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physiology of the nervous system

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asmaa ali

on 28 September 2018

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Transcript of physiology of the nervous system

Physiology of The Nervous System
What is the nervous system ?
it is a complex network of nerves and cells

responsible for:
communication and within the body , between the body and external environment.
controlling the body functions
The nervous system is divided into:
A) central nervous system
1) brain
2) spinal cord

b) peripheral nervous system
conduct the impulses to and from the organs and the CNS.
12 pairs of nerves come from the brain
31 pairs of nerves come from the spinal cord.
Classified according the origin into:
It is not that simple
Peripheral Nervous System
Afferent PNS
sensory devision
Efferent PNS
motor devision
conduct sensory information from sense organs and other internal organs to CNS
conduct nerve impulses from CNS to organs and muscle
Efferent (MOTOR) PNS
from CNS to voluntary muscles (skeletal muscles)
from CNS to organs and glands
smooth muscles (involuntary functions)
Autonomic nervous system
(involuntary functions)
fear, fight & flight
stress - emergency
rest & digest
relax - non-emergency
divisions of the nervous system
The Relationship Between CNS & PNS
Types of the cells in the nervous system
claasification of the neurons according to their function:
sensory (receptor) neurons
interneurons (connectors)
motor neurons
formation of myelin sheath inside CNS
Schwann cells
formation of myelin sheath inside PNS
wrap around the capillaries to form the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB)
phagocytic cells, protect against infections
Ependymal cells
Cylindrical cells, cover the cavities of CNS, responsible for producion of CSF
Signal Transmission
Signal transmission = impulse propagation through the nervous system
Electrical transmission
Chemical transmission
Resting Membrane Potential:
Polarized membrane:
membrane action potential = -70 mv
the membrane can receive signals only in this case.
what is the source of this action potential?
what keep this action potential at this level?
Action potential:
threshold stimulus
Signal Termination
mechanism of action of neurotransmittor ??
The neurotransmitter is removed by one of two ways:

reuptake by the presynaptic neurons
breakdown by special enzymes
Functions of the NS:
sensory functions:receiving information about the environment around us
integrative function
motor functions: generating responses to that information
thesources process of combining information from many
physiology of nervous system
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