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Tissue Engineering

Biotechnology Report
by

Jun Carl Tronco

on 21 September 2012

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Transcript of Tissue Engineering

TISSUE ENGINEERING What is
Tissue
Engineering? The creation of synthetic or semi-synthetic tissue that can be used instead of human tissue in surgery. Is the use of bioengineering techniques to manipulate the biological functions of tissues (aggregates of cells). When cells are amassed into complex formations, such as a whole organ. They must create systems for transport of nutrients, regulation of growth, and other processes. Artificial Pancreas
research involves usingislet cells to produce and regulateinsulin, particularly in cases of diabetes. In Vitro Meat
Edible artificial animal muscle tissue culturedin vitro. Bioartificial Liver Device
several research efforts have produced hepatic assist devices utilizing livinghepatocytes. Artificial
Bladders
has successfully implanted artificially grown bladders into seven out of approximately 20 human test subjects as part of along-term experiment. Cartilage
lab-grown tissue was successfully used to repair knee cartilage. Artificial Skin
constructed from human skin cells embedded in  collagen. ELEMENTS OF TISSUE ENGINEERING Matrix (Scaffold)
Porous, absorbable synthetic ( polyglycolic., polyglycolic acid) and natural (ex. collagen) biomaterials . Cells (autologous / Allogeneic)
Differentiated cells of same type as tissue
Stem cells (ex. bone marrow)
Other cell types (ex. dermal cells) Soluble Regulators Soluble
Growth factors or their genes. Multi-scale Modeling In Bone Tissue Engineering
ENVIRONMENTAL
FACTORS Mechanical loading

Static versus dynamic
(bio-reactor) CELLS FOR
TISSUE
ENGINEERING Autologous (from the same individual) (from a
different
individual) Allogeneic Xenogeneic (from a different species) Syngenic or Isogenic cells are isolated from genetically identical organisms, such as twins, clones, or highly inbred research animal models. Primary cells are from an organism. Secondary cells are from a cell bank. Stem cells ( stem cell) are undifferentiated cells with the ability to divide in culture and give rise to different forms of specialized cells. Are cultured cell lines derived from the inner cell mast of the blastocyst that can be grown indefinitely in their undifferentiated state yet also are capable of differentiating into all cells of the adult body. Embryonic
Stem Cell Fertilized egg from in vitro fertilization. Ovum that has had nucleus removed and nuclear material injected from intended recipient of final tissue product (reproductive/therapeutic cloning) Two Sources of
Tissue Engineering Basic Principle of Tissue Engineering What Progress Has Been Made To Date? Autologous stem cells have been injected into heart to regenerate damaged cardiac tissue. Corneal autologous stem cell grafts have been used to treat eye disease & trauma. Skin replacement has been grown with stem cells for transplant in burn victims. Autologous stem-cell cartilage grafts have been used to treat joint disease. Leukemia & other cancers have been treated with stem cells from bone marrow and umbilical cord blood. A human mandible has been produced using a titanium mesh and autologous bone-marrow stem cells. CAD/CAM (computer-aided-design / computer-aided-manufacturing) bioreactor system:

Use to support incubation for growth of cells and tissues. Many things can be explain by science of you dare to open your mind…
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