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Transcript of Rizal's Retraction
RETRACTION Palma's Jesuit's Zafra's video courtesy of "Bayaning Third World, 2000" 7 am Dec 29:
JUDGE DOMINGUEZ notified Rizal of the death sentence Father Simo (diplomat of society), carried the instructions of the Archbishop to the Jesuits Image of Sacred Heart- carved by Rizal when he was still studying in Ateneo, was brought to him by Fr. Miguel Saderra Mata and Fr. Luis Viza 9:00 am, Dec 29 :
Father Rosell took the place of Fr. Mata and Fr. Viza Don Santiago Mataix from Heraldo de Madrid, talked with Rizal abour "studies, frolics of infancy, and boys' stories..." 10:00 am: Fr. Vilaclara and Fr. Balaguer, conversed with him, gave him a medal of the Virgin Fr. March replaced the two priests afterwards Lunch:Don Manuel Luengo (civil governor of Manila), and Fr. Faura (director of Manila Observatory) visited Rizal asked for pen & paper to write the letters for Blumentritt, for his family, for Paciano... After Dusk:
Fr. Balaguer returns Rizal's mother, w/ Trinidad, arrives discussion between the Jesuits and Rizal Rizal rested Fathers Vilaclara, Balaguer Viza, and Tillot remained with him for the night 10:00 pm
Formula of Retraction was sent to the chapel Writing of the letter of retraction 11:30 pm
Rizal signed the letter of retraction and then slept 1:30 am, Dec 30 Prayed and meditated, confessed to Fr. Vilaclara Rested and meditated, confessed again read his retraction to the Jesuit fathers, Judge Advocate, chief of the picket, and Adjutant of the Plaza, and three artillery forces confessed for the third time, prayed the rosary, read the psalm and Kempis, communed, and asked to be given a mass 5:30 am
Rizal ate breakfast w/ the officers 6:00 am
Josephine came with Rizal's sister Father Balaguer performed their marriage 7:00 am, Dec 30, 1896
Jose Rizal was shot
in Bagumbayan LA MASONIZACION DE FILIPINAS -
RIZAL Y SU OBRA Rafael Palma was a Filipino politician, Rizalian, reporter, writer, educator and a famous mason in Philippines. He also became the fourth President of the University of the Philippines, The “Builder President”
Wrote in La Independencia, the newspaper that General Antonio Luna established. He wrote articles advocating revolutionary ideals under the names Dapit Hapon, Hapon, Robert Paul and R.P. Villa.
In 1938, Rafael Palma once again proved his literary talent. He won the first prize in the national contest on the biography of Rizal conducted by Commonwealth government.
CRITICAL EXAMINATION OF
RIZAL'S ALLEGED RETRACTION I. Critical Examination of the Booklet Released by the Jesuits:
•The narrative by the Jesuits is anonymous.
•The narrative is written in a puerile manner. It reads like a story designed for children.
•The narrative has a lot of inaccuracies:
•The narrative contains a portion of details and exaggerations
•The narrative does not mention that the document of retraction was signed by Rizal with witnesses
II. OTHER PUBLICATIONS •La Muerte Cristiana del Dr. Rizal, 1907 •Murio el Dr. Rizal Cristianamente-Reconstitucion de las Ultimas Horas de su Vida-Estudio Historico (Did Doctor Rizal Die as a Christian?-Reconstruction of the Last Hours of His Life-An Historical Study) by Don Gonzalo Ma. Pinana, 1920 * reproduces the testimony of persons who are involved in the conversion and retraction of Rizal *Sources of evidences used:
1.What was published in local press and in Spain about Rizal's Retraction
2.What was published in magazines, history books, and other printed matter
3.The notarial minutes duly authenticated of the declarations given by persons who visited Rizal in the chapel or who intervened in the act of his retraction and conversion
Fr. Viza (App.1)
Fr. Pio Pi (App.2)
Fr. Silvino Lopez Tunon (App.3)
Archbishop Bernandino Nozaleda (App.4)
Gen. Rafel Dominguez (App. 6)
Fiscal Gaspar Castano (App.7)
Rev. Fr. Rosell (App.8)
Rev. Fr. Vicente Balaguer (App.9)
Luis Taviel de Andrade (App. 13)
Fr. Tomas Feijoo ((App. 14)
*copy of proceedings of Rizal's execution (App. 5)
*death certificates (App. 10, 11, & 12): Juan Fresno (supposed witness to the document of retraction), Eloy Moure (supposed witness to the document of retraction) and Antonio Diaz (Military Chief of Fort Santiago)
III. Coetaneous Acts in Accordance
with the Belief of Rizal's Retraction
1.secrecy of the document
2.denied petitions Rizal's Family for the copy of the document of retraction and the marriage certificate
3.secrecy of burial
4.no masses were said for his soul or funeral held by Catholics
5.Rizal's indecent burial- buried in the ground without any cross or stone to mark his grave
6.Rizal's name was written on a special page wherein appear those buried by special orders
7.no moral motive for the conversion
IV. Why would Rizal renounce his religious ideas and his glory - Reasons why retraction can't be believed? a.What would he gain if he was converted? Heaven? b.What harm could it bring to him if he was converted? c.Doubts on Father Balaguer's influence to Rizal? Although Rizal believed in God, he did not believe in heaven, as a result of long study and meditation. It would stain his clean record – and subject him to the remorse of having become, at the last hour, a renegade of his own convictions. Father Balaguer was a simple missionary who might have sufficient intelligence to convert pagans and ignorant persons but not to change the ideas of Rizal on matters which Rizal had investigated and studied more profoundly than many priests. Rizal was conscious of his intellectual superiority over many of his former professors, and to pretend that Father Balaguer converted him with arguments of the old school is certainly an insult to Rizal’s intelligence and character. V. What if the retraction document is authentic? a. Rizal's Handwriting and Signatures
If it could be proven that the text as well as the signature of Rizal is genuine and authentic, the document would prove Rizal’s abjuration of masonry but not his conversion. It would also prove that if Rizal abjured his religious ideas, he did not abjure his political ideas.
b. Marriage contract
The certificate of the canonical marriage of Josephine Bracken with Rizal has never been produced notwithstanding the demands of the family of Rizal.
“The Archbishop was interested in his conversion for political motives, and the Jesuits lent themselves as his argument.” THE HISTORICITY OF RIZAL'S RETRACTION HISTORICAL METHODOLOGY RETRACTION B. ARGUMENTS Are the documents genuine? Father Balaguer
- Fr Balaguer left Rizal’s cell, accompanied by Josephine and a sister of Rizal, with the retraction
- Delivered the document to Fr. Pio who deliver it to Archbishop Nozaleda who deliver it to Sec. Gonzalez Feijoo
Captain Rafael Dominguez
Notes contains an hour by hour record of Rizal’s last 24 hours Father Viza
Rizal wrote and signed of his own handwriting, in own presence of Viza, the document of retraction on the night of Dec 26, 1896 Are the documents’ writers accurate? Are the authors truthful and of good faith? Dr. Beyer’s Remarks at the Faculty Club Symposium Held at Diliman on March 10, 1950 Dr. Beyer examined the document of Rizal’s retraction twice.
o First: shortly after the document was found by someone looking through the marriage records in the Archbishop’s file
: He was asked by Fr. Fletcher , secretary of Archbishop O’ Doherty, to make an examination of the document whether or not it was genuine for his personal information
: the folder that had been found in the records was of the usual Spanish catalan paper containing a series of documents about ½ inch thick, legal documents bound together
: the binding seemed to be quite the original binding that had not been disturbed for decades and had been put there in the beginning.
: there were contained documents relating to the marriage of Josephine Bracken.
>>>Has been filed in the marriage file which contained 3 o 4 letters from Rizal
He was not satisfied for the 3-4 other letters signed by Rizal he had to give a genuine opinion on the writing until he had other letters and writings of Rizal to compare with the document He examined it in comparison with probably 150 other letters and documents in Rizal’s Handwriting His opinion
: every word on that sheet of paper was written by Rizal except the signatures of the witnesses below
: The document is in his normal handwriting
: the signature is normal
: no one can write his name five times exactly the same
: there is always difference in the form
two important things to remember when examining handwriting
a man in writing puts a lot of unconscious characteristic which flow out of his hand
there are little tricks and curves
a man’s signature varies a great deal from day to day, month to month and year to year, and liable to change, and so on
it is impossible to forge any other man’s writing in a way that cannot be detected
you cannot imitate 3 or 4 lines of writing without getting a lot of your own tricks into it
you cannot copy all of the original writer’s own tricks accurately enough
Observation on the document of Retraction of Dr. Jose Rizal
by : Dr. Jose del Rosario
1.The execution and writing movement in capital letters INLCUDING THE DIFFERENT VARIETIES used as in the letter D,J,R, I, P, V, S, C, M, E, are all in natural form of letter used by Dr. Rizal
2.The small letters h, p, d, r, o, g, I, j, a are all of the handwriting of Rizal
3.The slant of writing is irregular and nearly vertical in the writing of the Ultimo Adios because the paper used was too small, so the difference in slant between the Ultimo adios and the normal was not a motive for doubting the genuineness of this writing
4.All the other characteristics like the short ending strokes show nothing to argue against the genuineness of the document
12 3 6 9 1 2 4 5 7 11 10 8 RIZAL'S
DEC 29 & 30 OTHER Father Pio Pi
- Father Balaguer handed out the retraction documents to Father Pi
- After having a copy for their archives, Fr. Pi then gave the document to the Archbishop the next day
Silvino Lopez Tunon
- He learned from one of the Jesuit Fathers that Rizal received Sacraments of Penance and Communion and was married to Josephine after having written and signed the retraction document
- Rizal made slight variations in his retraction from the proposed text by Fr. Pi
- Fr. Pi gave the document to the Archbishop then handed it to the Secretary of the Archbishopric
- Few days after the death of Rizal, Castano saw and read Rizal’s retraction paper wherein the later declared himself a Catholic
- On Dec 30, 1896, Rosell saw the retraction paper in Ateneo
Luis Taviel de Andrade
- Heard that in the morning of Rizal’s execution, married Josephine
- Upon arriving at the door, saw Rizal in an attitude of praying then Rizal came out after kissing the statue of the Sacred Heart
- Doctor Rizal died as a Christian
- The retraction document was handed to him for safekeeping in the archives of the Secretary’s office
- The retraction remained in the archives in his custody until May 26, 1899 before he had to turn over everything it to his successor Presbiter Ignacio Ampuero
FOR LISTENING :D - Palma did not question genuineness, Zafra assumed authentic - For Father Balaguer and Captain Dominguez reasonable level of accuracy
- For Father Viza vagaries of memories
- one must study his/her character, reputation, background, interests, prejudices and sense of values. - Certain conditions in delving among old documents
- Genuineness/authenticity of the documents
- Accuracy of the writer
- Author’s truthfulness and good faith
- “No Documents, No History” Filipino historian and educator
professor emeritus of history at the University of the Philippines
died on January 7, 1979
president of the Philippine Historical Association in 1962
recipient of the Cultural Heritage Award of the Philippines in 1969.
1. The retraction information was published late that could be unauthenticated. 2. The notarized documents and narratives of witnesses were of ecclesiastics and their friends that will automatically not contradict the other. 3. Taviel de Andrade’s testimony to be a mere hearsay. 4.) The “coetaneous acts” that undermine the belief that Rizal retracted:
a.The document of retraction was kept secret
b.The request of the Rizal family to have the original or a copy was both denied.
c.Rizal’s burial was kept secret.
d.No masses or funeral was held by the Catholics.
e.He was not buried in the Catholic cemetery of Paco but in the ground.
f.There was no entry in the book of burials that Rizal’s body was buried on the page of December 30 and it appears on a special page where special orders of authorities are indicated.
ARGUMENTS JOSE PALMA NICOLAS ZAFRA 1. There were others who published and confirmed Rizal’s retraction a few years after his death. An example would be Father Pio Pi. S.J. who published La Muerte Cristiana del Dr. Rizal.
2. The others fell silent because of the insignificance of Rizal’s retraction.
3. In the desire for historical truth in much later years, people began the search of Rizals’ retraction and different versions of duly notarized documents.
1. This statement damages the credibility of an ecclesiastic.
2. Lack of evidence
3. Lying for the sake of friendship?
4. Gaspar Castano, Judge of the Real Audiencia in Manila at the time of Rizal’s execution will be questioned of his credibility where for the sake of friendship with the ecclesiastics will lie about Rizal’s retraction.
1. Taviel de Adrade worked closely with Rizal with him having to observe Rizal closely.
2. Taviel de Andrade also stated that “Doctor Rizal died as a Christian ratifying thereby the retraction of his errors which he made in the chapel”.
3. The supposed hearsay testimony of Andrade was not of the retraction but the canonical marriage of Rizal to Josephine Bracken.
4. Andrade’s information came from fellow officers.
1. The retraction document was seen by Fathers Balaguer, Pio Pi, Viza, Rosell, Feijoo, Tunon, Archbishop Nozaleda, Captain Dominguez and Justice Castano.
2. Trining’s statement in 1913 about the family not seeing the document was a mere “vagaries of memory.” Trining’s states that they were promised by the Jesuits to let them see the retraction document during the requiem offered by the Jesuits on behalf of Rizal.
a.The Jesuits no longer had the original document of retraction.
b.The family’s need to see the document was of no purpose because the copy of the retraction document was published in the newspapers.
3. The chaplain of the cemetery confirmed the burial in a report submitted to Archbishop Nozaleda on Dec. 30, 1896. Father Silvino Lopez Tunon explains that the body of Doctor Rizal received ecclesiastical burial.”
4. The arrangements for the disposal of Rizal’s body were made by the government authorities. It is decided as such because the body might be used for demonstration. The genuineness or authenticity of the retraction document
1. Proved to be authentic according to the Professor of Anthropology, University of the Philippines and curator of the University of the Philippines Museum of Archeology and Ethnology in a written account in the Philippines Herald on December 29, 1938.
Zafra’s Conclusion Palma’s representation of the past as “…bias and deep-seated prejudice…” Rizal did return to the Catholic Church and this assertion has historical evidence. The declarations made by Palma were based on a misunderstanding of Rizal. Rizal never hated the whole church but the persons in the church that did hideous acts. A fact is that Rizal even created a character in his novel that represents a good priest, Padre Florentino. Rizal did retract and not a “pious fraud”. Arguments of Mr. Palma Counter argument of Mr Zafra The narrative is anonymous. If document is genuine, the identity of the author is not that important. The narrative is composed in such a puerile manner that reads like a story intended for children. Containing some puerile matters does not invalidate the documents. The narrative does not mention the document of retraction was signed by Rizal with witnesses, but nevertheless it appears signed not only by Rizal but by two witnesses. Omission of certain details in a document is per se not a valid cause for rejecting the document. If, from the conversion of Rizal, we pass to other parts of the booklet, we would see that it does not deserve credence because the facts it narrates have not been conscientiously investigated. Such historical inaccuracies referred by Mr. Palma are not found in the Jesuit Narrative, thus confirming that the author did not himself investigate the real authorship of the narrative. A. DOCUMENTS - Documents about retraction came from: Three eye-witnesses Ratified and notarized declarations Accounts from the newspapers that time presented by: Group 9 X4A PI100 Summer 09-10
Jessamine Carla Bautista, Kirby Dela Cruz, Gely Ann Dela Paz, Benex Dayto, Norma Lazarte, Gliceryl Mae Manlangit presented by: Group 9, PI 100 X4A, Summer 09-10
Jessamine Carla Bautista, Benex Dayto, Kirby Dela Cruz, Gely Ann Dela Paz, Norma Lazarte, Gliceryl Mae Manlangit presentation created by: Jesamine Carla Bautista