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8 Stages of Genocide

Adapted from Gregory H. Stanton (1998 President of Genocide Watch)

E. Delfin

on 15 July 2013

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Transcript of 8 Stages of Genocide

2. Symbolization
We give names or other symbols to the classifications. We name people "Jews" or "Gypsies," distinguish them by color or dress, and apply symbols to members of these groups.
1. Classification
All Cultures have categories to distinguish people into "us and them" by ethnicity, race, religion nationality, or another aspect of identity.
8 Stages

Jigsaw Activity
3. Dehumanization
One group (usually a dominant group) denies the humanity of the other group (the victim group) and tries to make members of the victim group look or seem inferior. Members are compared to:
4. Organization
Genocide is always organized, usually by the government, often using militias (non-government armed forces) to provide deniability of government responsibility.
5. Polarization
Extremist drive the groups (the dominant group and the victim group) apart.
7. Extermination
Systematic murder begins and quickly becomes the mass killing legally called "genocide."
By Gregory H. Stanton
Genocide Watch President (1998)
Genocide is a process that develops in eight stages that are predictable but not inexorable.

At each stage, preventative measures can stop it. The later stages must be preceded by the earlier stages, though earlier stages continue to operate throughout the process.
White, German, and/or Jew
Straight and Gay
Christian and Muslim
Segregated societies that lack mixed categories are the most likely to have a genocide.
When combined with hatred, symbols may be forced upon unwilling members of oppressed groups:
The yellow star for Jews under Nazi rule
Dehumanization overcomes the normal human disgust of murder.
At this stage, Hate propaganda ( in print and on radio) is used to criticize the victim group.
Special army units or militias are often trained and armed.
Plans are made for genocidal killings.
Hate groups broadcast propaganda that strongly divides people's opinions.
Laws may forbid marriage or social interaction between the groups.
Extremist terrorism targets moderates, intimidating and silencing people who don't hold extreme beliefs.
Moderates from the wrongdoer's own group are most able to stop genocide, so they are usually the first to be arrested and killed.
8. Denial
The final stage of Genocide. The Wrongdoers...
6. Preparation
Victims are identified and separated out because of their ethnic, religious or another part of their identity.
Death lists are drawn up.
Members of victim groups are forced to wear identifying symbols.
Their property is taken away
(usually by the government)
They are often segregated into ghettoes, deported into concentration camps, or confined to a famine-struck region and starved
It is "extermination" to the killers because they do not believe the victim group is human.
When it is sponsored by the government, the armed forces often work with the militias to do the killing.
dig up the mass graves and burn the bodies,
try and cover up the evidence,
intimidate people who witnessed the genocide.
They deny that they committed any crimes and blame what happened on the victims. They continue to...
block investigations of the crimes
and continue to govern until...
driven from power by force and they flee into exile.
May/may not be tried at a special court or hearing.
Just Like the Advertising Jigsaw...
Your group of 5 will be presenting to the class.
1. Define your stage by discussing among your group what each of you think it means.
2. What is so bad/dangerous about this stage?
3. An Example from _Night_.
4. Another example that's not from _Night_ .
(if possible, try to find something that's not from the Holocaust.)
5. Possible ways to stop it.
(Remember...at each stage, preventive measures can stop it.)
Classification and symbolization are universal to humans and do not necessarily result in genocide unless they lead to the next stage:
Full transcript