disease
Protein Needs
The DRI recommended amount of protein is 0.8 grams per kilogram of body weight=72g for a 200 LB man.
Teens, pregnant women, and need enough to allow for sufficient growth.
People participating in strength and endurance activities will need more for energy and growth.
Protein Complementation:
the act of combining foods containing proteins with different limiting amino acids in order to improve the diet quality as a whole by meeting the essential amino acid needs. A variety of plant proteins should be consumed daily,if you are a vegatarian and do not get animal proteins.

.
The three most common monosaccharides in the diet include;
glucose (blood sugar)
fructose (fruit sugar)
galactose (component of sugar found in milk)
The main role of carbohydrates is through
glucose
, which is an energy source that provides 4 calories per gram.
Galactose
is

needed in nervous tissue and makes lactose in breast milk.
Monosaccharides in deoxyribose and ribose make DNA and RNA.

The amounts of glucose in the blood is carefully regulated. When a carbohydrate is eaten, it increases the blood glucose level which causes the release of insulin by the pancreas. This action promotes the intake of glucose by body cells, where it is stored as glycogen or used for energy production.
Carbohydrate Needs
DRIs recommend a minimum of 150 g of carbohydrates per day in order to keep glucose levels available for cells. To meet energy needs, the DRIs suggest that a healthy diet should consume 45-65 % of calories from carbohydrates, meaning about 225-325 g pe.r day for a 2,000 calories diet


Most Americans consume 52% of their calories as carbohydrates which is in the recommended range, however most people are eating refined carbohydrates such as white rice and white bread instead of the whole grains, legumes and starchy vegetables with limited added sugars.
Fatty acids-
are carbon atoms linked together forming a chain. Some chains contain many carbon atoms, others only have a few. When each carbon is attached to 2 hydrogens, it is a saturated fatty acid because the carbon chain is saturated with hydrogens. When the chain contains carbons that are not connected to 2 hydrogens, a double bond is formed between 2 carbons and fatty acids with 2 or more double bonds is called an unsaturated fatty acid.
Those that contain one double bond are
monounsaturated fatty acids
. Good sources of this include olive, peanut and canola oils.
Those that contain more than one double bond are
polyunsaturated fatty acids
. Good sources of this include safflower, soybean, and corn oils.

Trans fatty acids
are when the hydrogens are on opposite ends of the double bonds, and are found in only in small amounts naturally and occur due to the hydrogenation of vegetable oils.

Saturated Fatty acids
are found in meat and dairy products, as well as palm oil, palm kernel oil, and coconut oil. They are also used in products such as cereals and cookies because they help increase shelf life.
Triglyceride
-made up of 3 fatty acids attached to a 3-carbon molecule called glycerol. Most fat in our food and bodies are in the triglyceride form, which are any combination of fatty acids. When there is one attached fatty acids it is a monoglyceride, and two is called a diglyceride.
Phospholipids
-made up of a glycerol molecule with two fatty acids and a phosphate group attached. They allow water and oil to mix together because phosphates contain the mineral phosphorous and the fatty acid end is soluble in fat. Phospholipids act as emulsifiers which break lipids into small droplets so they can combine with water substances.
Sterols-
lipids made with chemical rings that are the base of their structure. Cholesterol is a type of sterol that is made in the liver and used for the synthesis of vitamin D, hormones, and bile acids. It is located in animal foods such as meats, dairy products, and eggs. It is essential to the body, however not essential to the diet because a high amount of consumed cholesterol can increase the risk of heart disease.
Function of Lipids
Lipids are needed to;
form body structures
regulate bodily processes
provide energy
They are important in the structure of cells of the brain and nervous system especially. They regulate processes by synthesizing hormones. Triglycerides are an important source of energy because it can be used immediately or can be stored in adipose tissue for future use, without causing a significant increase in weight or body size. This is because when less calories are consumed than needed the body releases stored triglycerides.
Lipid Needs
Fat is an essential nutrient needed to prevent dietary deficiencies.
The DRIs have specific recommended amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. The DRIs recommend 20-35% of our daily calories to be from fats (for an adult).
The type of fat consumed is also important. Diets in high amounts of mono and polyunsaturated fats are associated with a lowered risk of heart disease. Diets with high amounts of saturated fat, cholesterol and trans fat are associated with a high risk of heart disease.
To find out the percentage of energy in your diet from fat you must know the amount of calories and fat you consume each day. Fat provides 9 calories per gram allowing the following calculation :
multiply grams of fat x 9 calories/gram
Divide the calories from fat by total calories in your diet and multiply by 100
Water is a small inorganic molecule made up of 1 oxygen and 2 hydrogen molecules. Most of the water in the diet is from pure water, however most solid foods contain a high percentage of water. For example, an apple is about 85% water. Water is also made in the body by metabolism, however not enough is generated by this process. Osmosis absorbs water from the gastrointestinal tract, and most of it is absorbed by the small intestine.
Water is located inside cells, called
intracellular fluid,
and outside cells, known as
extracellular fluid.
Extracellular fluid is is 1/3 of the total amount of water our bodies, and is made up mostly of the water in blood and between cells,
interstitial fluids.
Water Needs
It is recommended that women drink 2.7 liters per day and men drink 3.7 liters per day. Other fluids such as juice and milk can also contribute to these needs. Water intake should be increased with variations in diet, environment, and physical activity. They are also different among the stages of life. For example, the needs are higher during infancy and pregnancy/lactation.
Physical exercise requires a significant increase in water needs. It is needed before, during, and after exercise.
Dehydration
Dehydration occurs when water loss is exceeded by the intake of water. It can occur quicker than any other nutritional deficiency.
Early symptoms of dehydration include;
fatigue
loss of appetite
headache
dry eyes/mouth
concentrated urine

When 3% of more of body weight is lost as water, there are huge reductions in the amount of blood pumped to the heart, which reduces the ability to deliver nutrients and oxygen to cells and eliminate wastes. Blood volume will decrease and the body loses its ability to cool itself.
A loss between 10-20% can result in death.
A thorough understanding of food labels is key to eating a healthy diet. All packaged foods provide a nutrition label, which discuss the nutrient composition of the foods, and how they fit into a healthy diet.
The food guide pyramid is a helpful tool for displaying the food groups and how much should be consumed based on their nutrient composition.
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