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Organ Trade

Marlee Akerson, Maddie Taylor, and Meghan Bellamy
by

Meghan Bellamy

on 9 December 2012

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Transcript of Organ Trade

Bibliography What is organ trafficking? Organ Trade

Definition: The illegal organ trade is a form of widespread organized crime where inner organs are illegally obtained and traded for transplantation. Types of Organ Trade trafficking for organs is a crime that occurs in 3 broad categories:
-cases where traffickers force or deceive the donors to give up an organ
-cases where the victims agree to sell an organ; these victims are usually cheated out of money.
-Organs are removed without the victims' knowledge Who is vulnerable? Children
Migrants (especially migrant workers)
Homeless people
Illiterate people
Disabled people Action to stop thriving global organ trade must start at home. (2012, June 1). The Conversation: In-depth analysis, research, news and ideas from leading academics and researchers.. Retrieved December 2, 2012, from http://theconversation.edu.au/action-to-stop-thriving-global-organ-trade-must-start-at-home-7333

BLACK MARKET ORGAN TRADE: text, images, music, video | Glogster EDU - 21st century multimedia tool for educators, teachers and students. (n.d.). nicoleeee8d's Profile | Glogster EDU - 21st century multimedia tool for educators, teachers and students. Retrieved December 2, 2012, from http://nicoleeee8d.edu.glogster.com/black-market-organ-trade

Budiani-Saberi, D. A., & Delmonico, F. L. (2008). Organ Trafficking and Transplant Tourism: A Commentary on the Global Realities. American Journal of Transplantation, 8, 925-929.

Cholia, A. (2011, May 25). Illegal Organ Trafficking Poses A Global Problem. Breaking News and Opinion on The Huffington Post. Retrieved December 2, 2012, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/07/24/illegal-organ-trafficking_n_244686.html

Adams, S. (2012, May 18). Organ Trafficking Threat to US Security | National News | United States | Epoch Times. Epoch Times | National, World, China, Sports, Entertainment News. Retrieved December 2, 2012, from http://www.theepochtimes.com/n2/united-states/organ-trafficking-threat-to-us-security-229574.html

Djurovic, K. D. (n.d.). Region in centre of international organ trafficking (SETimes.com). Today (SETimes.com). Retrieved December 2, 2012, from http://setimes.com/cocoon/setimes/xhtml/en_GB/features/setimes/features/2012/07/14/feature-01

Ginzel, A., Kraushaar, M., & Winter, S. (n.d.). The Illegal Trade in Organ Is Fueled by Desperation and Growing - SPIEGEL ONLINE. SPIEGEL ONLINE - Nachrichten. Retrieved December 2, 2012, from http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/the-illegal-trade-in-organ-is-fueled-by-desperation-and-growing-a-847473.html

Honey, K. (2009, March 2). JCI -Putting a stop to organ trafficking and tourism. JCI -Welcome. Retrieved December 2, 2012, from http://www.jci.org/articles/view/38814

Organ trafficking the shock cruelty in China - YouTube. (n.d.). YouTube. Retrieved December 2, 2012, from

Serbia SOS: SCANDAL ! Kosovo: Organ trafficking. (2012, May 25). Serbia SOS. Retrieved December 2, 2012, from http://serbiasos.blogspot.com/2012/05/kosovo-organ-trafficking.html

Trafficking for organ trade. (n.d.). United Nations Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking HUB. Retrieved December 2, 2012, from http://www.ungift.org/knowledgehub/en/about/trafficking-for-organ-trade.html By Maddie, Meghan, and Marlee Organ Trafficking in China Where else is it happening? The illegal organ trade is a major issue in
Israel
Egypt
Brazil
South Africa
Indonesia
India
Iraq The organ trade is shifting from South America and the Middle East to Southern and Eastern Europe

The only country where the organ trade is legal is Iran. What is causing the increase in the illegal organ trade? •Increase in diabetes, liver, and heart disease, increases the demand for organs
•Medical advances that have made it easier to take parts of the liver, lungs and kidneys from live donors
•Fear that they will run out of time before they become eligible for a transplant causes people to rely on the black market
•Humans ignore morality and the law when faced with death—they are willing to “to brutally exploit another human being to extend their own lives.” Or they are simply unaware that the organ was illegally obtained
•Increase in poverty drives struggling persons to extreme options, especially if they are uneducated of the danger involved with medical operations like organ removal The Facts •One organ is sold every hour somewhere in the world
•The WHO conservatively estimates the proportion of traded or trafficked organs is up to 10%, or roughly 11,000 in 2010.
•One Indian study showed the average payments is just $1,070, rather than the promised average of $1,410

a. The UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons includes "organ removal" and its subsequent sale as an end purpose of trafficking. Article 3 of the UN Trafficking Protocol that defines trafficking in persons, clearly includes trafficking for the purpose of removal of organs.

b. Optional Protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography (2000) to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) This protocol states that the sale of children for the purpose of transferring their organs for profit should be a criminal offence.

c. World Health Organization (WHO) The Guiding Principles on Human Organ Transplantation (1991) of WHO state that the commercialization of human organs is 'a violation of human rights and human dignity'.

d. An Additional Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine Concerning Transplantation of Organs and Tissues of Human Origin (2002) prohibits organ and tissue trafficking, deriving a financial gain or comparative advantage from the human body and its parts and calls on States to provide appropriate sanctions for such trafficking.

The Declaration of Istanbul on Organ Trafficking and Transplant Tourism was a result of a summit in Istanbul convened by The Transplantation Society and the International Society of Nephrology to discuss organ trafficking, transplant tourism, and transplant commercialism. What has been done to try and solve the problem? Is it working? Not really. The human rights violations associated with human organ trafficking are extreme, and the few international laws that exist concerning this issue are not well enforced. There is little awareness about who is vulnerable, and law enforcement is not well trained to address the issue of organ trafficking. What can we do about it? •developing a better system of deceased organ donation
•preventing diseases like diabetes, hepatitis, and heart disease that lead to organ failure
•spreading awareness of vulnerable people
•creation of laws that correspond with current UN policies in place
•clearly defining what organ trafficking is
•training law enforcement officials to enforce organ trafficking laws

We need to work closely with the UN, The WHO, The Transplantation Society and the International Society of Nephrology. We will need cooperation form all the states providing and receiving illegal organs. US Policy Currently, there is no real policy or law prohibiting or reducing the illegal trade of organs in the United States, but...
"U.S. President George W. Bush signed the Organ Donation and Recovery Improvement Act, which authorized the federal government to reimburse living donors for expenses and offer project grants aimed at increasing donations and improving organ preservation and compatibility, but did little to combat the illegal trade, the group says."

http://latino.foxnews.com/latino/news/2012/08/16/organ-trafficking-on-rise-in-united-states/ -“Organ camps” where up to 2,000 people have organs removed in one certain time period
-More illegal trades than legal ones
-China has lowest donor rate in the world (Donor: giving up organ by choice/ Seller: selling own, or harvesting other peoples organs for money)
-China has 1.5 million people in need of new organs and only 10,000 a year get one legally. China -Attempted to legalize selling organs for a profit in 1994
-Organs sold online
Many doctors participate to earn extra money
-Because of the poverty and corruption in India organ trafficking is prevalent almost everywhere India -The illegal organ trade is rapidly increasing in developed countries like USA
-People from poorer countries harvest organs from people in their country then sell them for high prices in the USA.
-The USA does not have a completely adequate system to determine whether an organ transplant is done with a legal or illegal organ(s)
-Most procedures done in the USA are safe generally, however. USA Iran Moldova More countries… -Moldova is the leader in illegal organ trafficking
-Every 6 minutes, a human organ is being removed from a Moldovan and sold
-Moldovan government has no laws or restrictions against illegal organ trafficking Iran is the only country in the world where selling an organ for a profit is legalSellers usually earn about $1,000 to $2,000 for a kidney or liver (In America it can be as expensive as $150,000 for a liver or kidney)Many organs are sold for products (Ipads, Iphones, household items) Video!
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