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Chapter 30: The Cold War

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jack badinger

on 10 May 2014

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Transcript of Chapter 30: The Cold War

Chapter 30: The Cold War
(1945-1991)
Section 1: The Cold War Unfolds
After WW2, two great powers remained:
The
United
States
The

Soviet
Union
(Known as superpowers)
Two Sides Face Off in Europe
1.1
After WW2, each superpower formed a European military alliance made up of the nations that it occupied (or protected)
USA led NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) in Western Europe
Soviet Union led the Warsaw Pact in Eastern Europe
THE IRON CURTAIN
1.1
A Wall Divides Berlin
Berlin was split into the
Democratic
West and the
Communist
East
1950s: Unhappy
Eastern
Germans fled to the West
As a result, The
Berlin Wall
was constructed by
Soviets
to forcibly keep people from fleeing to the
West
It split the city in two
1.1
Eastern Europe Resists
Revolts against
Soviet
rule took place in East Germany, Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia
1953: est. 50,000 East Berlin workers confront
Soviet Army
in the streets of the German capital
the Uprising spread to other Eastern cities, but didn't stand a chance against
Russian tanks
1.1
Eastern Europe Resists
Eastern Europeans threatened
Soviet
authority with Economic Reform
In return,
Soviets
arrested noncommunist leaders and seized private land and industry
Imre Nagy (nahj)
Hungarian Leader
Tried to pull his country out of the Warsaw Pact
Soviets
launched an assault, overwhelming his resistance
Nagy was later executed
Alexander Dubček
introduced greater freedom of expression and limited democracy
Soviet leaders
saw it as a threat to
Communism
A massive Invasion of Czechoslovakia followed, ending what freedom it had
1.2
Nuclear Weapons Threaten the World
An arms race began after WW2
USA
was the only nuclear power at first
1949:
Soviet Union
develops its first Nuclear Weapons
1953: Both sides develop Hydrogen bombs
Each side wanted to be more powerful than the other
A race followed, resulting in a "balance of terror"
Mutually assured destruction discouraged nuclear war
People still lived in constant fear
1.2
Nuclear Weapons Threaten the World
To reduce threat of nuclear war, both sides met at disarmament talks
Mutual distrust slowed progress, but agreements were met
One agreement limited ABMs
Missiles that shoot down other missiles from hostile countries
1980s:
Ronald Reagan
launched program to build a "Star Wars" missile defense against nuclear attack
Critics said the program violated the ABM treaty
1.2
Nuclear Weapons Threaten the World
Arms control agreements led to an era of détente (day thant) in the 1970s
The
USA
wanted to restrain
Soviet Union
through diplomacy
Peaceful era ended in 1979 when
Soviets
invaded Afghanistan
1.2
Nuclear Weapons Threaten the World
Late 1960s: Britain, France, and China have developed nuclear weapons
Many World leaders worked to keep Arms Race from spreading any further
1968: Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)
Don't develop or spread nuclear weapons
1.3
The Cold War Goes Global
Cold War quickly spread around the World
Soviets
helped communist China and Korea
USA
saw a dawning threat
started making alliances
1955: SEATO (Southeast Asia Treaty Organization)
USA
, Britain, France, Australia, Pakistan, Thailand, New Zealand, and the Philippines
CENTO (Central Treaty Organization)
Britain, Turkey, Iran, and Pakistan
Military alliances with Japan and South Korea
Soviet Union
allied with Africa and Asia
Alliance with China (1949-1960)
Soviet Union
and it's allies known as the
Soviet bloc
1.3
The Cold War Goes Global
Both superpowers had a global reach
Communist
forces won control of mainland China in 1949
US
feared the spread of communism
Cold War turned into a "shooting war" on occasion, especially in Asia
Korea and Vietnam were torn
US
,
Soviets
, and China played a crucial role
Superpowers supplied weapons, training, and other aid
Section 1
1.3
The Cold War Goes Global
Most serious Cold War conflict in Western Hemisphere was Cuban Missile Crisis
Fidel Castro rebelled against corrupt dictator who ruled Cuba
1959: Castro led army to victory, transformed Cuba
Sought support from
Soviets
Nationalized businesses, put most land under government control, restricted political freedom
Jailed or silenced protestors
1.3
The Cold War Goes Global
1961:
JFK
supports Invasion attempt by
US
trained Cuban exiles
The Bay of Pigs
Quickly ends in failure
US
imposes trade embargo on Cuba to make up
1962:
Soviet Union
sends nukes to Cuba
Kennedy
sets up naval blockade
Demands
Soviets
remove missiles from Cuba
For a tense few days the world faced nuclear war
Soviets
finally agreed to remove the missiles
1.4
The Soviet Union in the Cold War
Stalin ruthlessly ruled after WW2
Labor camps
Died in 1953
Soviet Communism
Government controlled aspects of public life and made most economic decisions
Valued: obedience, discipline, economic security
Sought to spread
Communist
ideals
Made politicial decisions with no economic sense
Government owns most property
1.4
The Soviet Union in the Cold War
After Stalin died, Nikita Khrushehev ruled
Publicly denounced Stalin
"Peaceful coexistence" with West
After Khrushehev came Leonid Brezhnev (mid 1960s - 1982)
Critics faced arrest or death
1.4
Some Soviets Bravely Resist
Despite risk of punishment, some challenged the
Soviet Government
Andrey Sakharov
Famous
Soviet
Scientist
Spoke out for civil liberties
Brezhnev had him silenced
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
Sent to prison for criticizing Stalin
Wrote novel on experiences there
Writing banned in
Soviet Union
1974: He was exiled
1.5
The United States in the Cold War
US
led a democratic, capitalist country
Citizens make economic and political choices
Valued freedom and prosperity
Free Markets
Communist
countries had command economies
Capitalist countries (
USA
) had market economies
Producers and consumers make economic decisions
Property is privately owned
Producers compete to sell best/cheapest product
Consumers ultimately decide whats made and sold
US
and
Western Europe
have a mixed economy
government has an economic role
1.5
Containing Soviets and Living with Nuclear Dangers
US
wanted to control
Communism
Keep it where it is so it cant grow
Nuclear threats led to Fallout shelters in
USA
1961: US Gov. launched community fallout shelter program
Fear of attack peaked during Cuban Missile Crisis
US
schools had air raid drills from the '50s to the '70s
1.5
Seeking Enemies Within
"Red Scare" in
USA
Late '40s to early '50s:
Americans
feared
communists
in
US
would undermine Gov.
1950: Senator Joseph McCarthy hunted suspected
American communists
McCarthy famous for unproven charges
Influence faded after he criticized the
US Army
House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
led similar campaign
US House of Representatives
1947: exposed
communist sympathizers
in Hollywood movie industry
Section 2: The Industrialized Democracies
Section 2
Industrialized democracies of
NA
, WE, and Japan prospered and socially changed during the Cold War
USA
was worlds wealthiest and most powerful
After Cold War, WE and Japan rivaled economically
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
2.1
America Prospers and Changes
American
businesses expanded into markets around the world
Dollar = strongest currency
People flocked to invest in
American
Industry
Americas
wealth was a model for some and a challenge to others (
communists
)
2.1
America Plays a Central Role
Global political leader
UN HQ built in NYC
Leading economic role
Untouched from WW2
other nations needed
American
goods and services
The World Bank and IMF (International Monetary Fund) have HQ's based in Washington DC
2.1
The Postwar American Boom
Economic strength transformed life in the
US
'50s-'60s recessions were brief and mild
America
grew more affluent
led to suburbanization
Many
Americans
moved to southern and Southeast states
The World embraced 20th century art forms
American
movies, TV, and rock-and-roll music
2.1
The Postwar American Boom
Under Truman, Congress created programs helping veterans, the elderly, and the poor
After Truman, Eisenhower approved funding for a vast interstate highway system
Government programs made it easier to buy homes
2.1
An Oil Shock Brings Recession
Early 1970s: Middle East political crisis decreased oil exports
oil prices soared
less
$
to spend on other products
Long lines for expensive gas had
Americans
realize their dependence on imported oil and global economic forces
1974: Serious recession ending decades of post war prosperity
1970s-80s: World's economies suffered a series of recessions and renewed prosperity
2.2
Democracy Expands Opportunities
Despite
America's
prosperity, the promised equality and opportunity was not fulfilled for ethnic minorities and women
Segregation and Discrimination of minorities and women
In Jobs and voting
After WW2, Truman desegregated armed forces
1954:
US
Supreme Court declared that segregating schools was unconstitutional
2.2
Americans Demand Civil Rights
1956: Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., emerged as a leader of the civil right's movement
Extend equal rights to all
Americans
King organized boycotts, led peaceful marches
1963: King's "I Have A Dream" speech
Americans
of all races soon joined the civil rights movement
US Congress outlawed public segregation, protected voting rights, and required equal access to housing and jobs
Poverty, unemployment, and discrimination still plagued many African Americans
2.2
Women Demand Equality
Women faced discrimination in employment and other areas
1960s-70s: Women's rights movement
Won laws banning discrimination against women
2.2
The Government's Role Grows
1960s:
US
Gov. expands social programs to help poor and disadvantage
Under JFK and Lyndon Johnson, Democrats, Congress funded Medicare
Provided health care for the elderly
2.2
Republicans Respond
1980s:
Reagan
called for cutbacks in taxes and government spending
Best way to improve
American
opportunity
Congress obliged
Military spending, however, increased
Increased spending and tax cuts increased national budget deficit
Shortfall between what the gov spends and receives in taxes and other incomes
To respond, Republicans pushed for deeper cuts in programs
2.3
Western Europe Rebuilds
Europe was devastated after WW2
Especially Germany
Western Europe
recovered quickly
2.3
Germany Divided and Reunited
Democrats (US, Britain, and France)
occupied
West Germany
Soviet Union
occupied
East Germany
Goal: Hold elections for a single German gov.
1949: Germany divides due to disputes
West Germany
prospered,
East Germany
's economy stagnated
1989:
Soviet Communism
declined
Germany reunified
1990: German voters approved reunification
2.3
West Germany's "Economic Miracle"
Marshal Plan
US
' way of strengthening
West Germany
against
East
1949-1963: Konrad Adenauer,
West German
chancellor
Helped rebuild cities, factories, and trade
Despite high taxes for recovery, WG created a booming industrial economy
2.3
Britain's Narrowed Horizons
Britain's economy slowly recovered
Couldn't afford large military presence overseas
Abandoned Colonial empire in face of demands for independence
50s-60s: Economy recovered
2.3
Other European Nations Prosper
Belgium and Netherlands demanded independence
After wars in Vietnam and Algeria, France abandoned its empire
1950s-60s: European Economic Boom
Living standards improved
Spain and Ireland saw economic growth
2.3
Building the Welfare State
1950s-70s: European nations expanded social benefits to citizens
European parties wanted to extend welfare state
Middle class and poor enjoyed increased benefits from national healthcare
Welfare state brought high taxes and and greater government regulation of private enterprise
Britain, France, elsewhere: Gov. took basic industries (railroads, airlines, steel)
Conservatives condemned drift from free enterprise to socialism
2.3
Limiting the Welfare State
1979: British voters turned to Conservative party
Denounced welfare state
Margaret Thatcher
Returned Gov. owned industries to private control
Other countries did the same in the face of soaring costs
2.3
Toward European Unity
1952: WG, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, France, and Italy set up European Coal and Steel Community
Free trade in coal and steel among members
Economic growth across WE
1957: Same six nations make European Economic Community
Free trade among members for all products
Other countries later included
2.4
Japan is Transformed
Japan lay in ruins after World War 2
2.4
American Occupiers Bring Changes
Under General Douglas MacArthur, Japanese emperor lost political power
Parliamentary democracy
Occupying forces opened education systems
Land reforms gave homeless farmers land
1952:
US
signed peace treaty with Japan and left
Stayed connected and became trade partners
2.4
Japan Develops a Democracy
Liberal Democratic Party (LDP): dominated Gov. from 1950s-90s
Alliance of factions compete for Gov. positions
2.4
An Economic Miracle Relies on Exports
1950-70: Japans economic miracle
GDP soared
Total value of all goods and services produced in a nation within a particular year
Success came from building exported goods
At first textiles, then cars, cameras, TV's etc.
Little $ spent on military, more on economy
Gov protected home industries
Japan sold more goods to other countries than it bought from other countries
Section 3
Section 4
Section 5
Section 3: Communism Spreads in East Asia
In the late 1940s,
Communism
made advances in East Asia
1949:
Communism
gained control of one fifth of the worlds people with a victory in China
3.1
China's Communist Revolution
After WW2,
Chinese Communists
controlled much of Northern China
Mao Zedong (
Communist
) fought a civil war against Jiang Jieshi (Nationalist)
Mao's forces won
Set up People's Republic of China
Defeated Nationalists fled to Taiwan
3.1
How the Communists Won
Mao's
Communists
won for several reasons:
Won support of huge peasant population
Redistributed land to poor peasants
Communism
grew, Nationalism lost popularity
Chinese people resented corruption in Jiang's Gov. and the gov.'s reliance on support from Western "imperialist" powers
Support for
Communism
in the countryside helped surround Nationalist held cities
1950:
Communists
capture Tibet after victory against Nationalists
1959: Dali Lama forced to flee country
3.1
Changing Chinese Society
Mao Zedong built a
Communist
one-party totalitarian state
Wanted to reshape economy and society
discouraged practice of traditional beliefs
Gov. seized property from rural landlords and urban business owners
Communist
opponents were called "counterrevolutionaries"
Many middle class people
Often beaten, sent to labor camps, or killed
Soviets
helped build dams and factories
At first Mao gave land to peasants
To boost agriculture
Soon called for collectivization
Pooling people into labor camps to increase productivity
3.1
The Great Leap Forward Fails
1958-1960: Mao led the Great Leap Forward
Urge people to make superhuman effort to increase farm and industrial output
In attempt to make agriculture more efficient, he created communes
Brought several villages together, 1000s of acres of land, and up to 25000 people to produce steel and other products
They produced low-quality useless goods, and agriculture got worse
1959-1961: 55 million Chinese thought to have starved from famine
3.1
The Cultural Revolution Disrupts Life
China started leaving communes and taking a more practical approach of its economy
1966: Mao launched Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution
Purge China of "bourgeois" tendencies
Urged young Chinese to experience Revolution firsthand
Teens formed bands of Red Guards
Attacked those they considered bourgeois
Accused were publicly humiliated or beaten, sometimes even killed
Schools and factories closed
Economy slowed, civil war threatened
Mao then had the army restore order
3.2
China, the Cold War's "Wild Card"
1949:
Communism
in China seemed like a win for the
Soviets
and a loss for
Democracy
Number of people under
Communist
rule had more than tripled
China's role in the Cold War was more complex
Split With the
Soviet Union
1950s: PROC and
SU
were uneasy allies
Stalin sent aid and technical experts to help China modernize
Distrust created tensions
By 1960: Border clashes and disputes led
Soviets
to withdraw all aid from China
No alliance
3.2
Washington Plays the China Card
After Jiang Jieshi fled to Taiwan, the
US
supported his Nationalist Gov. as the rightful rep. of China
Washington refused to recognize PROC
Communists
After long, the
US
took a second look at them
From
Americas
perspective, they saw strategic advantages in an alliance
"Playing the China Card"
Isolate
Soviets
between NATO (West) and China (East)
1971:
US
allowed PROC to replace Taiwan in the
UN
1979:
US
set up diplomatic relations with China
3.2
Taiwan and the Nationalists
Jiang Jieshi ruled Taiwan under martial law as a one-party dictatorship
Late 1980s: Taiwan's Gov. ends martail law
Mainland China threatened military action when Taiwan proposed independence
China wanted Taiwan back
Taiwan refused
3.3
War Comes to Korea
Korea was split in two by rival forces after WW2
Opposite sides in the Cold War
North
South
3.3
A Divided Nation
Korea was independent until Japan conquered it in the early 1900s
After Japan's WW2 loss, Soviet and Democratic forces agreed to temporarily divide Korea on the 38th parallel of latitude
North Korea: Kim Il Sung: Communist ally of Soviets
South Korea: Syngman Rhee: Dictatorial, but not Commie
3.3
North Korean Attack Brings A UN Response
Both leaders wanted complete rule
1950:
Kim Il Sung
called for "heroic struggle"to reunite Korea
NK
attacked that year, overrunning much of the south
UN
condemned invasion
US
organized a
UN
force to help
SK
Americans
and
South Koreans
NK
advanced until stopped at the Pusan Perimeter
Centered on city of Pusan, SE corner of Korean peninsula
3.3
North Korean Attack Brings A UN Response
September 1950:
UN
land on beaches near port of Inch'on, behind enemy lines
Quickly captured
NK
's north-south rail lines
Cut off food and ammo supply
North Koreans
in
South
soon surrendered
By November,
UN
forces pushed
NK
to Yalu River, at China's border
3.3
China Reverses UN Gains
UN's (US)
success alarmed China
Mao
sent troops to help
NK
China and
NK
backed
UN
troops to the 38th parallel
Korean War = stalemate
1953: Both sides sign armistice
Troops were still scattered all over
Armistice held for the rest of the Cold War, but no peace treaty was ever negotiated
3.4
Two Koreas
NK
and
SK
developed separately after armistice
North Korea
: communist command economy
South Korea
: Capitalist market economy
South Korea
had an economic boom
North Korea
stagnated and declined
US
helped
SK
Soviets
helped
NK
South Korea
was governed by many dictators and military rulers during the Cold War
Korea stayed divided
3.4
South Korea Recovers
Mid 1960s:
SK
economy lept ahead
1987: Direct elections held after student and middle class protests
Began a successful transition to democracy
Most
South Koreans
during the Cold War wanted to see Korea reunited
As did many
North Koreans
3.4
North Korea Digs In
Under
Kim Il Sung
, command economy increased output for a time
Late 1960s: Economy slowed for a time
Kim
's reliance on self-reliance kept
NK
poor
Gov. built a personality cult around
Kim
Glorified as the "Great Leader"
After
Soviets
and Chinese took economic reform in the '80s,
NK
kept communism strong
Section 4: War In Southeast Asia
SE Asia's wars were nationalists struggles against foreign domination
Indochina after WW2
French Indochina tore apart after WW2
30 year conflict in 2 phases
1946-1954: War against the French
1955-1975: Cold War Conflict
4.1
Indochina Under Foreign Rule
Indochina: Eastern part of mainland SE Asia
Conquered by French in 1800s
Japanese overran Indochina during WW2
Faced resistance (especially Vietnamese) from local guerrillas
Independent Guerrillas turned guns on Europeans
Influenced by Communism
4.1
Ho Chi Minh Fights the French
After WW2, the French wanted to re-establish authority in Indochina
Ho Chi Minh led guerrilla forces against the French
Nationalist and
Communist
who fought Japanese, then French
1954: Vietnamese victory at the battle of Dienbienphu convinces French to leave
Cambodia and Laos get independence separately
4.1
Vietnam is Divided
After 1954: Vietnam struggle joins the Cold War
At international conference,
Western
and
Communist
powers temporarily divide Vietnam
Ho's Communists in the North
Non communist Ngo Dinh Diem (US support) in South
Elections were meant to be held for one leader, but never were for fear of a
Communist
win
North
South
4.1
Vietnam is Divided
Some
SV
citizens pefered the
NV
ruler, a national hero, than the foreign one they had
Ho
alienated some
Catholics and pro-French fled to the
south
US
supported
Ngo
against
communism
in
NV
Ngo
alienated many Vietnamese through his corruption
Early 1960s:
Communist Guerrillas
arrive in
SV
Many saw it as a nationalist struggle to liberate
SV
from foreign rule
The Vietnam War Begins
4.2
America Enters the Vietnam War
American
foreign policy planners saw situation in Vietnam as part of Cold War
Developed Domino Theory
Communist
victory in SV would cause
non communist
Gov.s of S Asia to go
Communist
Prevent at all costs
Ho remained determined to unite Vietnam
Aided
Viet Cong
: National Liberation Front
Communist rebels
fighting the South
US
only sent supplies to SV at first, but later sent thousands of troops
4.2
The War Intensifies
August 1, 1964: SV commandos conduct raids on
NV
islands in Gulf of Tonkin
Next day, NV attacked a
US Navy Destroyer, the
Maddox
"Thought" it assisted SV raids
President Johnson
reported attacks without mentioning the SV raids
August 7th, 1964: Believing attacks were unprovoked, Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Take necessary measures to prevent further aggression in SE Asia
America
then began bombing targets in
North Vietnam
4.2
The War Intensifies
More than 500,000
American troops
committed to war
Soviet Union
and China sent aid to
NV
, but no troops
American
men were required to register for the draft
Men were selected from a random lottery
Many saw fighting for the
USA
as a patriotic duty
4.2
Guerrilla War
America
faced a guerrilla war
SV rebels tended to peasants
Knew countryside better than
Americans
Villagers offered save haven to
NV
soldiers from foreign troops
Turned villagers into targets
Guerrilla supplies came from northern jungles of Cambodia and Laos
American
aircraft and troops crossed the borders of these nations, bringing them into the war
4.2
The Tet Offensive
Despite
American
support, SV failed to defeat
NV
1968: Guerrilla forces came from jungles, attacking
American
and SV forces in cities all over the south
Unexpected because it occurred on Vietnam's New Year, the Tet
Communists
lost many troops and didnt hold any cities against
American
counterattack
Still, Tet Offensive marked a turning point in Public opinion in the
USA
4.3
The Vietnam War Ends
American soldier
and Vietnamese civilian death fueled anti-war opinions in the
US
Growing numbers of
American
troops were either POW's or MIA
Many
US
citizens supported the war effort
Others wanted to end the loss of life
Young people took part in massive street demonstrations
It was clear
Americans
were tired of seeing "body bags" and "burning Vietnamese villages" on the TV screens
"I want to get out, but i don't want to give up"
4.4
America Withdraws
In the end,
America
decided to leave
Vietnam
Lyndon Johnson
decided not to run for office again
Johnson
opened peace talks with
NV
in Paris
Although
America
hardly lost in
Vietnam
, they barely dented the
Vietnamese Communists
' determination to keep fighting
Nixon came under pressure to terminate
American
involvement
1973: Paris Peace Accord
Establish a halt in fighting
US
agreed to withdraw troops
NV
agreed to stop sending troops
Left SV to determine its own future
4.5
North Vietnam Wins the War
2 years after
America
leaves Vietnam, NN conquers SV
SV's capital, Saigon, was renamed Ho Chi Minh City in 1976 in honor if the late leader
NV's capital, Hanoi, became capital of the reunited nation
4.6
Southeast Asia After The War
After USA left Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos were dominated by Communist Vietnam
The "falling dominoes" stopped at the former border of French Indochina
During the Vietnam war, fighting occurred in Cambodia
1970:
US
bombed
NV
supply routes in Cambodia
Also briefly invaded the country
Then, the
Khmer Rouge
(Cambodian
Communist
Guerrillas), gained ground in Cambodia
4.6
Tragedy in Cambodia
Led by brutal dictator,
Pol Pot
, the
Khmer Rouge
unleashed a reign of terror
To destroy
Western influence
, they forced city people to work in fields
They slaughtered, starved, and worked to death more than a million Cambodians (almost 1/3 of its population)
It took a Vietnamese invasion to drive
Pol Pot
back into the jungle
4.6
Vietnam Under the Communists
Communist
victors imposed harsh rules on the South
Hundreds of thousands fled the country, most in small boats
Many drowned
Survivors fled to neighboring countries, some even went to the
US
Recovery in Vietnam was slow, due to a lack of
US
help
For years they remained in poverty
Section 5: The End of the Cold War
The Cold War lasted almost half a century
Around 1990: the struggle finally ended
A nuclear confrontation never happened, but the winner was as obvious as day
Reagan
Gorbachev
5.1
The Soviet Union Declines
Western
fears of
Soviet
power growing never came true
Soviet Communism
was doomed from the start
Victory in WW2 brought few rewards to the
Soviets
Stalin
continued to fill labor camps with "enemies of the state"
5.1
Reforms Give Way to Repression
Under
Khrushchev
,
Soviets
enjoyed greater freedom of speech
Some Gov. critics were freed from prisons and labor camps
Oversaw shift in economic priorities from heavy industry to production of consumer goods
Still a command economy
Some Eastern Europeans moved towards independence
Khrushchev
remained a determined cold warrior
When Hungarians tried to break free, he sent tanks to put them in their place
His successor,
Leonid Brezhnev
, did the same to the Czechs
5.1
The Command Economy Stagnates
Soviet Union
rebuilt its industry with equipment from Germany
Gov. poured resources into science and technology
1957:
Sputnik I
, the first artificial satellite, was launched
Soviet
economy faces several problems
Agriculture was bad in Russia
Soviet
command economy couldn't match
Western
market economies
Central economies planning led to inefficiency and waste
Bureaucracy decided what and how much to produce
Moscow planners chose to make many unneeded goods
Although workers weren't paid much, lifetime job security gave little incentive to make better goods
5.1
Cracking Under the Burden of Military Commitments
Arms race put a particular strain on the inefficient
Soviet
economy
When
Reagan
launched a new round of missile development, it was clear that the
Soviet
economy couldn't match it
1979:
Soviets
begin a long war in Afghanistan
A
Soviet
supported Afghan gov. tried to modernize the nation
Policies included land distribution reducing power of regional landlords
Afghan landlords, commanding armed men as warlords, and Muslim conservatives said these policies threatened Islamic tradition
5.1
Soviets Have Their Own "Vietnam" in Afghanistan
When the warlords tool up arms,
Soviets
moved in
Battling mujahedin (Muslim religious warriors), was just as difficult as fighting Vietnamese guerrillas
Mid 1980s:
American
government smuggled weapons to the mujahedin
Soviets
had yes of casualties, costs, and losses, and a loss of morale at home
5.1
Gorbachev Tries Reform
1985: The energetic
Mikhail Gorbachev
became ruler of the
Soviet Union
Eager to bring reforms to a struggling economy
Gorbachev
wanted to avoid Cold War confrontations
Signed arms control treaties with
US
Pulled
Soviets
out of Afghanistan
He called for openness at home
Ended censorship, encouraging free speech
Urged restructuring of the government and economy
Reduced size of bureaucracy and backed limited private enterprise
Allowed farmers to sell produce of the free market
5.1
An Empire Crumbles
Gorbachev's
reforms brought economic turmoil
Shortages grew worse
Prices soared
Factories reliant on Gov. closed, increasing unemployment
His policies fed unrest across the
Soviet Empire
1989: Eastern Europe countries from Poland to Bulgaria started to leave the
SU
The Baltic States, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, (captured in 1940), regained independence in 1991
Hardcore Soviets
tried to overthrow
Gorbachev
to restore order
Didn't work, but weakened him, and led to his resignation
5.1
An Empire Crumbles
"Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!" Ronald Reagan, June 12, 1987
End of 1991: Remaining
Soviet
republics separate, forming 12 independent nations
The largest was Russia
Maps of Europe and Asia had to be redrawn to show the new political boundaries
After 69 years, the
Soviet Union
had ceased to exist
5.2
Communism Declines Around the World
The
Soviet bloc's
defeat affect
communists
from Cuba to China
Many were already economically suffering and decline by the 80s
Leaders of the PROC accelerated compromises with capitalism that Deng Xiaoping introduced in the 80s
Resulted in economic boom
China's
communist
party undertook no political reform, trying to preserve their rule and power
5.2
Vietnam and North Korea Differ
1990s:
Communist
Vietnam opened itself to the world, establishing diplomatic relations with the
US
Vietnam later appeled to tourists and became a major coffee exporter
North Korea
hunkered down in grim isolation, refusing reforms
It even seemed unable to feed its own people at times
Hundreds of thousands of
North Koreans
starved in the 1990s
5.2
Cuba Declines
Communism
was living on borrowed time in Cuba
Cuba's economy was deteriorated after it lost
Soviet
support
An aging
Fidel

Castro
showed Cuba could no longer be
Communist
5.3
The United States as Sole Superpower
With the
Soviet Unions
collapse, the
USA
was recognized as the only superpower
USA
was the world's leading military power
Beginning in the 90s,
USA
staged several military missions around the world
Seemed unsure of their proper role in the world
Some called them the "world's police"
Others said they should have been more aggressive
Americas
unrivaled power produced mixed reactions around the world
Protector of freedom or too powerful?

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J
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A.
B
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and the other guys from purple team. they helped too, i guess...
Conner Stevens
Ryan Williams
Gavin Sison
not really
Full transcript