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Assignment 3: Hydration and sports performance
Transcript of Assignment 3: Hydration and sports performance
Hydration and Sports Performance
Water is the main transport mechanism in your body, carrying nutrients and waste products. Water is lost from your body through a number of routes including urine, faeces, evaporation and expired breath.
Water makes up 50-60% of your total body weight. Actual amounts vary depending on age, gender and body composition. Muscle has higher water content than fat tissue, so leaner individulas have higher water content than fatter individuals of the same body mass.
If your water loss is high you will become dehydrated. Under normal circumstances your body maintains a balance between fluid input and output.
There are two types of fluid used for hydration:
Sports drinks - Hypertonic
Water is considered to be an adequate fluid suitable for most exercise, but some sports drinks may be useful if running at higher intensities for longer durations.
Most sports drinks aim to provide three nutrients:
Carbohydrates to replace energy
Water to replace fluid
Electrolytes to replace minerals lost in sweat
The carbohydrate in sports drinks is usually glucose, fructose or sucrose, which are all saccharides that are quickly absorbed. Modern sports drinks often contain a range of minerals and vitamins, but most often include the electrolytes sodium and potassium. Both of these macrominerals are lost in sweat. Sodium promotes the absorption of glucose and water. Magnesium is another mineral lost in sweat, and
is present in water and most sports drinks.
During endurance type exercise or exercise in hot/humid conditions athletes can lose up to 1 litre of water per hour.
The fluid in the body helps maintain core body temperature. During exercise your body temperature rises and the extra heat is lost through sweat/evaporation. If fluid lost through sweating is not replaced, there is a risk of dehydration and performace can suffer.
Dehydration can affect performance by reducing strength, power and aerobic capacity. Severe dehydration can cause heat stroke and has the potential to be fatal. A
loss as small as 2 per cent of body mass can be enough to begin to affect your ability to perform muscular contractions.
The different stages of dehydration include:
Signs and symptoms of dehydration
The warning signs for dehydration include:
lack of energy and early fatigue during exercise
clammy or flushed skin
not needing to go to the toilet
shortness of breath.*
* These are signs of advanced dehydration.
Hypertonic drinks are used to supplement your daily carbohydrate intake. They contain over 8% of carbohydrate and are absorbed slowly.
The best time to drink them is after exercise as they help your body to top up on muscle glycogen stores.
In very long distance events such as marathons, high levels of energy are required.
Hypertonic drinks can also be taken during exercise to meet the energy requirements.
However, it is advisable to only use them during exercise alongside isotonic drinks to replace fluids.
Make your own - You will need:
400ml of squash
One litre of water
Pinch of salt
Mix, cool and drink
They are designed to quickly replace the fluids which are lost by sweating. They also provide a boost of carbohydrates.
Isotonic drinks contain the same concentration of glucose to water ratio as the blood: 4-8% or up to 8 grams per 100ml of water.
They usually contain sodium, which makes them more quickly absorbed into the bloodstream.
They are commonly drunk by athletes, especially middle and long distance runners, but all professional sportspeople use them in their daily training regimes.
Make your own
500ml unsweetened fruit juice (orange, apple, pineapple)
Mix them all together in a jug and cool down in fridge.
One litre of warm water
Pinch of salt
200ml of sugar free squash
Mix, cool and drink
Water is one of the most important nutrients, in your diet. Your body cannot survive more than three days without it.
Water plays a vital role in maintaining temperature regulation, particularly during exercise, and aids the passage of food through your digestive system.
Understanding the relationship between hydration and sports performance is vital for achieving optimal performance in both training and competition.
P5 Describe hydration and its effects on sports performance
Examine various methods used to hydrate the body
Assess the effects of hydration on the body
Calculate fluid intake, pre, during and post event
Identify the signs and sympons of all stages of hydrations
To achieve P5 you must be
Thermoregulation - the ability to keep the body's temperature constant, even if the surrounding temperature is different
Electrolytes - salts in the blood, for example, calcium, potassium and sodium
Ergogenic - work enhancing
Ergogenic aid - a substance that improves exercise performance
REMEMBER: dehydration can hinder performance by affecting strength, power, coordination and aerobic
List the signs and symptoms of dehydration
Hyperhydration is a state of increased hydration from normal, producing a greater than normal body water content. Starting exercise in a hyperhydrated state can improve
, improving heat dissipation
and exercise performance. However, this area of sports science research needs to be further investigated.
Hypohydration is a state of decreased hydration from normal, producing a less than normal body water content. Hypohydration increases core body
temperature, impairs the sweating response and causes skeletal muscle fatigue.
Superhydration is a state of hydration achieved by manipulation with the ergogenic aid glycerol. When ingested with large volumes of water (1–2 litres), glycerol has been shown to increase water retention in the body. This reduces overall heat stress during exercise in hot conditions, lowering heart rate and body temperature. However, there are side effects to be considered including headaches, dizziness, gastrointestinal upsets and bloating.
To maintain water balance a sedentary individual requires 2-2.5litres of fluid per day.
10% of your daily fluid requirements come from metabolic process that releases water and 90% is from your diet (60% come directly from fluids your drink and 30% comes from food with high water content).
Athletes should be encouraged to be fully hydrated prior to an event or training.
It is recommended that 10-15minutes before an event or training the athlete should drink 300-500ml of fluid.
Training should be used as the opportunity to practise well-rehearsed fluid replacement strategies to ensure they run smoothly in competitive situations.
Many factors can influence the effectiveness of fluid replacement
strategies during exercise.
Fluid replacement can be accelerated by drinking still, cool drinks of a reasonable volume that are not too concentrated, and they must be palatable to drink.
The more intense the activity undertaken, the more the absorption of fluid is slowed. Unpleasant symptoms experienced when drinking during exercise usually mean you have left it too late to start drinking and your body is already dehydrated.
Drinking 150–200 ml every 15–20 minutes during exercise is recommended, especially if the exercise lasts longer than an hour.
Weight and urine-colour checks can provide a useful and simple way of monitoring fluid status during and after training and competition.
A weight reduction of 1 kg is equivalent to 1 litre of fluid loss. Frequent trips to the toilet to pass plentiful quantities of pale-coloured urine are an indicator of good hydration, whereas dark-coloured urine indicates a poor level of hydration.
These simple weight and urine checks before and after exercise can provide useful tools to assist in determining fluid requirements post-training or during competition.
After exercise fluid losses should be replaced 1.5 times within the first two hours of recovery.
Hypotonic drinks have a lower concentration of carbohydrates and are more diluted than isotonic or
hypertonic sports drinks. Therefore they are designed to quickly replace fluids lost through sweating.
They contain less than 4 per cent carbohydrate (4 g per 100 ml of water) and are generally easily absorbed and well tolerated.
Hypotonic drinks are very popular with athletes who need fluid without the boost of carbohydrate e.g. jockeys and gymnasts use them regularly.
Make your own
100ml of squash
One litre of water
Pinch of salt
Mix, cool and drink
Effects on sports performance
The greater the
of exercise, the more important fluid replacement strategies become and the more likely that sports drinks will have a useful contribution to make in terms of effects
on performance and
, not only by providing a source of fluid but also of energy.
Sound nutritional strategies, including those relating to fluid replacement, may have their biggest contribution to make in allowing
the sportsperson to train consistently to meet the desired adaptations to training in terms of