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Top 10 Discoveries (1950-2000)
Transcript of Top 10 Discoveries (1950-2000)
BY KATHERINE NIEUWENDYK AND KAYLA SPRITO
10 MAY 2014
10. String Theory
Attempts to provide a consistently unified answer to the fundamental structure of the universe.
Opened doors for scientists and physicists
Questions of the universe seemed impossible, but now it is almost in scientists’ reach, progressing more and more with every year of research.
This discovery has scientists on the verge of extremely fascinating discoveries that could potentially change the way humans view themselves and the world they live in everyday.
9. Oral Contraceptive Pill
8. Drug for treating Schizophrenia Identified
Henri Laborit- Parisian surgeon looking for a way to reduce surgical shock in his patients.
Tried antihistamines shocking results
Prior to this, drugs were not used in psychiatry
Chronically mentally ill would be warehoused in state institutions.
Led to understand the role of dopamine and other neurotransmitters in brain function and behavior.
Multitudinous number of drugs to treat mental illness have been developed
7. Salk produces Polio Vaccine
World threatening viral, infectious disease
Resulted in long-term effects on the limbs, restraining motion or causing complete paralysis.
People avoided pools, theaters and essentially anywhere crowds assembled.
By 1952 nearly 60,000 cases with more than 3,000 deaths were reported in the United States alone.
Widespread vaccination in 1952- Polio was virtually eliminated from the Western hemisphere in the second half of the 20th century.
6. Double Helix
5. Moon Landing Technology
4. MRI and CT scanning
2. Recognition of AIDs
3. Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)
1950s- cheap and prepared foods, like cheese in a can and Spam, stormed the market.
Sparked bio-tech companies to team up with Agribusinesses to create fast-growing crops for cheap food.
GMOs- created through the genetically engineering process of inserting DNA blueprints of living organisms with artificial genes to obtain new properties.
Bio tech revolution that radically changed how the world eats and how food is perceived.
1. The World Wide Web
Photo of a Glacier from: THE NASA/GSFC/METI/ERSDAC
April 1993, CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be available for anyone to use on a royalty-free basis. Since that time, the Web has changed the world socially, technologically, religiously, politically, technologically, Intellectually, regionally and economically.
FORAND SCORE AND 7 YEARS AGO
Idea of big corporations being anti-government is a myth.
These bio-tech and agribusinesses want to compete in a free market, in an artificially restricted market.
Regulatory agencies-controlled by the very companies they are suppose to be scrutinizing.
The claims have not been tested safe, yet lobbying allows GMOs to be widely accepted among the society that is kept in the dark.
Social and Intellectual
Due to the corruption, society does not have the right to know what is in their food.
GMOs have been proven through independent studies to be toxic and cancer-causing.
They cause new allergies and sensitives that the consumers are unaware of.
60-70% of the food in a supermarket is genetically modified
effecting everyone who eats and buys food.
These companies use propaganda to suppress knowledge of society so they have little suspension about the false claims like safety.
GMOs also greatly effect those who sell food.
Monopolizing food industry = control farmers
They hook farmers by saying GMOs will increase their revenue and yield and are tolerant to weed killer.
Cannot revert to their old way
Once people start to realize the effects of GMO foods, they have to jump through hoops to obtain non-GMO foods that are more costly due to supply and demand.
Serbia was not admitted to the World Trade Organization because they won't accept GMOs.
Once GMOs are released, it is virtually impossible to recall them back to the laboratory or field for that matter.
"Cross-pollination" which can leave farmers certify-less and jobless.
Farmers that rebel against "genetic cross-pollination" are sued via patents.
Farmers can lose their decades of hard work, their certifications and even their livelihoods.
GMO Claim: Produce yield Feed the world
GMOs on average reduce yield (Union of Concerned Scientist)
GMOs are not one of the needed methods to feed the world.
(The Internation Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Sicence and Technology for Development report)
(Tested by experts)
Social (Continued) and Regional
Avoid unplanned pregnancies
Started the ‘Sexual Revolution’
Some felt it was responsible for sexual liberation, the rise in the number of unmarried couples living together, and open marriage
Control family size
Population rate dropped dramatically
James Watson and Francis Crick discovered the Double Helix
Changed entire basis of biology and how scientists viewed DNA.
Every part of the DNA structure has a specific function.
Showed biologists, physiologists, and scientists the basis for genetic makeup and DNA
Changed the way we can perform other scientific studies on the human body
Intellectual and Technological-helped world move forward in science and medicine
Made America one step closer to being the intellectual minds of the world.
Monsanto had pressured as many as 4,500 farmers into paying settlements worth as much as $160 million.
Instead of feeding the world, prices were driven sky-high. A USDA report from 2006 showed that farmers do not actually increase income from GMOs but many actually lose income.
The claim that GMOs would help feed the world population was contradicted. Prices for genetically engineered seed soared. Since 1996, the cost of soybeans has increased 325% and corn has risen 259%.
U.S. has been forced to spend $3-$5 billion per year to prop up the prices of the GM crops no one wants.
All fundamental particles are really just different manifestations of one basic origin - a string.
String theory has emerged to be the most promising solution to the theory of gravity, bringing scientists closer to the important questions of the universe.
CT (Computerized Tomography)
- early seventies, technology using ionizing radiation, much like x-ray, but with 3D “slices” or cross sectional images of the body.
MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
- uses a gigantic magnet to capture images with no known side effects and no radiation.
Radiologists can more easily diagnose problems such as cancer, heart disease, appendicitis, trauma and musculoskeletal disorders.
Computer technology advances - supercomputer-like power to MRI and CT systems.
100 times more detail than regular x-rays.
Imaging in high quality resolution- doctors have greater accuracy of diagnosis.
Shows tiny abnormalities of the brain that other modalities just cannot “see”.
Patients of almost any size can be scanned head to toe, front to back, and side to side in a single pass.
The 3 Tesla (3-T) MRI scanner- new to the market.
2010, Rhode Island Hospital was first to launched the technology.
Unique ability to image the brain in a functional way allowing neurosurgeons to identify problems like seizures and Parkinson disease.
Hospitals must ensure their economic viability of providing the service with the most advanced technology.
Manufactures want to improve costs and software systems
Smaller hospitals find the advanced technology cost prohibitive
New MRI scanners on the market cost an average of 2 million dollars
Faster and less expensive
Colorfully decorated with paintings less stressed and squirmy - less repeats and less radiation
Some religious groups opt for the non-invasive CT angiography
Reluctance to have the test- fear of radiation or claustrophobic
Improvements- opening of the machine to make it more spacious and less confining.
Headphones, music, knowledgeable staff
MRI scans - structural difference in the brains of people with liberal and conservative political views.
Grants and federal money - research in building new imaging technology
Physicists, scientists and radiologists - must be fully licensed and accredited with federal and state agencies
Hospitals and Doctor Offices must follow strict guidelines for the control and regulation of radiation and safe practices for patients.
6000 CT in US. 30,0000 units installed world-wide.
MR imaging equipment market is likely to grow- rising incidences of cardiac diseases and neurological cases in different regions especially in China and India.
Improved spending capability- fueling demand for MRI across Asia
North America dominates the market with nearly 40% share of MRI units, followed by Europe due to technological developments for effective diagnostics and rapidly aging population.
Canada ranks the lowest.
Japan has 35.3 units and the US has 19.5 MRI units per million population , whereas Canada has only 4.6.
1969- America's NASA built the Apollo Spacecraft which was designed to get astronauts from the command module orbiting the moon to the moon’s surface and then serve as shelter while on the moon.
Resulted in valuable scientific discoveries and data accumulations
An impeccable achievement for America and a positive event that brought the world together in a way that will be embedded in Americana’s mind forever
After Apollo seven, eight, nine, and ten, Apollo spacecraft eleven was trusted to arrive on the moon.
Sent into lunar orbit and then successfully onto the moon itself.
Great jump for NASA and future space exploration
Gateway to new scientific technology
Gather physical samples of lunar rocks and soil for analysis back on Earth.
Astronauts were able to take photographs and conducted experiments on the Moon's surface.
Gave hope and patriotism to Americans
Brought society together through this accomplishment
Much needed counterpoint and functioned as a brief national antidote to the entire decade after Kennedy's death
Photograph of his own footprint taken by the Astronaut Edwin "Buzz" Adrin opened up later studies of the lunar surface bearing strength.
First broke out in Zaire, Zambia, Uganda, Rwanda, Tanzania and the U.S.
By the 1980s, 55 American men, ten in Europe and many more in Africa had been diagnosed with one or more of the symptoms of the unknown disease.
Social and Intellect
Mysterious disease threatened to wipe out mankind.
Some believed it would be killing the population by the millions within a few years while also bankrupting the health care system.
Center for Disease Control-publicized threat of AIDS discreetly to inform the public without causing a panic.
There seemed to be no cure and there was a low survival rate.
1994 - expert panel predicted 30 to 40 million persons worldwide would be infected with HIV within the next 6 years
Dr. Montagnier uncovered the causes of the disease
Allows people to be educated on prevention
Despite the pandemic, education and tests provided for developing countries led to a state of containment for the disease.
The discovery has shown to have saved more than two million lives worldwide and about 400,000 American lives already.
Countries that have not taken advantage of the enlightening discovery continue to struggle with the virus.
Those countries share common risk factors for AIDS such as poverty, lack of education and exploitation of women
Technology and Intellect
Discovery goes beyond prevention
Allows the disease to be detected and treated at an early stage.
Protective vaccine and drugs to cure AIDS.
New therapies have been developed to treat HIV (protease inhibitors)
Combinations of drugs to combat effects
Medical breakthroughs including screening for HIV in blood used for blood transfusions.
Religion, Politics and Economics
AIDS appearing in the homosexual communities of large cities in a politically conservative time complicated the attack on the disease.
Religious beliefs on homosexuality- not widely accepted.
AIDS dragged down the economic development of highly affected countries.
Economic toll with direct costs of AIDS ~ $350 billion
The disease arrived in the US when the gov't was cutting back on domestic spending.
Political electorate -
assures its financial support is met in every cycle.
(No other health condition has ever been so imperative to guarantee this support.)
When the funding is not met, political leaders feel the heat (I.e- funding for global AIDS efforts grew by $200 million to a total of 5.7 billion dollars, yet President Obama was criticized by the AIDS leaders for not increasing it enough.)
Single largest funding group of any global health plan in history
Financial support also led to a growing political constituency -important global health issues like malaria, cervical cancer, pneumonia and more wanting to become as successful in funding for their disease as AIDS has been in the past.
On March 12, 1989, the visual layer of the Internet was quietly revealed, fundamentally changing the way we communicate, research, consume and share media. The World Wide Web had formed a basis for an ever-increasing global information database
Education- images and videos to clarify lessons
Supported most kids learning styles
Businesses of all sizes-communicate quickly and efficiently with customers
Social Media-has revolutionized the way an entire generation communicates
People's religions change due to available information.
Rise of Intellect
Interaction between people all around the world and have used this as a gateway to even more significant technological discoveries.
Internet shopping increases the amount of profit businesses obtain
Music, recreational activities, clothing lines
Benefits the people selling these things economically and promote societal endeavors.
Computer business/technology businesses
These crops were claimed to be beneficial, but many people became concerned about heath, socioeconomic and ecological problems.
Dr. Luc Montagnier discovered the cause of the bizarre disease that is now called Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).
He discovered the Human Immune Deficiency Virus strains 1 and 2 which is the virus that can cause AIDS and this led to protective preventive measures.
AIDS threatened to be the most deadly and feared epidemic of the century.
The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) began research and found that the disease was mainly detected in homosexual men.
Patients needing transfusions are less worrisome about a virus being transmitted to their blood stream knowing that technology can detect HIV in blood.
Dr. Montagnier current research- role of antioxidant nutrients as a key part in slowing the progression of HIV infection to the AIDS stage.
The roles of antioxidant nutrients and plant extracts in slowing the progression to clinical AIDS.
Technological and Intellectual
Proved the technological and intellectual growth of society over the years
This advanced technology has revolutionized the way an entire generation communicates, people of all ages are given an unlimited source of interaction between people all around the world
-Politics have benefited greatly from having access to the World Wide Web through the promotion aspect the WWW offered.
-Matter of minutes people can view news and information regarding politics.
-Groups, organizations, information of political figures and recent news can all be accessed instantly using the World Wide Web
-People have united through social media and revolt against their government.
-Ideologies and passions can be shared
-The memory of John F. Kennedy’s speech in 1961 after his death suggested the attempt for this feat
-Was an urgent attempt to catch up with the Russians who had already proceeded to launch an orbiting satellite that put a dog into space.
- This achievement placed the United States ahead of the Soviets in the Space Race and gave society and people around the world a hope for future space exploration and new advances in technology.
-America sent a message that they were capable of winning the Cold War