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Transcript of Vortex Theology
Entanglements Full sprectrum magnetodynamic field Magnetic Flux Magnetospheres Vortex Convection Vortex Theology https://fbcdn-sphotos-d-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/76137_10200401646180596_199427719_n.jpg https://fbcdn-sphotos-d-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/304352_4859913812573_594961892_n.jpg Visualization of 2D Bose-Einstein Condensates
Michael Mallon and Chao Feng
This is a simulation of a Bose Einstein Condensate (BEC), showing the density of a cylindrically symmetric BEC after a laser beam is dragged through the condensate. The computational grid was 64x1024 (radius x Z), with 200 timesteps. The simulation was performed in XMDS running on barrine.
The simulation output "data" was exported from Matlab into a series of .vtk files by using the VtkWriter class developed in VisLab. ParaView was then used to convert 2D contours of the density data into the 3D visualisation shown in the videos above. Quantum Vortex Strings
Study the quantum dynamics of vortex strings (magnetic flux tubes) in four-dimensional gauge theories
The vortex strings contain information about the strongly coupled gauge dynamics in four-dimensions
“Vortices, Instantons and Branes” hep-th/0306150, with Ami Hanany“Monopoles in the Higgs Phase” hep-th/0307302“Vortex Strings and 4d Gauge Dynamics” hep-th/0403158 with Ami Hanany“Superconformal Vortex Strings” hep-th/0610214 “Heterotic Vortex Strings” hep-th/0703045 with Mohammad Edalatihttp://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/user/tong/talks/vstring.pdf https://fbcdn-sphotos-g-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-frc3/292047_4488220120463_1120171830_n.jpg https://fbcdn-sphotos-h-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-snc7/388512_2845519413972_1618129380_n.jpg Electromagnetotoroid Structures and their Hydrodynamic Analogs
Mario J. Pinheiro
Department of Physics Instituto Superior T´ecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal
& Institute for Advanced Studies in the Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences 265 Ita Ann Ln. Madison, AL 35757 USA †
(Dated: March 9, 2012)
We introduce the concept of an electromagnetotoroid in astrophysics, and explore its role in polar
jets. This model represents the onset of Abraham’s force driven by some external source, for example,
the infall of gas towards a star. The Abraham’s force term is analogous to the Magnus force, and
thus represents the formation of electromagnetic vortex structures in the fabric of space-time. In
principle, the proposed toroidal field structure can also provide force spaceship propulsion.
http://arxiv.org/abs/1203.1881 https://fbcdn-sphotos-b-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/554368_10200408120462449_1275801096_n.jpg https://fbcdn-sphotos-b-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/523534_4114818305651_575892134_n.jpg 1st Lesson
Closed ring plasmoid(air) string
STRING THEORY (Cambridge Monographs on Mathematical Physics) (Volume 1) by Joseph Polchinski.
http://www.mediafire.com/?jnsgsyzd3mz97qd https://fbcdn-sphotos-d-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-snc7/294989_4114930668460_1568811013_n.jpg https://fbcdn-sphotos-g-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/529425_10200517414234725_1579789337_n.jpg NASA | First Sightings of How a CME Forms
Published on 31 Jan 2013
On July 18, 2012, a fairly small explosion of light burst off the lower right limb of the sun. Such flares often come with an associated eruption of solar material, known as a coronal mass ejection or CME -- but this one did not. Something interesting did happen, however. Magnetic field lines in this area of the sun's atmosphere, the corona, began to twist and kink, generating the hottest solar material -- a charged gas called plasma -- to trace out the newly-formed slinky shape. The plasma glowed brightly in extreme ultraviolet images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) aboard NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and scientists were able to watch for the first time the very formation of something they had long theorized was at the heart of many eruptive events on the sun: a flux rope.
Eight hours later, on July 19, the same region flared again. This time the flux rope's connection to the sun was severed, and the magnetic fields escaped into space, dragging billions of tons of solar material along for the ride -- a classic CME. https://fbcdn-sphotos-g-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-frc1/380448_2871751869767_1438169264_n.jpg More than just gorgeous to see, such direct observation offers one case study on how this crucial kernel at the heart of a CME forms. Such flux ropes have been seen in images of CMEs as they fly away from the sun, but it's never been known -- indeed, has been strongly debated -- whether the flux rope formed before or in conjunction with a CME's launch. This case shows a clear-cut example of the flux rope forming ahead of time.This video is public domain and can be downloaded at: http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a010000/a011100/a011180/Like our videos? Subscribe to NASA's Goddard Shorts HD podcast:http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/iTunes/f0004_index.htmlOr find NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on Facebook:http://www.facebook.com/NASA.GSFCOr find us on Twitter:http://twitter.com/NASAGoddard https://fbcdn-sphotos-b-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/556958_4929462031235_662412992_n.jpg
Complex Dynamics in Cold Gases
When applied to a highly excited Rydberg atom, a magnetic field of a few Tesla has a drastic effect on its structure -- comparable to the response of groundstate atoms to enormously large fields of several 1000 Tesla, as realized in astrophysical objects such as white dwarfs. In the same way, low-temperature plasmas are much stronger affected by magnetic fields than their high-temperature counterparts.
Strongly magnetized Rydberg atoms and plasmas continue to attract interest for several reasons; they represent a well-known paradigm for quantum-chaos, exhibit interesting collective and collisional properties and may provide a superior route towards simultaneous atom-plasma confinement and control. From another perspective, understanding the physics of strongly magnetized Rydberg-plasmas is important for ongoing experiments that produce Antihydrogen atoms at CERN. Once created, ultracold groundstate antihydrogen will permit unique matter-anitmatter comparisons to test fundamental physics such as CPT symmetry or gravity.
We are developing tools to describe and understand the dynamical behavior of strongly magnetized Rydberg atoms and plasmas. Within combined classical and quantum approaches we are working on such questions as: What is the basic mechanism of atom formation in strong magnetic fields and how does is it depend on plasma parameters? What type of atoms are formed and how can we manipulate the resulting atomic state distribution? How do Rydberg atoms evolve in the fields of strong magnetic traps and how can we control their dynamics? Answering such questions is also relevant for current antihydrogen experiments and we are closely working together with experimental groups at CERN, in this respect.
Hossein R. Sadeghpour (ITAMP, Harvard-Smitsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge MA, USA)
Gerald Gabrielse (Harvard University, Cambridge MA, USA)
Yasunori Yamazaki (RIKEN, Saitama, Japan and University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan) https://fbcdn-sphotos-h-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/408143_3395395520531_1970724475_n.jpg http://dusty.physics.uiowa.edu/~goree/papers/schweigert_acceleration_PoP_2002.pdf
Acceleration and orbits of charged particles beneath
a monolayer plasma crystal
V. A. Schweigert and I. V. Schweigerta)
Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia
V. Nosenko and J. Goreeb)
Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242
~Received 17 April 2002; accepted 14 August 2002!
Experiments and simulations are reported for a monolayer plasma crystal that is disturbed by an
extra particle moving in a plane below the monolayer. Numerical simulations and experiments are
performed to find an explanation for the motion of the extra particle. In contrast to earlier
simulations where an extra particle did not move spontaneously as in the experiment, here an ion
wakefield downstream of the monolayer of particles is included. This resulted in the spontaneous
motion of an extra particle as in the experiment, so that it is concluded that the wakefield produces
this motion. In both the experiment and the simulation a trend is observed where the orbit of an extra
particle becomes more crooked and less energetic when the gas damping is stronger. The simulation
reveals that the energy of the extra particle exhibits distinctive transitions between three
regimes. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. https://fbcdn-sphotos-b-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/396967_4198296912564_273240090_n.jpg Discovery of material with amazing propertieshttp://www.nbi.ku.dk/english/news/news12/discovery_of_material_with_amazing_properties/2012-06-24
Normally a material can be either magnetically or electrically polarized, but not both. Now researchers at the Niels Bohr Institute at University of Copenhagen have studied a material that is simultaneously magnetically and electrically polarizable. This opens up new possibilities, for example, for sensors in technology of the future. The results have been published in the scientific journal, Nature Materials.
Materials that can be both magnetically and electrically polarized and also have additional properties are called multiferroics and were previously discovered by Russian researchers in the 1960s. But the technology to examine the materials did not exist at that time. It is only now, in recent years, that researchers have once again focused on analyzing the properties of such materials. Now you have research facilities that can analyze the materials down to the atomic level.
Surprising test results
“We have studied the rare, naturally occurring iron compound, TbFeO3, using powerful neutron radiation in a magnetic field. The temperature was cooled down to near absolute zero, minus 271 C. We were able to identify that the atoms in the material are arranged in a congruent lattice structure consisting of rows of the heavy metal terbium separated by iron and oxygen atoms. Such lattices are well known, but their magnetic domains are new. Normally, the magnetic domains lie a bit helter-skelter, but here we observed that they lay straight as an arrow with the same distance between them. We were completely stunned when we saw it,” explains Kim Lefmann, Associate Professor at the Nano-Science Center, University of Copenhagen.
They were very strange and very beautiful measurements and it is just such a discovery that can awaken the researchers’ intense interest. Why does it look like this? https://fbcdn-sphotos-b-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/538707_4615111052657_346656490_n.jpg Three-dimensional graphical representations of the way electrons respond to an input of energy, delivered by a pulse of laser light. The horizontal axis represents the electrons' momentum, and the vertical axis shows their energy. The time sequence runs from top left to bottom right, and the laser pulse arrives just before the second image, causing a sudden burst of higher energy levels.
Images courtesy of Yihua Wang and Nuh Gedik
Topological insulators are exotic materials, discovered just a few years ago, that hold great promise for new kinds of electronic devices. The unusual behavior of electrons within them has been very difficult to study, but new techniques developed by a team of researchers at MIT could help unlock the mysteries of exactly how electrons move and react in these materials, opening up new possibilities for harnessing them.
For the first time, the MIT team has managed to create three-dimensional “movies” of electron behavior in a topological insulator, or TI. The movies can capture vanishingly small increments of time — down to the level of a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second — so that they can catch the motions of electrons as they scatter in response to a very short pulse of light https://fbcdn-sphotos-e-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/223729_4789776099174_925270816_n.jpg Planar 2D Bessel function WGMs vs. toroidal 3D knot WCM (Park et al., 2002). The 3D WCM is a toroid with a circular helix symmetry not reducible to the simple 2D rotational symmetry.
Advances in Optical and Photonic Devices, ISBN: 978-953-7619-76-3
Photonic Quantum Ring Laser of Whispering Cave Mode
By O’Dae Kwon, M. H. Sheen and Y. C. Kim
In early 1990s, an AT&T Bell Laboratory group developed a microdisk laser of thumb-tack type based upon Lord Rayleigh's ‘concave’ whispering gallery mode (WGM) for the optoelectronic large-scale integration circuits (McCall et al., 1992). The above lasers were however two dimensional (2D) WGM which is troubled with the well-known WGM light spread problem. For the remedy of this problem, asymmetric WGM lasers of stadium type (Nockel & Stone, 1997) were then introduced to control the spreading light beam. Quite recently, a novel micro-cavity of limaçon shape has shown the capability of highly directional light emission with a divergence angle of around 40-50 degrees, which is a big improvement to the light spreading problem.(Wiersig & Hentschel, 2008)
On the other hand, when we employ a new micro-cavity of vertically reflecting distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) structures added below and above quantum well (QW) planes, say a few active 80Å (Al) GaAs QWs, a 3D toroidal cavity is formed giving rise to helix standing waves in 3D whispering cave modes (WCMs) as shown Figure 1 (Ahn et al., 1999). The photonic quantum ring (PQR) laser of WCMs is thus born without any intentionally fabricated ring pattern structures, which will be elaborated later. The PQR’s resonant light is radiating in 3D but in a surface-normal dominant fashion, avoiding the 2D WGM’s in-plane light spread problem. https://fbcdn-sphotos-f-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/545465_4854130627997_1524806739_n.jpg https://fbcdn-sphotos-d-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-snc7/581060_4142260191681_1711590330_n.jpg High Energy Pion Plasmoid
Published on Jun 12, 2012 by SolarWatcher
Gamma Rays from March X-Flare Detected By Fermi
During a powerful solar blast in March, NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope detected the highest-energy light ever associated with an eruption on the sun. The discovery heralds Fermi's new role as a solar observatory, a powerful new tool for understanding solar outbursts during the sun's maximum period of activity.
"For most of Fermi's four years in orbit, its Large Area Telescope (LAT) saw the sun as a faint, steady gamma-ray source thanks to the impacts of high-speed particles called cosmic rays," said Nicola Omodei, an astrophysicist at Stanford University in California. "Now we're beginning to see what the sun itself can do."
A solar flare is an explosive blast of light and charged particles. The powerful March 7 flare, which earned a classification of X5.4 based on the peak intensity of its X-rays, is the strongest eruption so far observed by Fermi's LAT. The flare produced such an outpouring of gamma rays -- a form of light with even greater energy than X-rays -- that the sun briefly became the brightest object in the gamma-ray sky.
At the flare's peak, the LAT detected gamma rays with two billion times the energy of visible light, or about 4 billion electron volts (GeV), easily setting a record for the highest-energy light ever detected during or just after a solar flare. The flux of high-energy gamma rays, defined as those with energies beyond 100 million electron volts (MeV), was 1,000 times greater than the sun's steady output.
The March 7 flare also is notable for the persistence of its gamma-ray emission. Fermi's LAT detected high-energy gamma rays for about 20 hours, two and a half times longer than any event on record.
Additionally, the event marks the first time a greater-than-100-MeV gamma-ray source has been localized to the sun's disk, thanks to the LAT's keen angular resolution.
Flares and other eruptive solar events produce gamma rays by accelerating charged particles, which then collide with matter in the sun's atmosphere and visible surface. For instance, interactions among protons result in short-lived subatomic particles called pions, which produce high-energy gamma rays when they decay. Nuclei excited by collisions with lower-energy ions give off characteristic gamma rays as they settle down. Accelerated electrons emit gamma rays as they collide with protons and atomic nuclei.
Solar eruptions are now on the rise as the sun progresses toward the peak of its roughly 11-year-long activity cycle, now expected in mid-2013.
This video is public domain
solarwatcher website - http://solarwatcher.net/
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Earthquake Reporting Channel - http://www.youtube.com/user/EQReporter
Soho Website - http://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/
Solar Soft website - http://www.lmsal.com/solarsoft/latest_events/ Solar Terrestrial Activity Report - http://www.solen.info/solar/
WSA-Enlil Solar Wind Prediction - http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/wsa-enlil/cme-based/
Helioviewer - http://www.helioviewer.org/ Quality Solar Website - http://www.solarham.com/
Estimated Planetary K index information - http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/rt_plots/kp_...
GOES Xray Flux Data - http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/rt_plots/xray_5mBL.html
Sunspot Information from Solar Monitor - http://www.solarmonitor.org/
Quality Weather Website - http://www.westernpacificweather.com/
Space Weather Website - http://www.spaceweather.com/ https://fbcdn-sphotos-b-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/527776_4133300087684_688476205_n.jpg POP GOES THE PLASMA: EXTREME CONDITIONS INSIDE IMPLODING BUBBLES
7/14/2010 07:14:00 AM Publicado por Jorge Franchín
High-intensity ultrasound waves traveling through liquid leave bubbles in their wake. Under the right conditions, these bubbles implode spectacularly, emitting light and reaching very high temperatures, a phenomenon called sonoluminescence. Researchers have observed imploding bubble conditions so hot that the gas inside the bubbles ionizes into plasma, but quantifying the temperature and pressure properties has been elusive.
In a paper published in the June 27 issue of Nature Physics, University of lllinois chemistry professor Kenneth S. Suslick and former student David Flannigan, now at the California Institute of Technology, experimentally determine the plasma electron density, temperature and extent of ionization.
Suslick and Flannigan first observed super-bright sonoluminescence in 2005 by sending ultrasound waves through sulfuric acid solutions to create bubbles.
“The energies of the populated atomic levels suggested a plasma, but at that time there was no estimate of the density of the plasma, a crucial parameter to understanding the conditions created at the core of the collapsing bubble,” said Suslick, the Marvin T. Schmidt Professor of Chemistry and a professor of materials science and engineering.
The new report uses the same setup, but now with a detailed analysis of the shape of the observed spectrum, which provides information on the conditions of the region around the atoms inside the bubble as it collapses.
“The temperature can be several times that of the surface of the sun and the pressure greater than that at the bottom of the deepest ocean trench,” Suslick said.
“What’s more, we were able to determine how these properties are affected by the ferocity with which the bubble collapses, and we found that the plasma conditions generated may indeed be extreme.”
The duo observed temperatures greater than 16,000 kelvins – three times the temperature on the surface of the sun. They also measured electron densities during bubble collapse similar to those generated by laser fusion experiments. However, Suslick emphasized that his group has not observed evidence that fusion takes place during sonoluminescence, as some have theorized possible.
In addition, the researchers found that plasma properties show a strong dependence on the violence of bubble implosion, and that the degree of ionization, or how much of the gas is converted to plasma, increases as the acoustic pressure increases.
“It is evident from these results that the upper bounds of the conditions generated during bubble implosion have yet to be established,” Suslick said. “The observable physical conditions suggest the limits of energy focusing during the bubble-forming and imploding process may approach conditions achievable only by much more expensive means.”
(Photo: Hangxun Xu and Ken Suslick) https://fbcdn-sphotos-a-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-frc1/406968_4855803269812_1595102595_n.jpg Surface plasmon modes of a single silver nanorod: an electron energy loss study.
We present an electron energy loss study using energy filtered TEM of spatially resolved surface plasmon excitations on a silver nanorod of aspect ratio 14.2 resting on a 30 nm thick silicon nitride membrane. Our results show that the excitation is quantized as resonant modes whose intensity maxima vary along the nanorod’s length and whose wavelength becomes compressed towards the ends of the nanorod. Theoretical calculations modelling the surface plasmon response of the silver nanorod-silicon nitride system show the importance of including retardation and substrate effects in order to describe accurately the energy dispersion of the resonant modes.© 2011 OSA
1. IntroductionMany of the remarkable optical properties offered by metallic nanoparticles (NPs) arise because of the excitation of surface plasmon (SP) resonances. Plasmons are the collective coherent excitation of conduction electrons  and surface plasmons are a sub-set whose nature is dictated by the interaction of conduction electrons with the interface between a metal and a dielectric medium . The rich variety of SP resonant modes seen in metallic NPs is brought about by the dependence of SP excitation with the NP shape, size, composition and environment. Such dependence has led to many proposed applications, including (a) chemical and biochemical sensors which make use of the property that the energy at which the SPs occur depends on the dielectric function of the surrounding environment [3,4], (b) surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates that rely on the ability of SPs to enhance the local electric field increasing enormously for example the Raman response of molecules, and (c) nanophotonic waveguides [4,5] which enables the SP to couple with surface roughness and be converted into electromagnetic radiation (and vice versa) [2,6].
Most of these applications are dependent on the sub-wavelength spatial variations of the SPs induced in the metal NPs. It is therefore of paramount importance to understand such variations using characterization techniques that offer sufficient spatial and energy resolution to access this information.
SPs have been studied for the most part by light optical excitation, using either reflective or absorption experiments . Only in recent years, thanks primarily to improvements in energy resolution given by the introduction of electron monochromators on commercial transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) , has electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS)  begun to be used routinely as a complementary technique to light-induced SP excitation and analysis; recent publications on the direct mapping of SP resonant modes on metal nanoparticles by EELS include references [9–15]. The advantages of probing optical excitations with electrons include the possibility of much higher spatial resolution  (through the small De Broglie wavelength of the electron beam) and the ability to excite all possible SP modes (both bright and dark modes [16,17]).
All the measurements reported in this article are based on the technique of energy filtered TEM (EFTEM), where SP resonant modes are excited using parallel illumination with a series of images acquired, each of which is formed using electrons that have lost energies within a small range (in this study 0.23 eV), selected by an energy window in the spectral plane [8,18,19].
Metallic nanorods with “sub-wavelength” dimension (i.e. with dimensions smaller than the wavelength of emitted light) can be used as nano-antennae. Theoretical work [20,21] and initial experimental measurements [15,22–24] illustrate the great interest in, and potential of, such systems. We have therefore undertaken a detailed energy-loss spectroscopy study of an isolated silver nanorod acting as a nano-antenna, mapping the spatial variation of SP excitations along the nanorod using EFTEM and with detailed analysis of important spatial parameters and features of the SP resonance https://fbcdn-sphotos-b-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/599856_4912381364229_458482637_n.jpg Bose-Einstein Plasmon Toroid vortex structure with Quantum hall . http://cat.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp/publication-e.html https://fbcdn-sphotos-c-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/374814_2624984900747_1497868983_n.jpg https://fbcdn-sphotos-a-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-frc1/306299_2533713539020_1723103246_n.jpg Explanation: What, in heaven, is that? Sometimes astronomers see things on the sky they don't immediately understand. In 1985 this happened to Arturo Gomez, and the object became known as Gomez's Hamburger for its distinctive yet familiar shape. After some investigation, the object was identified as a proto-planetary nebula, a gas cloud emitted by a Sun-like star just after its central hydrogen fuel has all been fused to helium. Gomez's Hamburger is on its way to becoming a full-fledged planetary nebula in a few thousand years. The light seen (the bun) is reflected by dust from the central star, although the star itself is obscured by a thick dust disk that runs across the middle (the patty). Gomez's Hamburger, pictured above in a recent image from the Hubble Space Telescope, is only a fraction of a light year across but located approximately 10,000 light years away towards the constellation of Sagittarius.
http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap020807.html https://fbcdn-sphotos-g-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/427078_3306616301106_1680157749_n.jpg https://fbcdn-sphotos-b-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/427306_3196956159671_1503263902_n.jpg NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has detected beams of antimatter launched by thunderstorms. NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center/J. Dwyer/Florida Inst. of Technology
NASA | Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes Create Antimatter https://fbcdn-sphotos-g-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-frc1/389533_2956467307600_1385424580_n.jpg Relativistic Astrophysics
The Life of Black Holes and Neutron Stars
When massive stars exhaust their nuclear fuel they die in the most spectacular fasion — their central core collapses either to a superdense ball of only few kilometres in size, neutron stars, or to a black hole. The gravitational energy released during or soon after the collapse drives huge explosions known as Supernovae and Hypernovae. The life of neutron stars and black holes produced in this way remains most spectacular even after these explosions. Thanks to the angular momentum conservation they are usually rapidly rotating and the rotational energy can power strong outflows which then interact with the surrounding plasma leading to the phenomena like Pulsar Wind Nebulae. When a black hole/neutron star is a member of a binary system with a normal star as a companion it can accrete the matter being lost by the companion. Gravitational energy that is released during the accretion powers a variety of violent astrophysical phenomena. Some of it transforms into the rotational energy of the black hole/neutron star that keeps them spinning rapidly. Magnetic fields are likely to play a key role in driving the accretion as well as in powering and collimating the outflows from accreting systems. Given the relativistically strong gravitational field of the central object one would expect relativistically high speeds of the outflows and the observations do provide us with direct evidence for such speeds in the outflows from neutron stars as well as galactic and extragalactic black holes. Black holes created in galactic nuclei have a plentiful supply of matter from the dense interstellar medium and by accreting this matter they grow to an enormous size of up to billions of solar masses. These supermassive black holes are responsible for the phenomena of Active Galactic Nuclei, Quasars, and Radio Galaxies. They drive most powerful jets of magnetised plasma that can extend up to millions of light years. In spite of decades of observational and theoretical research many key aspects of black hole/neutron star physics remains unclear and are awaiting for new generations of researches to take on them. One of the most noticeable advances of recent years has been the development of powerful computational tool that allow to get invaluable insights into the phenomena of relativistic astrophysics via numerical simulations.
http://chandra.harvard.edu/xray_astro/dark_energy/index2.html https://fbcdn-sphotos-h-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-frc1/604014_4856083596820_739083195_n.jpg Monitoring M2-9
Credit: R. Corradi, M. Santander-Garcia (Isaac Newton Group, IAC), Bruce Balick (U. Washington)
Explanation: Exploring the myriad shapes found in the cosmic zoo of planetary nebulae, some astronomers have focused on the intriguing example of M2-9. About 2,100 light-years away and over one light-year across, M2-9 is known as a twin jet or butterfly nebula in reference to its striking bipolar symmetry. Monitoring M2-9 over many years from ground based telescopes has revealed the dramatic west to east (left to right) progression of features illustrated in this collage. The apparent motion could well be caused by an energetic rotating beam sweeping across the nebular material. Astronomers argue that the beam is collimated by interacting stellar winds in a double star system at the center of M2-9. The binary system of a giant star and hot white dwarf star orbit each other about once every 120 years. Click on the image to watch an animated gif of M2-9.
http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap070618.html https://fbcdn-sphotos-g-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/12890_4856135438116_362070903_n.jpg Butterfly Nebula shows its Wings
M2-9 is a rather unique planetary nebula known as a bipolar nebula due to the nubulous material being ejected in two opposite directions, seen as perpendicular from earth. This phenomena is believed to be caused by the central star (once a red giant, now on it's way to becoming a white dwarf) to be a part of a binary system, the other star being much smaller and in very close orbit. The image was taken with the Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 using four narrow-band filters (F631N - Blue, F656N - Green, F658N -Red, and F673N - Red) in August of 1998 and retrieved from the Hubble ESO/ST-ECF Archive.
http://www.spacetelescope.org/static/archives/fitsimages/screen/danny_lacrue_11.jpg https://fbcdn-sphotos-f-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-frc3/377904_2964179580402_1889720786_n.jpg Micromagnetism
The particular properties of magnetic micro- and nanostructures result from of a complicated interplay between several energy terms. A detailed description of the magnetic structure is a prerequisite for the understanding of magnetization processes in magnetic particles. The theory of micromagnetism provides the mathematical framework to describe static and magnetization structures. Usually, a solution of the underlying equations can only be achieved with numerical methods. Micromagnetic simulations can provide precise information on the spatio-temporal evolution of the magnetization in sub-micron sized ferromagnetic particles. A custom-developed micromagnetic code based on the finite-element method is used to model the static and the dynamic magnetization. In many cases, the simulations are in direct connection with an experimental investigation, which allows for a direct comparison of measured and computed data. This combination of experiment and simulation is particularly powerful to establish a well-founded understanding of fundamental magnetization processes in mesoscopic ferromagnets. Our current research projects in micromagnetic modelling include, e.g., the study of propagating spin waves in thin films, strips and rings; current-induced magnetization dynamics; resonant modes in patterned elements and three-dimensional magnetic structures in mesoscopic particles.
http://www2.fz-juelich.de/iff/e_iff_nobelpreis https://fbcdn-sphotos-b-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/375273_2884534589327_1049866439_n.jpg © 2009 Miloslav Druckmüller, Peter Aniol, Vojtech Rušin, Ĺubomír Klocok, Karel Martišek, Martin Dietzel
Eclipse Photograph Exposes Details of Both Sun and Moon January 27, 2010
July 22, 2009, brought the longest total solar eclipse that Earth will witness in the 21st century. Visible within a narrow band snaking across Asia and the Pacific Ocean, the totality of the eclipse lasted up to six minutes and 39 seconds, a duration that will not be surpassed until 2132. At Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands, where the first hydrogen bomb was tested by the U.S. in 1952, the totality lasted more than five and a half minutes. https://fbcdn-sphotos-e-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-frc1/184944_4849859881231_1933681116_n.jpg Electric Sun Verified
Posted on October 20, 2009 by Wal Thornhill
“Is it likely that any astonishing new developments are lying in wait for us? Is it possible that the cosmology of 500 years hence will extend as far beyond our present beliefs as our cosmology goes beyond that of Newton?”
—Fred Hoyle, The Nature of the Universe
This diagram shows a conceptual cross-section along the central axis of the stellar Z-pinch at the Sun’s position. Whether the double layers exist within or outside the heliosphere is unknown. The diameter of the encircling cylinder is unknown. That of supernova 1987A is of the order of a light-year, which would make the diameter of the heliosphere more than 600 times smaller! Note that as a rotating charged body the Sun’s magnetic field is not aligned with the interstellar magnetic field and Z-pinch axis. The Sun’s magnetic field only has influence within the tiny heliosphere but it is modulated by galactic currents. Alfvén’s axial “double layers” (DLs) have been included although their distance from the Sun is unknown. DLs are produced in current carrying plasma and are the one region where charge separation takes place in plasma and a high voltage is generated across them (see discussion below). https://fbcdn-sphotos-a-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-frc1/406858_2896200400965_511602119_n.jpg A formed star to the Oort cloud.
Credit: CLAUS LUNAU/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Caption: Oort cloud. Computer illustration of the Oort cloud of comet nuclei thought to form a spherical halo around the solar system. The Sun and solar system are at centre, but are not seen at this scale. The outer edge of the Oort cloud may be up to 100,000 astronomical units (the distance from the Earth to the Sun) from the Sun, or around 1.5 light years. The Oort cloud comprises billions of comet nuclei, small lumps of rock and ice. Some of these may fall into the solar system to become visible as comets. The bright horizontal band is the Kuiper Belt, a disc of asteroid-like bodies in the plane of the solar system. https://fbcdn-sphotos-d-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/550370_3948000415308_1079146902_n.jpg NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope
Orion's Rainbow of Infrared Light https://fbcdn-sphotos-h-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/21024_10200978672685898_608007490_n.jpg NASA’s Wind Mission Encounters ‘SLAMS’ Waves04.16.13
SLAMS are waves with a single, large peak, a little like giant rogue waves that can develop in the deep ocean. By studying the region around the SLAMS and how they propagate, the Wind data showed SLAMS may provide an improved explanation for what accelerates narrow jets of charged particles back out into space, away from Earth. Tracking how any phenomenon catalyzes the movement of other particles is one of the crucial needs for modeling this region. In this case, understanding just how a wave can help initiate a fast-moving beam might also help explain what causes incredibly powerful rays that travel from other solar systems across interstellar space toward Earth. Wilson and his colleagues published a paper on these results in the Journal of Geophysical Research online on March 6, 2013.
The material pervading this area of space – indeed all outer space – is known as plasma. Plasma is much like a gas, but each particle is electrically charged so movement is governed as much by the laws of electromagnetics as it is by the fundamental laws of gravity and motion we more regularly experience on Earth The HERSCHEL prestellar core population in the Aquila Rift Complex
Initial results from the Gould Belt survey
Probing the origin of the stellar initial mass function: A wide-field Herschel photometric survey of nearby star-forming cloud complexes
http://www.herschel.fr/cea/gouldbelt/en/ https://fbcdn-sphotos-c-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/560335_4123990294945_1091592985_n.jpg 13 100 000 000 BP. information from the past.GEM Graphics : Mark Mighell"The Earliest Galaxy Clusters Formed in Deep Wells of Dark Matter"In a 2011 sky survey made in near-infrared light the astronomers studying Hubble Space Telescope images spotted five clustered galaxies so distant that their light has taken 13.1 billion years to reach us. These galaxies are among the brightest galaxies at that early stage of the Universe's history.
Galaxy clusters are the largest structures in the Universe, comprising hundreds to thousands of galaxies bound together by gravity. This developing cluster, or protocluster, seen as it looked 13 billion years ago, presumably has grown into one of today's massive cities of galaxies, comparable to the nearby Virgo cluster of more than 2000 galaxies.
"These galaxies formed during the earliest stages of galaxy assembly, when galaxies had just started to cluster together," says the study's leader, Michele Trenti (University of Cambridge, UK and University of Colorado). "The result confirms our theoretical understanding of the buildup of galaxy clusters. And, Hubble is just powerful enough to find the first examples of them at this distance."
Most galaxies in the Universe reside in groups and clusters, and astronomers have probed many of these in detail at a range of distances. But finding clusters in the early phases of construction has been challenging because they are rare and dim.
"We need to look in many different areas because the odds of finding something this rare are very small," says Trenti who used Hubble's sharp-eyed Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) to pinpoint the clusters. "It's like playing a game of Battleship: the search is hit and miss. Typically, a region has nothing, but if we hit the right spot, we can find multiple galaxies."
Because these distant, fledgling clusters are so dim, the team hunted for the systems' brightest galaxies. These brilliant galaxies act as billboards, advertising cluster construction zones. From simulations, the astronomers expect galaxies at early epochs to be clustered together. Because brightness correlates with mass, the most luminous galaxies pinpoint the location of developing clusters.
http://www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblog/2012/06/the-earliest-galaxy-clusters-formed-in-deep-wells-of-dark-matter.html https://fbcdn-sphotos-e-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/542230_10200256564633648_1641510627_n.jpg The new-found outflows of particles (pale blue) from the Galactic Centre. The background image is the whole Milky Way at the same scale. The curvature of the outflows is real, not a distortion caused by the imaging process. Credits: Ettore Carretti, CSIRO (radio image); S-PASS survey team (radio data); Axel Mellinger, Central Michigan University (optical image); Eli Bressert, CSIRO (composition).
Our Galaxy's "geysers" are towers of power
"Monster" outflows of charged particles from the centre of our Galaxy, stretching more than halfway across the sky, have been detected and mapped with CSIRO's 64-m Parkes radio telescope.
3 January 2013 http://www.csiro.au/Portals/Media/Our-Galaxys-geysers-are-towers-of-power.aspx
The outflows were detected by astronomers from Australia, the USA, Italy and The Netherlands. They report their finding in today's issue of Nature.
"These outflows contain an extraordinary amount of energy — about a million times the energy of an exploding star," said the research team's leader, CSIRO's Dr Ettore Carretti.
"These outflows contain an extraordinary amount of energy — about a million times the energy of an exploding star."
Dr Ettore Carretti, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science
But the outflows pose no danger to Earth or the Solar System.
The speed of the outflow is supersonic, about 1000 kilometres a second. "That's fast, even for astronomers," Dr Carretti said.
"They are not coming in our direction, but go up and down from the Galactic Plane. We are 30,000 light-years away from the Galactic Centre, in the Plane. They are no danger to us."
From top to bottom the outflows extend 50,000 light-years (five hundred thousand million million kilometres) out of the Galactic Plane.
That's equal to half the diameter of our Galaxy (which is 100,000 light-years — a million million million kilometres — across).
Seen from Earth, the outflows stretch about two-thirds across the sky from horizon to horizon.
The outflows correspond to a "haze" of microwave emission previously spotted by the WMAP and Planck space telescopes and regions of gamma-ray emission detected with NASA's Fermi space telescope in 2010, which were dubbed the "Fermi Bubbles".
The WMAP, Planck and Fermi observations did not provide enough evidence to indicate definitively the source of the radiation they detected, but the new Parkes observations do.
"The options were a quasar-like outburst from the black hole at the Galactic Centre, or star-power — the hot winds from young stars, and exploding stars," said team member Dr Gianni Bernardi of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
"Our observations tell us it's star-power."
In fact, the outflows appear to have been driven by many generations of stars forming and exploding in the Galactic Centre over the last hundred million years.
The key to determining this was to measure the outflows' magnetic fields.
"We did this by measuring a key property of the radio waves from the outflows — their polarisation," said team member Dr Roland Crocker of the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik in Heidelberg, Germany, and the Australian National University.
The new observations also help to answer one of astronomers' big questions about our Galaxy: how it generates and maintains its magnetic field.
"The outflow from the Galactic Centre is carrying off not just gas and high-energy electrons, but also strong magnetic fields," said team member Dr Marijke Haverkorn of Radboud University Nijmegen in The Netherlands.
"We suspect this must play a big part in generating the Galaxy's overall magnetic field."
Ettore Carretti, Roland M. Crocker, Lister Staveley-Smith, Marijke Haverkorn, Cormac Purcell, B. M. Gaensler, Gianni Bernardi, Michael J. Kesteven and Sergio Poppi. "Giant magnetized outflows from the centre of the Milky Way". Nature, Volume 493, issue 7430 (3 January 2013) pp 66-69. doi: 10.1038/nature11734 https://fbcdn-sphotos-g-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-snc6/198349_4912173919043_1200257793_n.jpg Composite of radio and optical images of Centaurus A, one of the closest to us powerful radio galaxy. The powerful jets expel energy from the vicinity of the central supermassive black hole. Credits: Sterne & Welraum 2008.
Cosmological evolution of supermassive black holes in the centres of galaxies Started
4th January 2009 http://cmg.soton.ac.uk/research/projects/cosmological-evolution-of-radop-galaxies/
Investigators Anna Kapinska https://fbcdn-sphotos-d-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/65365_4911997674637_1983601343_n.jpg Centaurus A: Far-infrared and X-rays
Two of ESA’s space observatories have combined to create a multi-wavelength view of violent events taking place within the giant galaxy of Centaurus A. The new observations strengthen the view that it may have been created by the cataclysmic collision of two older galaxies.
Centaurus A is the closest giant elliptical galaxy to Earth, at a distance of around 12 million light-years. It stands out for harbouring a massive black hole at its core and emitting intense blasts of radio waves.
Centaurus A: Visible light
While previous images taken in visible light have hinted at a complex inner structure in Centaurus A, combining the output of two of ESA’s observatories working at almost opposite ends of the electromagnetic spectrum reveals the unusual structure in much greater detail.The galaxy was notably observed by Sir John Herschel in 1847 during his survey of the southern skies. Now, over 160 years later, the observatory bearing his family name has played a unique role in uncovering some of its secrets.
New images taken with the Herschel space observatory with unprecedented resolution at far-infrared wavelengths show that the giant black scar of obscuring dust crossing the centre of Centaurus A all but disappears. https://fbcdn-sphotos-f-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/562631_10200943587168782_1347333684_n.jpg A Multi-Wavelength View of Radio Galaxy Hercules A
Spectacular jets powered by the gravitational energy of a super massive black hole in the core of the elliptical galaxy Hercules A illustrate the combined imaging power of two of astronomy's cutting-edge tools, the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Camera 3, and the recently upgraded Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in New Mexico. Credit: NASA, ESA, S. Baum and C. O'Dea (RIT), R. Perley and W. Cotton (NRAO/AUI/NSF), and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)
http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/hubble/science/hercules-a.html https://fbcdn-sphotos-e-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-frc1/422925_3196727433953_849224242_n.jpg Giant gamma ray bubbles in our galaxy
Release No.: 2010-22For Release: Tuesday, November 09, 2010 02:30:00 PM EST
Astronomers Find Giant, Previously Unseen Structure in our Galaxy
Cambridge, MA - NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has unveiled a previously unseen structure centered in the Milky Way -- a finding likened in terms of scale to the discovery of a new continent on Earth. The feature, which spans 50,000 light-years, may be the remnant of an eruption from a supersized black hole at the center of our galaxy.
"What we see are two gamma-ray-emitting bubbles that extend 25,000 light-years north and south of the galactic center," said Doug Finkbeiner, an astronomer at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in Cambridge, Mass., who first recognized the feature. "We don't fully understand their nature or origin."
At more than 100 degrees across, the structure spans more than half of the sky, from the constellation Virgo to the constellation Grus. It may be millions of years old.
A paper on the findings will appear in an upcoming issue of The Astrophysical Journal.
Finkbeiner and Harvard graduate students Meng Su and Tracy Slatyer revealed the bubbles by processing publicly available data from the satellite's Large Area Telescope (LAT). Their work expanded on previous studies led by Greg Dobler at the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics in Santa Barbara, Calif.
Fermi's Large Area Telescope is the most sensitive and highest-resolution gamma-ray detector ever orbited. Gamma rays are the highest-energy form of light.
The structures eluded previous astronomers studying gamma rays due in part to the so-called diffuse emission -- a fog of gamma rays that appears all over the sky. The emissions are caused by particles moving near the speed of light interacting with light and interstellar gas in the Milky Way.
The Fermi LAT team is constantly refining models to uncover new gamma-ray sources obscured by the diffuse emission. By using various estimates of the gamma-ray fog, including the Fermi team's, Finkbeiner and his colleagues were able to subtract it from the LAT data and unveil the giant bubbles.
"The LAT team confirmed the existence of an extended structure in the direction of the inner part of the Milky Way and we're in the process of performing a deeper analysis to better understand it," said Simona Murgia, a Fermi research associate at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory in Menlo Park, Calif.
The researchers believe that an important process for producing the Milky Way's gamma-ray fog, called inverse Compton scattering, also lights up the bubbles. In that process, electrons moving near the speed of light collide with low-energy light, such as radio or infrared photons. The collision increases the energy of the photons into the gamma-ray part of the electromagnetic spectrum.
The bubble emissions are much more energetic than the gamma-ray fog seen elsewhere in the Milky Way.
The bubbles also appear to have well-defined edges. Taken together, the structure's shape and emissions suggest that it was formed as a result of a large and relatively rapid energy release -- the source of which remains a mystery, Finkbeiner noted.
One possibility includes a particle jet from the supermassive black hole at the galactic center. In many other galaxies, astronomers see fast particle jets powered by matter falling toward a central black hole. While there is no evidence that the Milky Way's black hole sports such a jet today, it may have in the past.
The bubbles also may have formed as a result of gas outflows from a burst of star formation, perhaps the one that produced many massive star clusters in the Milky Way's central light-years several million years ago.
"In other galaxies, we see that starbursts can drive enormous gas outflows," said David Spergel at Princeton University in New Jersey. "Whatever the energy source behind these huge bubbles may be, it is connected to many deep questions in astrophysics."
Finkbeiner noted that, in retrospect, hints of the bubbles appear in earlier spacecraft data, including the Germany-led Roentgen X-ray Satellite (ROSAT) and NASA's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP).
This release is being issued jointly with NASA.
NASA's Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope is an astrophysics and particle physics partnership, developed in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy, along with important contributions from academic institutions and partners in France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Sweden and the United States. Headquartered in Cambridge, Mass., the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) is a joint collaboration between the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Harvard College Observatory. CfA scientists, organized into six research divisions, study the origin, evolution and ultimate fate of the universe. https://fbcdn-sphotos-e-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/536746_3855464261962_97855082_n.jpg Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/CfA/R.Kraft et al.; Submillimeter: MPIfR/ESO/APEX/A.Weiss et al.; Optical: ESO/WFI
This image of Centaurus A shows a spectacular new view of a supermassive black hole's power. Jets and lobes powered by the central black hole in this nearby galaxy are shown by submillimeter data (colored orange) from the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) telescope in Chile and X-ray data (colored blue) from the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Visible light data from the Wide Field Imager on the Max-Planck/ESO 2.2 m telescope, also located in Chile, shows the dust lane in the galaxy and background stars. The X-ray jet in the upper left extends for about 13,000 light years away from the black hole. The APEX data shows that material in the jet is travelling at about half the speed of light.
http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2009/cena/ https://fbcdn-sphotos-a-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/282738_4279713307923_1025731067_n.jpg Mark MighellIntroducing the Multiple " Binary Universe Theory " https://fbcdn-sphotos-d-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/68385_4866046645890_1065463439_n.jpg A Magneto-optic Lens Displays an Electromagnetic Field Anomaly in a Magnetic
By Richard E. Cadle http://nanomagnetics.us/magnetic%20anomaly.pdf
With the development of the Superparamagnetic Lens by Timm A. Vanderelli, a method of displaying Maxwell’s magnetic vector fields as it relates to the magnetic domain or Bloch wall in a uniform magnetic field is analyzed. A previously unknown magnetic anomaly is also considered.
The purpose of this article is to offer a hypothesis as to the natural forces at work as displayed by this unique lens. J. Clerk Maxwell’s work in magnetism and electromagnetic wave dynamics provided a basis for the thought experiment leading to the development of this Superparamagnetic Lens. Is the electron a photon with toroidal topology?
J.G. Williamson (a) and M.B. van der Mark (b) (a)Glasgow University, Department of Electronics & Electrical Engineering, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (b) Philips Research Laboratories, Prof. Holstlaan 4, 5656 AA Eindhoven, The Netherlands
We study the properties of a simple semi-classical model of a photon conned in periodic boundary conditions of one wavelength. The topology of this ob ject, together with the photon electric eld, give rise to a charge of the order of 10 19 Coulomb and a half-integral spin, independent of its size. The ratio of the electromagnetic energy inside and outside the ob ject leads to an anomalous spin g factor which is close to that of the electron. Although a nite size of order 10 12 meter arises in a natural way, the apparent size of the ob ject will be much smaller in energetic scattering events.
The helical model - our solar system is a vortex
Published on 24 Aug 2012
Information & research will be updated here: http://www.djsadhu.com/the-helical-model-vortex-solar-system-animation/ Magnetic Fields in Relativistic Neutron Stars
Paul D. Lasky, Burkhard Zink, Kostas Glampedakis, Kostas D. Kokkotas
Neutron stars harbour the strongest known magnetic fields in nature - up to 1015 Gauss in the most extreme, ultra-magnetised neutron stars known as magnetars. These exotic objects exhibit high energy emissions with sporadic bursting phenomena. On rare occasions, powerful flares have been observed in some magnetars, emissions that are believed to be powered by the energy of the magnetic field itself.
We are modelling the interior magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) of these exotic objects utilising the general relativistic THOR code and her sister GPU code HORIZON. Our first work  studied instabilities inherent to purely poloidal magnetic fields. A movie of our fiducial simulation can be viewed here: http://vimeo.com/22986248
HYDROMAGNETIC INSTABILITIES IN RELATIVISTIC NEUTRON STARS
Paul D. Lasky, Burkhard Zink, Kostas D. Kokkotas and Kostas Glampedakis
Theoretical Astrophysics, IAAT, Eberhard Karls University of T¨ubingen, T¨ubingen 72076, Germany
(Received 6th May 2011; Revised 20th May 2011; Accepted 24th May 2011)
Draft version May 25, 2011
We model the non-linear ideal magnetohydrodynamics of poloidal magnetic fields in neutron stars in general relativity assuming a polytropic equation of state. We identify familiar hydromagnetic
modes, in particular the ’sausage/varicose’ mode and ’kink’ instability inherent to poloidal magnetic fields. The evolution is dominated by the kink instability, which causes a cataclysmic reconfiguration of the magnetic field. The system subsequently evolves to new, non-axisymmetric, quasi-equilibrium end-states. The existence of this branch of stable quasi-equilibria may have consequences for magnetar physics, including flare generation mechanisms and interpretations of quasi-periodic oscillations