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Computer and Product Instructions and Design

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Jath Dicdicanth

on 2 February 2014

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Transcript of Computer and Product Instructions and Design

Computer and Product Design
COMPUTER
Components of the Computer
Types of Computer based
What is a COMPUTER?
 It is a machine that performs tasks such as calculations or electronic communication under the control of a set of instruction called program
 A device that computes, especially a programmable electronic machine that performs high speed mathematical or logical operations that stores, assembles, correlates or process information
 An electronic device that stores and manipulates information. It differs from a calculator in being able to store a program and to store and retrieve information in its memory without human help
Types of Computers
 Analog Computers
 Hybrid computers
Memory
Mass Storage Device
Input Device
Output Device
CPU
Uses of Computer
Business
Homes
Automobiles
Scientific Research
Computer Programs
Military
CAD (Computer-aided Design)
History of CAD
Components of CAD
Hardware
Hardware consists of equipment, or the parts of the computer that can be seen
Software
Software programs are specific sequences of instructions needed to run computers
Data
Data must be collected and changed into a form on which the computer can operate
People
People are an essential part of an information system
Benefits of CAD
Increase in the productivity of the designer
Improve the quality of the design
Better communications
Creating documentation of the designing
Creating the database for manufacturing
Saving of design data and drawings
Applications of Cad
Knowledge Based Engineering
CAD
What
KBE
How
Why
Engineering Design
Personal Computer
Microcomputer
Minicomputer
Mainframe
Supercomputer
Engineering Design
is defined as component, or process to meet desired needs. It is a decision making process (often iterative) in which the basic sciences, mathematics, and engineering sciences are applied to convert resources optimally to meet a stated objective.
Engineering design process
is a formulation of a plan or scheme to assist an engineer in creating a product and use to guide them as they solve problems.
1.

Understand the need

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What is the problem? What do we want to accomplish? What are the project requirements? What are the limitations? Who is the customer? What is our goal? Gather information and conduct research - talking to people from many different backgrounds.
2.

Brainstorm different design

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Imagine and brainstorm ideas. Be creative; build upon the wild and crazy ideas of others. Investigate existing technologies and methods to use. Explore, compare and analyze many possible solutions.
3.

Select a design

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Based on the needs identified, select the most promising idea.
4.
Plan
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Draw a diagram of your idea. How will it work? What environmental and cultural considerations will you evaluate? What materials and tools are needed? What analysis must you do? How will you test it to make sure it works?
5.

Create

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Assign team tasks. Build a prototype and test it against your design objectives. Push yourself for creativity, imagination and excellence in design. Does it work? Analyze and talk about what works, what doesn't and what could be improved.
6.
Improve
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Discuss how you could improve your product. Make revisions. Draw new designs. Iterate your design to make your product the best it can be.

Engineers use their science and math knowledge to explore all possible options and compare many design ideas. This is called open-ended .

When you start to solve a problem, you don't know what the best solution will be to meet the requirements. The process is cyclical and may begin at, and return to, any step.

The use of prototypes, or early versions of the design (or a model or mock-up) helps move the design process forward by improving your team's understanding of the problem, identifying missing requirements, evaluating design objectives and product features, and getting feedback from others.

Factors to be considered before implementing design
1. Cost
2. Reliability
3. Environmental Consideration
4. Safety
5. Functionality
6. Aesthetic
7. Sustainability


Design Analysis
is a powerful software technology for simulating physical behavior on the computer. Instead of building a prototype and developing elaborate testing regimens to analyze the physical behavior of a product, engineers can elicit this information quickly and accurately on the computer.
FINITE ANALYSIS (FEA)
Design Analysis employs the finite element analysis (FEA) method to simulate physical behavior of a product design. The FEA process consists of subdividing all systems into individual components or "elements" whose behavior is easily understood and then reconstructing the original system from these components.
FEA consists of a computer model of a material or design that is stressed and analyzed for specific results. It is used in new product design, and existing product refinement. A company is able to verify a proposed design will be able to perform to the client's specifications prior to manufacturing or construction. Modifying an existing product or structure is utilized to qualify the product or structure for a new service condition. In case of structural failure, FEA may be used to help determine the design modifications to meet the new condition.
STRAIN ANALYSIS
- is an engineering discipline covering methods to determine the stresses and strains in materials and structures subjected to forces or loads.
Design analysis can be used in a wide variety of fields, here are just a few examples:
 Determine the potential for deformation of parts
 Measure resonant frequencies and modes of vibration of parts and assemblies
 Calculate dynamic and seismic responses
 Determine Contact stresses
 Provide temperature distribution.
Motion Analysis & Electromagnetics
Motion analysis is a topic in computer vision, image processing, and machine vision that studies methods and applications in which two or more consecutive images from an image sequence. The motion analysis processing can in the simplest case be to detect motion, i.e., find the points in the image where something is moving.
Process and pros of paper to CAD conversion
Paper to CAD conversion entails converting paper drawings, sketches and details to comprehensive and accurate Computer Aided Designs which can be edited and used with various CAD software. Computers continue to play a pivotal role in all design driven fields. CAD systems, databases, spreadsheets, word processors and related applications have all but replaced traditional paper documentation methods. Many companies are turning to scanning technology to quickly enter information into their computer systems so it can be shared, organized and managed
STEP 2
Scan your image and save the file as a BMP, JPG, PNG or TIF file.
STEP 3
Import the scanned image into AutoCAD.
STEP 4
Apply a new layer for tracing.
STEP 5
Trace over your scanned image.
STEP 6
Establish the scale of your drawing.
STEP 7
Highlight your AutoCAD drawing with your mouse and select "Scale" from the Modify options under the Home menu.
Process of paper to CAD conversion
Open AutoCAD and start a new blank drawing.
STEP 1
STEP 8
Select "Save As" from the File menu, type in a name for your drawing and press "Enter" to save your AutoCAD digitalization of the scanned file.
Why to convert your designs from paper to CAD
1. The chance of data damage or loss is negligible
2. Reduced cost of revisions
3. Reduced cost of storage
4. Creation of a standard digital filing system
5. The drawings are of high quality and accurate
6. Retrieval and printing of electronic documents take less time
7. CAD drawings can be systematically maintained at a consistent level of quality
Conversion To File Format Type
DWG
- DWG is a binary file format used by AutoDesk AutoCAD. It can contain 2D or 3D objects and offers compression and a CRC check for internal data.
DXF
- Contour elevation plots in AutoCAD DXF format.
JPEG
- Joint Photographic Experts Group is a commonly used standard method of compression for photographic images
TIFF Group IV
- Tagged Image File Format is a file format for mainly storing images, including photographs and line art.
PDF
- Portable Document Format is used for representing two-dimensional documents in a device independent and display resolution independent fixed-layout document format
CALS
- CALS Raster file format is a standard for the interchange of graphics data.
PCX
- PCX is an image file format developed by the ZSoft Corporation and became one of the first widely accepted DOS imaging standards, although its use has since been succeeded.
BMP
- is a bitmapped graphics format and used commonly as a simple graphics file format on Microsoft Windows and OS/2
 SVF
- Serial Vector Format used in boundary scan tests of electronics.
Tips on How to Present Your Design Presentation
1. Preparation.
2. Write a little outline of how you want to present your presentation.
3. Record yourself presenting.
4. Put music that you know will distract you and present while listening to it
5. If you are the kind of person that really really gets nervous while presenting it's not a bad idea to tell the audience "I'm a little nervous".
6. Don't think about yourself
7. Give every side of the room its fair turn
8. Have an incentive for after the presentation
Design Presentation
Types of Design Presentation
3D Wireframe/Surface Modeling
3D wireframe and surface modeling are beginning to fall out of favor with the introduction of inexpensive solid modelers. This is partly due to the translation difficulties entailed with wireframe and surface models when trying to incorporate models in analysis or manufacturing software. Most advanced modelers utilize surfacing for creating free-form surfaces (surfaces that simultaneously curve in 3 directions), especially for industrial design
3D Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) Solid Modeling
Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) uses solid primitives (rectangular prisms, spheres, cylinders, cones, etc.) and boolean operations (unions, subtractions, intersections) to create the solid model. The main drawback to this type of modeling is the lack of editing or redimensioning capabilities. If there is a change in the design, the model, in most cases, will have to be reconstructed.

3D Boundary Representation (Brep) Solid Modeling
Brep methods start with one or more wireframe profiles, and create a solid model by extruding, sweeping, revolving or skinning these profiles. The boolean operations can also be used on the profiles themselves and the solids generated from these profiles. Solids can also be created by combining surfaces, which often have complex shapes, through a sewing operation. This can be used, for example, to create the body of an aerodynamic vehicle such as an airplane, with its carefully designed wing profiles. These two methods can often be combined in order to create the desired parts. Each of these methods has its limitations, and parts which are very difficult to create using just one or the other method can be created much more easily using a combination of both methods. Thus, most commercial solid modeling systems are hybrids using both CSG and Brep methods.
Why using 3D in design presentation?

It is much more easier to interpret
• It is used in newly manufacturing techniques such as Computer-Aide and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CAM, CIM)
• It is more realistic than 2D
A Solid Model as in solid defines includes vertices, edges, surfaces, weight and volume and model defines a complete and unambiguous representation of a precisely enclosed and filled volume.
The other types of design presentation are:
3D Hybrid Solid Modeling
CSG and Brep solid modeling methods can often be combined in order to create the desired parts. Each of these methods has its limitations, and parts which are very difficult to create using just one or the other method can be created much more easily using a combination of both methods.
Most commercial solid modeling systems are hybrids using both CSG and Brep methods.
3D Feature-based Solid Modeling
Feature-based is a term used to describe the various components of a model. For example, a part can consists of various types of features such as holes, grooves, fillets and chamfers
3D Feature-based, Parametric Solid Modeling
A parametric is a term used to describe a dimension’s ability to change the shape of model geometry if the dimension valued is modified.
3D Feature-based, Dynamic Solid Modeling
Dynamic Modeling uses flexible model creation and refinement concepts to allow designers to capture ideas and detail models quickly, without focusing on the models' underlying history. Basically, it allows creation of features that are not fully dimensionally constrained.
Computer-aided design (CAD), also known as computer-aided design and drafting (CADD), is the use of computer technology for the process of design and design-documentation. Computer Aided Drafting describes the process of drafting with a computer. CAD may be used to design curves and figures in two-dimensional (2D) space; or curves, surfaces, and solids in three-dimensional (3D) space.
In a design process, computer aided design is considered as the basis of the generative design with many expectations for hands-off performance along with the knowledge based engineering which would result in a limited human involvement in the design process.
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