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concept of ecosystems

understanding ecosystems, degradation of ecosystem,its utilization

siddharth kshirsagar

on 15 September 2012

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Transcript of concept of ecosystems

FLY IN AIR PLANTS NEED SOIL,WATER AND SUN TO GROW ECO-SYSTEMS Word "environment" is most commonly used describing "natural" environment and means the sum of all living and non-living things that surround an organism, or group of organisms. Environment includes all elements, factors , and conditions that have some impact on growth and development of certain organism. Environment includes both biotic and abiotic factors that have influence on observed organism. Abiotic factors such as light, temperature, water, atmospheric gases combine with biotic factors (all surrounding living species). Environment often changes after some time and therefore many organisms have ability to adapt to these changes. ENVIRONMENT WHAT DO WE GET FROM ENVIRONMENT..?? FOOD
ECO-STSYEM An ecosystem is made up of all the living and nonliving things in an environment. All the population that live in an ecosystem at the same time form a "community". DIFFERENT ORGANISMS LIVE IN AN ECOSYSTEM A group of organisms of the same kind living in the
same place is a population. PARTS OF ECO-SYSTEM POPULATIONS COMMUNITIES HABITATS A population consists of all individuals of a species that occur at a given place and time.
Populations of organisms can be categorized by the function they serve in an ecosystem:
producers make their own food (plants), consumers obtain food by eating other organisms (animals),
decomposers consume waste materials and dead organisms (bacteria and fungi). POPULATION PRODUCERS
CONSUMERS DECOMPOSERS (cc) photo by medhead on Flickr COMMUNITIES All the population that live in an ecosystem at the same time form a "community". All members of a community live in the same ecosystem but they do not all live in the same part of the ecosystem HABITATS Habitat is a place where plants and animals lives It is a place where they can meet their needs.
Animals get food, water, and shelter from their habitat
However, Some organisms can survive only in certain habitats For Example :- A polar could not find the water it needs in a desert Also a camel does not have his natural habitat
FORETS TROPICAL RAIN FORESTS DESERT ECOSYSTEM Deserts are very dry ecosystems.Desert plants and animals can survive with very little water. Desert plants, such as cactus, have thick stems that store water.The roots of a cactus lie just below the soil and spread far from the plant GRASSLANDS ECOSYSTEM Grasslands are dry, often flat areas of land that are hot in the summer and cold in the winter.
They get more rain and snow than deserts but less that most other ecosystems. The main plant in a grassland ecosystem is grass.
There are not many bushes in the grassland.
Trees are found only by rivers and streams. FRESH WATER ECOSYSTEM Rivers, ponds, lakes and streams have fresh water.

Lakes and rivers are closely tied. Some lakes are the source for some rivers.
Important rivers, most often, originate from lakes. Some rivers end in lakes.

Since both rivers and lakes are freshwater and flow in and out of each other, they
share similar characteristics and many species reside in both habitats. SALTWATER ECOSYSTEM Saltwater ecosystems are oceans.
Oceans cover about three –fourths of Earth’s surface, so there are more saltwater ecosystems than any other.
Sharks, sea turtles, corals and octopus are all ocean animals.So are whales and seals. TROPICAL RAIN FORESTS Forest are ecosystems in which many trees grow. A tropical rain forest grows where it is hot and wet all year long.
Animals such as jaguars and monkeys live there
Rainforests can be found in Asia, Australia, Africa, South America,
Mexico and on many of the Pacific, Caribbean, and
Indian Ocean islands. DECIDIOUS FORESTS What's A Temperate Deciduous Forest Like?

One of the most interesting features of the temperate deciduous forest is its changing seasons.
The word "deciduous" means exactly what the leaves on these trees do: change color in autumn, fall off in the winter, and grow back again in the spring. This adaptation helps trees in the forest survive winter. by
KISHAN BHALOTIYA 90 Ecosystem degradation is a process through which the natural environment is compromised in some way, reducing biological diversity and the general health of the ecosystem. This process can be entirely natural in origin, or it can be accelerated or caused by human activities. Many international organizations recognize ecosystem degradation as one of the major threats facing the planet, since humans have only been given one Earth to work with, and if the environment becomes irreparably compromised, it could mean the end of human existence. ECOSYSTEM DEGRADATION TYPES DE-
ON HEALTH Deforestation is the clearance of forests by logging and/or burning.Deforestation occurs for many reasons: trees or derived charcoal are used as, or sold, for fuel or as a commodity, while cleared land is used as pasture for livestock, plantations of commodities, and settlements. The removal of trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted in damage to habitat, biodiversity loss and aridity. It has adverse impacts on biosequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Deforested regions typically incur significant adverse soil erosion and frequently degrade into wasteland Deforestation There are many root causes of contemporary deforestation, including corruption of government institutions, the inequitable distribution of wealth and power, population growth and overpopulation, and urbanization. Globalization is often viewed as another root cause of deforestation, though there are cases in which the impacts of globalization have promoted localized forest recovery. Causes of deforestation Desertification is the degradation of land in arid and dry sub-humid areas due to various factors: including climatic variations and human activities. Desertification results chiefly from man-made activities: It is principally caused by overgrazing, over drafting of groundwater and diversion of water from rivers for human consumption and industrial use, all of these processes are fundamentally driven by overpopulation.
A major impact of desertification is reduced biodiversity and diminished productive capacity, for example, by transition from land dominated by shrub lands to non-native grasslands Desertification Desertification is induced by several factors, primarily anthropogenic causes, which began in the Holocene era and continue at the highest pace today. The primary reasons for desertification are overgrazing, over-cultivation, increased fire frequency, water impoundment, deforestation, over drafting of groundwater, increased soil salinity, and global climate change. Causes of desertification When human or natural forces release chemicals or other substances into the environment, the process is known as emission. Emission often causes pollution, for example is caused when chemicals are released into the air.

Many natural processes cause emissions. When a volcano erupts, it lets out acid, and acid, ash, and many toxic gases. When fires break out in forests, they release smoke, soot, carcinogenic hydrocarbons, dioxins, and carbon dioxide Emmision Erosion is the process of weathering and transport of solids in the natural environment or their source and deposits them elsewhere. It usually occurs due to transport by wind, water, or ice; by down-slope creep of soil and other material under the force of gravity; or by living organisms, such as burrowing animals, in the case of bioerosion.
A certain amount of erosion is natural and, in fact, healthy for the ecosystem. For example, gravels continuously move downstream in watercourses. Erosion is distinguished from weathering, which is the process of chemical or physical breakdown of the minerals in the rocks, although the two processes may occur concurrently. Errosion When land is overused by animal activities, there can be mechanical erosion and also removal of vegetation leading to erosion.
In the case of the animal kingdom, this effect would become material primarily with very large animal herds stampeding such as the Blue Wildebeest on the Serengeti plain.
This effect may be viewed as anomalous or a problem only when there is a significant imbalance or overpopulation of one species.
In case of human, the effects are also generally linked to overpopulation. When large number of hikers use trails or extensive off road vehicle use occurs, erosive effects often follow, arising from vegetation removal and furrowing of foot traffic and off road vehicle tires. Effects Appropriate policies related to protection of environment degradation must be framed.
Renevable sources of energy must be used instead of non renevable sources.
The species must be protected from their extinction.
Water resources must be protected from the materials and chemicals which is released from industries, factories.
Energy saving plan must be framed so that, people can use them in apropriate order. Preventive measures The degradation of the natural resource base and environment is started with various human and economic development activities.
The government has now realized the need for concern regarding environmental issues, and started incorporating environment into policies dealing with various sectors.
There is a lack of coherence among policies, and no holistic approach to mitigate environmental degradation and conserve resources.
It is important to develop a climate change adaptation strategy for the country, particularly to mitigate impacts of extreme climatic events such as droughts, floods, cyclones, and storm surges.
now people are also conscious about environmental degradation and are ready against it. Conclusion FOR EXAMPLE RESOURCES AND ITS UTILIZATION NATURAL RESOURCES Natural resources are the resources available in a nature like air, water, sunlight, soil, minerals, forests, wild life etc.

Natural resources are of two main types. They are renewable and non renewable natural resources.

i) Renewable natural resources :- Are the resources which can be replenished in a short period of time like air, water, sunlight, forests etc.

ii) Non renewable natural resources :- Are the resources which cannot be replenished in a short period of time like minerals (coal, petroleum, natural gas, metals etc.) because they take millions of years to be formed.
Human activities produce a lot of waste materials which are thrown away into the environment. These wastes cause pollution of natural resources like air, water and soil. RESOURCE DEPLETION Issue: Are we at risk of running out of important natural resources?
Example: oil

Related issue: Do we need government regulation to deal with the problem?

Depletion Models:
1) Exponential Depletion
2) Peaked Depletion Rate of use increases exponentially over time
Resource is used until it is depleted 1) Exponential Depletion Usage:
Increases exponentially for a while
Then peaks
Then declines 2) Peaked Depletion Reasons:
As use increases, cost of extraction rises
Higher costs result in higher prices
Higher prices create incentives UTILIZATION OF RESOURCES All the things we use and consume are obtained from natural resources. Due to increase in population, industrialisation and urbanisation the demand for natural
resources is increasing and their availability is limited . So there is a need for proper management of natural resources.

The proper management of natural resources consists of :-

i) Judicious use of natural resources and avoiding wastage
of natural resources.

ii) Long term planning for the use of natural resources so
that it last not only for the present but also for future generations.

iii) The exploitation of natural resources should not be for
the benefit of a few people but should be distributed equally for all.

iv) While extracting and using natural resources we should also plan for the safe disposal of wastes so that no damage is caused to the environment. FORESTS: a) Importance of forests :-

i) Forests help to preserve biodiversity.
ii) Forests are natural habitats of plants and animals.
iii) Forests provide timber, wood, fuel, medicines, fodder, etc.
iv) Forests help to maintain ecological balance.
v) Forests help to control climate and rainfall.
vi) Forests help to prevent soil erosion and controls floods.
vii) Forests help to maintain the oxygen – carbon dioxide balance in nature.

b) Stake holders of forests :-

People who are associated with forests directly or indirectly are :-
i) People living in and around forests depend on forests for their livelihood.
ii) Industrialists who use the raw materials from forests for manufacturing paper, medicines, furniture etc.
iii) Forest Department of the Government who owns the forests and controls the resources from the forests.
iv) Nature and wild life organisations who want to conserve and preserve
forests. C) CONSERVATION OF FORESTS Forests can be conserved by :-

i) Afforestation – planting of more trees.
ii) Preventing or reducing deforestation.
iii) Preventing over grazing by cattle.
iv) By setting up wildlife sanctuaries, national parks, biosphere reserves etc.
v) Undertaking social forestry programs like Van Mahotsav, Chipko movement for planting and protecting trees on a large scale. WATER a) Uses of water :-

Water is a basic necessity for all living things. We use water for our daily needs, for agriculture, transportation, construction of buildings,roads, dams etc. Water is a natural habitat for aquatic organisms.Human activities are affecting the availability of water and causing pollution of water bodies.

b) Dams :-

Advantages of dams :-
i) Irrigation of crops.
ii) Producing electricity.
iii) Supplying water to towns and cities.
iv) To control floods.

Disadvantages of dams :-
i) Social problems :- It displaces a large number of people who have
to be rehabilitated.
ii) Economic problems :- It is expensive and uses a huge amount of
public money.
iii) Environmental problems :- It causes deforestation and loss of
biodiversity. DAMS:- WATER HARVESTING Water harvesting is collecting and storing rain water for future use.The common methods of water harvesting are :-

i) Digging pits, ponds, lakes etc.
ii) Building small earthen dams or concrete check dams.
iii) Construction of dykes.
iv) Construction of reservoirs.
v) Construction of rooftop collecting units in houses.
d) Advantages of underground wate Advantages of underground water

i)does not evaporate easily.
ii) It spreads out and recharges wells.
iii) It provides moisture for irrigation of crops.
iv) It does not get polluted easily.
v) It does not provide breeding ground for mosquitoes and houseflies Different methods of water harvesting COAL PETROLEUM Coal and petroleum are fossil fuels formed by the decomposition of dead plants and animals inside the earth after several millions of years. They are non renewable sources of energy.
Petroleum reserves may last for about 40 years and coal reserves may last for about 200 years.Coal and petroleum contain carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur. When they are burnt, they release carbon dioxide and oxides of nitrogen and sulphur. Carbon dioxide is a green house gas which causes global warming. Oxides of nitrogen and sulphur combines with moisture in the air and produces acid rain MELTING OF ICE RISE IN SEA LEVELS STRUCURAL AND FUNCTIONAL
ASPECTS OF ECOSYSTEM STRUCTURE OF AN ECOSYSTEM the composition of biological community including species, numbers,biomass, life history and distribution in space, etc.

the quantity and distribution of non living materials like nutrients, water etc.

the conditions of existence such as temperature, light etc.

The structure of an ecosystem is characterized by the organization of abiotic and biotic components STRUCTURAL ASPECTS FUNCTIONAL
CYCLES Energy cycle: AND WE SAY..... Swapnil Kishan Pushkar Siddharth
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