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Atmosphere

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by

Alec Colwell

on 14 May 2014

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Transcript of Atmosphere

Hurricanes typically occur in the spring and summer, when the oceans are the warmest.
Intense low-pressure areas called tropical depressions form as warm water evaporates. Causing a hurricane.

It keeps Earth warm
Energy released from the sun as radiation is absorbed by Earth's surface.
Some of the energy is transferred back towards space as radiation also.
Carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other gasses absorb some of this energy in the form of radiation some of which warms Earth's surface.
Without the Green House Effect the Earth would be a lot colder.
Global Warming
Global warming is the increase of the overall temperature of the Earth's atmosphere.
Too much carbon dioxide may cause increased atmosphere temperature.
Global warming can cause rising sea levels because of melting ice caps and it can cause droughts.
The average temperatures have been rising in the past few decades.
Combustion of coal, oil and gas has added more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.
This increase in carbon dioxide has increased temperatures in the troposphere.
Characteristics of the Atmosphere
Lighting may result when water droplets and ice crystals in thunderclouds build up electric charges.
Lightning
Consists of many different gases
- 78% Nitrogen
- 21% Oxygen
- 1% Others (Trace Gases)
Layers differ in temperature, density, and relative amount of gases
Layers of the Atmosphere
Most tornadoes form in spring and summer, typically along a front between cool, dry and warm, humid air.
Tornadoes
Ozone Layer
Layer in Earth's Stratosphere.
Stratosphere contains high levels of ozone
Ozone forms when the Sun's ultraviolet rays strike molecules of O2. The single atoms of oxygen bond with O2 molecules to make Ozone, O3.
The Ozone layer absorbs the Sun's harmful rays.
If the Ozone layer wasn't here it would cause damage to living things.
The Ozone layer is broken down by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
Tornadoes
A tornado begins as a column of water droplets, called a
funnel cloud
.
Inside the funnel, the air pressure is very low.
As the funnel reaches the ground, high pressure rushes into the low pressure area.
The result; a tornado.
Troposphere
We live in this layer of the atmosphere
Closest layer to Earth
Clouds, wind, rain, and snow occur in this layer
The most dense layer
Temperature decreases as altitude increases
ex. Climbing a mountain
Temperature Inversion
Green House Effect
Hurricanes
Hurricane Measures
The diameter of a hurricane can be more than 600 km (373 mi)
Winds can reach speeds from 118 km/h (73 mi/h) to greater than 250 km/h (155 mi/h)
Gets warmer as altitude increases
Has little water vapor
The ozone layer is formed by absorbing ultraviolet radiation
Few clouds and no storms
Stratosphere
Hurricane Katrina
Fronts and Severe Weather
A front is the place where a cold air mass and a warm air mass meet.
Clouds, rain and sometimes snow can occur at fronts.
Fronts cause precipitation and change wind and temperature.
There are 3 types of fronts: Cold, Warm and stationary fronts.
Climate
is the average weather of a region and is measured over many years.
Climate
Warm Front
A mass of warm air moves toward and over a slower denser mass of cold air. The warm air as it is pushed up and over the cool air, cools and forms clouds.
Cold Front
Lightning instantly heats the air around so much that the air around expands faster than the sound of speed. The shock wave is thunder.
Lightning
Mesosphere
Coldest layer of the atmosphere
Temperature decreases as altitude increases
Temperatures are as low as -112°F
Forward edge of a mass of cold air moves under a slower mass of warm air and pushes it up.
The eye of the hurricane is the calmest, this could be misleading, only for the storm to start again.

Stationary Front
When two air masses meet but neither is displaced. the air masses move side by side along the front. The weather conditions near a stationary front are similar to a warm front
Temperature tends to be higher closer to the equator.
The poles are cold because rays pass nearly parallel to Earths surface and do not warm the atmosphere as much.
Equator
Earth is farthest from the sun in July and closest in January.
Earths seasons are caused by Earths tilt.
Seasons
Julia
Rushil
Alec Colwell
Temperature increases as altitude increases
Temperatures average 980°C (1,796°F)
Exosphere - gases are captured by Earth's gravity and added to the atmosphere
Thermosphere/Exosphere
Solar energy is absorbed and ions are formed in this layer
Electrons reflect radio waves to be received over a long distance
Colorful light displays called auroras take place in the ionosphere
Ionosphere
When the North Pole is tilted towards the sun, the sun rises higher in the Northern Hemisphere.
There is more daylight, therefore the temperature increases.
Earths Tilt
The rise and fall of a land surface is called
topography.
This effects the climate.
Example: mountains.
Surface Effects Climate
As air rises over a mountain, the air cools and clouds form.
On the other side of the mountain, cool, dry air warms as it descends.
Mountains
Factors the contribute to the changes in climate are eruptions from volcanoes, shift in continents, and changes in earths tilt.
Global Climate
Full transcript