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Biology - Ecology: Ms. Boyea

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Michelle Munn

on 15 August 2015

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Transcript of Biology - Ecology: Ms. Boyea

Ecology Unit
Biotic and Abiotic Factors: Day 1
Drill: What does your assigned organism need to survive? [You need to have at least 7 things.]

Ladies are assigned a polar bear
Gentlemen have a cactus
Hypothesized definition
Actual Definition
Word
Etymology
take 1 minute to fill in the first column
The study of how organisms interact with each other and their environment.
An organism or something living.
Something non-living, but essential for life
economy
ecosystem
biology
antibiotic
asymmetrical
asexual
greek:
oikos = house
greek:
bios = life
greek:
a(n) = without or not
Biotic
Abiotic
Ecology
Explain how these three words are related to each other. Use one to two sentences.
List as many of the biotic and abiotic factors that are in the
environment
Biotic Factors
Abiotic Factors
Describe how two of the abiotic factors you have listed in your chart influence the types of biotic factors you identified within the environment.
For each organism below, list two biotic and two abiotic factors that might affect the organism and describe how or why they would affect it.
Zebra
Pet Dog
Maple Tree
Cycles: Day 2
(Water, carbon, nitrogen)
Food Chains & Webs: Day 4
Guided Reading and analysis
HSA Review 1 & 2: water, carbs
HSA Review 3: vitamins & minerals
Guided Reading Packet
1. Which of these would lead to an increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere?
. a. a decrease in respiration
. b. a decrease in the ozone layer
. c. an increase in photosynthesis
. d. an increase in burning fossil fuels
2. All living things need nitrogen. Which organism can change nitrogen gas into ammonia that alll organisms can use?
. a. bacteria c. moss
. b. mold d. yeast
3. Rain forest are cleared for farming. What does this do to the global environment
. a. an increase in acid rain
. b. depletion of the ozone layer
. c. decreased production of food
. d. increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels
HSA Review 4
protein & lipids

Drill
Lorax & Human Impact: Day 3
Ecological Relationships: Day 5
Drill:
Take out your HW (HSA Review: Enzymes)
Get a handout from Ms. Boyea and answer the Drill.

Population: Group of 1 species in an area
Community: Groups of species in an area
Grade HSA reviews
Guided Reading on Ecological Relationships and activity.

Human Impact
The Lorax
HW-HSA Review cell respiration and char. of life

Ecology Review: Day 8
Review
2. Which one has Photosynthesis and cell respiration?
1. What does matter do after an organism dies?
3. What organism fixes nitrogen?
4. What are some ABIOTIC factors that effect plants?
5. What are some biotic factors that effect fish?
8. What will happen if the ozone layer is deleted?
Food Webs
12. What does a food web show you?
How energy flows through an ecosystem
15. What's a food chain in this web?
16. What's an herbivore in this web?
17. What level consumer is the bird?
As you move up the pyramid the biomass _____
18. What is the source of energy for producers?
19. What's the role of the iguana?
22. How is the energy in a food web different than the material in a cycle?
Ecological Relationships
23. What are the types of symbiosis and what do they do?
24. A tree has 3 species of birds that live in it. How can this be? (think about their food and shelter)
25. What do predators do?
Ecology Review, Quiz, HSA Review 7
Cycles Gallery Walk
Drill:
1. Striped bass are affected by biotic and abiotic factors in their environment. Which of these factors is biotic?
A. Water temperature
B. Mineral nutrients
C. Freshwater algae
D. Inorganic sediments
2. Which of these is an abiotic factor that affects organisms in an estuary ecosystem?
A. The amount of bacteria in the water
B. The number of copepods (a type of plankton)
C. The amount of salt in the water
D. The number of scavenger organisms
(yr. 2: didn't update the prezi)
7. What process returns water from plants to the atmosphere? (Its like perspiration
6. If I cut down a big forest, what impact will it have on the environment?
9. How can farming benefit the Nitrogen Cycle
Plant Legumes (beans) increases nitrogen fixation
10. How can farming harm the nitrogen cycle?
By adding fertilizer which runs off into the water
By planting crops like corn that pull all the nitrogen out of the soil
11. How will changes in the nitrogen cycle affect other organisms and populations in the watershed
Increased Nitrogen causes algal blooms which decrease the available light for seaweed which interrupts the food chain and the animals (fish, insects, crabs...) all DIE
grass --> bunny --> fox --> bear

13. What trophic level is the fox?

_________ consumer
14. Your cells extract 60% of the energy from food. You eat an bacon cheeseburger. It has 1000 calories. How many calories are available to your cells?
_________ calories
21. As you move from the bottom of the pyramid to the top, what happens to the amount of biomass?
What happens to the amount of energy as it goes from the grass to bugs?
20. What happens the available energy as you move from grass to insects?
Energy ____ by about ____%
25. If predation and parasitism are both +, - how are they different?
Drill: 1. Get your clicker <-- over there and there is a chart assigning you a number
2. Take out your HW: HSA review on DNA
BIOTIC ABIOTIC
NOTES
INTRODUCTION TO ECOLOGY
Desert
Estuary
Freshwater Ecosystem
Community of different species interacting with each other and their environment
ECOSYSTEM
Definitions of Ecology
Two Categories in Ecology:
Back to the pond ecosystem…
Grassland
Forest
Marine
Ecosystem
Aquatic
Freshwater
Marine
Estuary
Hydrothermal vent
Terrestrial
Forest
Desert
Grassland
TYPES OF ECOSYSTEMS
Study of the interaction between living organisms and the environment.
ECOLOGY
Ecosystems
Food chains and food webs
Water cycle, carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle
Succession
Human impact on the environment
Based on the following topics that we will cover during this unit and your prior knowledge, write a definition of ecology.

List as many words that begin with eco- as you can (2 word minimum)
DRILL #1
SWBAT
Identify biotic and abiotic factors in ecosystems
Predict the effects of biotic and abiotic factors in ecosystems
IOT
Analyze the interdependence of biotic and abiotic factors in ecosystems
OBJECTIVE
Read and identify any words you don’t know

Identify the indicated factors as abiotic or biotic
Based on the scenario, do you expect each to increase or decrease, and why?
Predict the effect of nitrate pollution on the ecosystem
Biotic & Abiotic Factors in the Nitrogen Cycle
Rewrite the definition using the terms
BIOTIC and ABIOTIC.
The study of the interaction between living things and their environment
ECOLOGY
Hydrothermal
Vent Ecosystem
SWBAT
Identify biotic and abiotic factors in ecosystems
Predict the effects of biotic and abiotic factors in ecosystems
IOT
Analyze the interdependence of biotic and abiotic factors in ecosystems
OBJECTIVE
With your neighbor, sort the cards into categories

You and your partner must decide what the categories are!

You have 3 minutes
ACTIVITY
Factors that are not living and essential for life (physical factors)
Factors that are living organisms, came from living organisms or were alive
What do they mean?
Water Pollution
Air Pollution
Acid Rain
A chemical, physical, or biological change to a body of water that has a harmful effect on living things that drink, use, or live in it.
Water Pollution
Burning of coal, oil, and natural gas
Some farming practices
Deforestation
Population growth
Causes of Global Warming
Greenhouse Effect
Substances in the air that can cause harm to human or the environment
Sulfur oxides (SO2)
Nitrogen oxides (NO2)
Carbon monoxide (CO)
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
Particulate matter (PM)
Odors
Air Pollution
Habitat destruction
Air pollution
Greenhouse Effect
Ozone Depletion
Water pollution
Acid rain
Negative Effects of Urbanization
Drill: What are some of the problems caused by creating cities or by a lot of people living so close together?
Baltimore, 1927
Sulfur and nitrogen compounds from
Power plants
Motor vehicles
Factories
Causes of Acid Rain
Precipitation that is unusually acidic
Acid Rain
Farming
Sewage
Oil spills
Industry
Storm drains
Causes of Water Pollution
Extreme weather
Increased evaporation
Glacier melting
Temperature Rise
Acidification
Negative Effects of
Global Warming
Without the greenhouse effect, Earth would be too cold to support life



Too much of a greenhouse effect can cause climate changes over time
Greenhouse Effect
Gases in the atmosphere trap heat near the earth
Greenhouse Effect
Respiratory diseases
Allergies
Cardiovascular problems
Decreased visibility
Negative Effects of Air Pollution
2.4M people per year die from effects of air pollution
Increased heat generated in urban areas intensifies the effects of air pollution
Air Pollution
Natural
Dust from dry areas
Wildfires
Volcanoes
Natural isotopes
Man-made
Burning of coal and petroleum fuels
Vehicle exhaust
Aerosols
Agriculture
Waste disposal
Industry
Causes of Air Pollution
Extinction & loss of biodiversity
More vulnerable to natural disasters
Loss of balance in ecosystem
Biogeochemical cycles change
Climate change
Negative Effects of
Habitat Destruction
Mining
Logging
Agriculture
Urban Sprawl
Causes of Habitat Destruction
Baltimore, present
Baltimore, 1800’s
Loss of Oxygen
Heavy metal build-up
Pathogens
Effects of Water Pollution
Natural habitat is changed so much that the original species can no longer survive there
Habitat Destruction
Urban Sprawl
Deforestation


Destruction of forests
Global Warming
Ozone Depletion
The breaking up of O gas in the atmosphere that blocks harmful ultraviolet radiation

is being destroyed by a group of manufactured chemicals, containing chlorine and/or bromine
Ozone Depletion
Ozone Effects

Skin Cancer
Increase of other infectious diseases
Ocean food chain disrupted

Every step up the food chain only 10% of the energy moves on.
Example: So the chicken you ate at lunch ate 10 lbs of corn and it turned into 1 lb of chicken
What trophic level is usually left out of food chains?
SWBAT
Describe Energy Flow Terms
IOT
Explain why interrelationships and interdependencies of organisms contribute to the dynamics of ecosystems
OBJECTIVE
SWBAT
Simplify food webs into food chains and assign organisms to trophic levels
Construct a BCR to explain the effects of food web disruption
IOT
Explain why interrelationships and interdependencies of organisms contribute to the dynamics of ecosystems
DID WE MEET OUR OBJECTIVES?
Figure 19.23
A food web is a more realistic representation of a community compared to a food chain.
Trophic Relationships: a series of organisms eating each other
What do
Food Chains
show us?
In what trophic level(s) do humans belong?
“is eaten by”
What do the arrows in food chains mean?
Figure 19.22
Get their energy from the dead material left from all organic matter
Decomposers:
Heterotroph:
must consume food
Autotroph:
makes own food
TROPHIC = Feeding
Producers
Primary consumers
Secondary consumers
Tertiary consumers
Quaternary consumers
Phytoplankton
Zooplankton
Carnivore
Carnivore
Carnivore
Plant
Herbivore
Carnivore
Carnivore
Carnivore
Each of these
is a
TROPHIC LEVEL
Producers
Primary consumers
Secondary consumers
Tertiary consumers
Quaternary consumers
Figure 19.21
Trophic Levels and Food Chains
Phytoplankton
Zooplankton
Carnivore
Carnivore
Carnivore
A terrestrial food chain
Plant
Herbivore
Carnivore
Carnivore
Carnivore

make their own
food via
photosynthesis
or
chemosynthesis
Producers
Trophic Levels and Food Chains
Plant
Herbivore
Carnivore
Carnivore
Carnivore
Complex diagram showing all possible food chains and feeding relationships in an ecosystem
What do
Food Webs
show us?
A marine food chain
Trophic Level


Organisms that occupy the same position in a food chain.
Herbivores
eat plants, algae,
or autotrophic bacteria, are the
primary consumers
of an ecosystem
Primary consumers
Trophic Levels and Food Chains
Plant
Herbivore
Carnivore
Carnivore
Carnivore
Carnivores
eat the
consumers
from the
levels below
Secondary consumers
Tertiary consumers
Quaternary consumers
Trophic Levels and Food Chains
Plant
Herbivore
Carnivore
Carnivore
Carnivore
Producers
Consumers
eat other producers or consumers
Omnivores
eat both producers and consumers
Biomass


Amount of living tissue within a given trophic level
10% Rule:
Energy Pyramids
Show how much energy is in the organisms of a level
Organism
Population
Community
Ecosystem
Biome
Biosphere
Where Are We?
Ecology is the study of organism interactions with each other and the enviornment.

Ecological processes occur at multiple levels of organization on Earth.

Each level of organization emerges from the processes of the level below it
Behavior is an Organism-Level phenomenon.
Conservation biology is applied to all levels of organization.
Organism
Population
Community
Ecosystem
Biome
Biosphere
Where Are We?
Ecology is the study of organism interactions with each other and the enviornment.

Ecological processes occur at multiple levels of organization on Earth.

Each level of organization emerges from the processes of the level below it
Behavior is an Organism-Level phenomenon.
Conservation biology is applied to all levels of organization.
Scavengers
eat dead or weak consumers
Day 6: Succession and Population
Brainpop-Ecosystems
Notes (BPop on biomes)
Graphing
Vocab Review
HSA-DNA

Drill: You have 3 minutes to organize your packet
Drill Organize your packet!
Human Population Activity
Primary succession
Start from scratch
Bare rock; no soil is present
Types of Succession
Did ecosystems start out diverse and complex?
MAKE SURE:
All your packet is DONE by next class!
Biomes are a group of ecosystems that have the same temperature, precipitation, and types of organisms


Your biome is a temperate forest
Examples: tropical rain forests, tundra, desert, and grassland
Biomes
Primary Succession
1. One of the Earth’s greatest natural resources
Foods
Medicines
Industrial products
2. Stable ecosystem
Easier to recover from problems
Benefits of Biodiversity
Species diversity = lots of different species

Genetic diversity = variation within species

Ecological diversity = lots of different ecosystems
Biodiversity
Brainpop:
Ecosystems
SWBAT
Examine how populations of organisms change over time

IOT
Examine the interdependence of factors in ecosystems
OBJECTIVE
Begins in disturbed areas
Abandoned farmland
Burned/cut forests
Heavily polluted streams
Land that has been dammed/flooded
SECONDARY SUCCESSION
As ecosystems change (due to natural and human disturbances), older inhabitants gradually die out and new organisms move in.

Happens in a predictable order

Starts very simple and gets more complex as time goes on
Succession
Time
Mature oak-hickory forest
Young pine forest
Shrubs
Perennial
weeds and
grasses
Annual
weeds
Time
Enzyme HW: Give to Ms. Boyea
Starting over after a disturbance
Soil is already present
Brainpop: Land Biomes
Carbon Cycle
bacteria
Its recycled?
precipitation
wind air
algae, food, predators
transpiration
Carbon Dioxide increases
More UV radiation will reach the earth
Legumes add nitrogen to make the soil better
Added fertilizers could run-off into the water polluting the water. Farming could strip the soil of nitrogen.
Day 7: Food Chain Gizmo
See Ms. Boyea for username and Password
Full transcript