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The Thirty Years War
Transcript of The Thirty Years War
Religious differences- Protestants vs Roman Catholics
Conflict over internal politics
Unbalance of Empire's power
This eventually dissolved to Habsburg's want for European pre-eminence, which was between France and the Habsburgs Fought in Central Europe, the war lasted thirty years;
1618 to 1648 Defenestration of Prague
1618, Prague, Bohemia.
King Matthias of Bohemia, accepting of the Protestants, names Ferdinand of Styria his Heir. Ferdinand didn't accept Protestants, and would impose Roman Catholic religion.
As a revolt, Protestant Rebels stormed the meeting hall, demanding their rights- throwing out the Empire's Regents from the window of the 7th floor.
Ferdinand was then elected Holy Roman Emperor.
The rebels deposed him as King of Bohemia, electing Palatine into power.
1620 Ferdinand regains Bohemia (with Bavarian aid) execute rebels, and outlaw Protestantism. Palatinate Campaigns
1620-1622, Palatinate Germany
Spainish-Imperial troops were led in many campaigns by;
Tercios, Tzerclaes, Tilly and Córdoba.
They were to conquer the Protestant Palatinate Germany.
Here, they marched north taking 2 cities over in lower Palatinate.
The campaigns ended in 1622 when Heidelberg, Germany's Calvinist capital was taken over, and lower Palatinate was under siege. Palatinate fled to the United Provinces, while Spain controlled the west for Italy/Netherlands passage, the Duke of Bavaria controlled the rest. Protestants; Bohemian Protestant Rebels
Empire; Ferdinand and Regents The Battle of White Mountain Protestants; Christain & Bohemians
1620, White Mountain, Bohemia Imperials; Tilly & Spanish army
This was not a true battle, since the Imperial troops outmanned the Protestants, even when they were outnumbered. This was one battle in the many campaigns of Ferdinand to recapture Bohemia.
In the White Mountain plateau, Imperials led by Tserclaes would find an advantage point, and force Protestant cavalry to retreat. The infantry would arrive too late, and Imperial troops encircled and massacred over 4000 Protestants, only losing 700 Imperials.
The Imperials won, contributing to Ferdinands control of Bohemia. Battle of Leipzig Protestants; Swedish and Saxony armies
1631, Germany (Breitenfeld, Saxony) Imperials; Catholic league, German Catholics
The battle consisted of preliminary attacks by the Imperial, and counter attacks by the Protestants, which would overtake the left flanks, encircling the entire line,
and completely collapsing the army. Over 80% of the Imperial army were killed or captured.
This was the first real victory for the Protestants, but it reinforced that Protestants would not let Germany be reconverted. Battle of Breitenfeld Protestant; Swedish army
1642, Breitenfeld, Saxony Imperial; German Catholic League
11 years in the same area over the same city, Swedish troops led by Torstenson, would conquer the Holy Roman Empire forces led by Wilhelm. When the Swedish won a crushing battle, -Imperials losing 15000 soldiers, Protestants only 4000- Ferdinand became much more negotiatable for peace. Battle of Lutzen Protestant; Swedish army
1632, Lutzen, Germany Imperial; Catholic League
Tactically, the Protestants won. they achieved their goals;
Imperial onslaught into Saxony was stopped,Wallenstein retreated into Bohemia, and the Saxony-Swedish alliance continued. Although, the Protestants lost many more soldiers, and their Swedish king, and Tactical leader, Gustav Adolphus.
This battle led to the French taking the spot light in war from the Swedish, and The Habsburgs would regain their losses and balance taken by Adolphus. Battle of Nordlingen Protestants; Swedish, Saxon armies
1634, Nordlingen, Bohemia Imperials; Habsburgs, Spanish, Italian armies
The 26 000 Protestants, led by Cardinal-infante Ferdinand, had invaded into the Habsburg's core countries in Bohemia, and would soon be surrounded by 33 000 Imperial troops. They did not know how outnumbered they were, and forced sent to refresh Ferdinands were 3 days late. The casuaties were great, imperials losing 2400, and the Protestants were 8000, 4000 captured. The Battle was clearly won by the Habsburgs.
This would lead to France's entering of the war, since Imperial armies flanked France. Philipp Von Mansfeld Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly He was one of the two chief commanders in the first half of the war, leading many successful campaigns against the protestants, like those in Germany and Bohemia, the Besiege of Magdeberg, and attack of the Swedish Protestants. (1589 - 8 April 1657) He joined the Empire's campaign before the war against the Ottoman Empire, and when that had ended, he remained in service. Within 5 years he'd become a Field Marshall, and was quickly appointed Commander of the Catholic League in 1610, continuing to lead during The Thirty Year's War. Holy Roman Empire- Commander 1559-1632 Christian IV 12 April 1577 – 28 February 1648 -He was the king of Denmark and Norway. -Joined the War on May 9, 1625. -He was in command of about 20 000 people. -He had some successes, but on August 27, 1626 he was defeated in the Battle of Lutter. His plan of attack was poorly planned and the reinforcements that were meant to come from the Netherlands and England never came. Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden -On January 1st, 1628 Christian IV made an alliance with Sweden, to stop the German expansion into the Baltic region. Sweden promised to assist Denmark with a fleet if it was needed. While most of Tilly's successes were vital to the Imperial's advancement, some of which were very questionable. his tactics were risky- implementing strategies that had failed before with minor, untested improvements. One of his sieges, the Sacking of Magdeberg was questionable because it was a violent massacre- killing innocent children and burning the city to ashes.
He died in Bavaria in 1632- After battle from wounds (9 December 1594 – 6 November 1632) King and founder of the Swedish Empire
Entered 30 Years War in 1630
April 1631 He captures the city Frankfurt an der Ode
September 1631 Battle of Britenfeld, Gustavus wins
May 1633 Munich falls to Swedish army
November 1632 Killed at the Battle of Lutzen. -Christian IV used this fleet along with his own to assist with the Straslund, when they were under siege. The Siege failed and an Imperial Army fought Christian IV in the Battle Of Wolgast. Which Christian IV lost. This was the last part that Denmark had in the Thirty Year War. Albrecht von Wallenstein An Imperial General, Roman Catholic, military leader and politician who offered his services, as well as the ones of his army for the war. During the war, he would gain recognition for his genius ways (such as the creation of War taxes) and was named the supreme commander of the armies of the Habsburg Monarchy. During the war, he would name himself the ruler of the Duchy of Friedland in northern Bohemia.
After Protestant victories over the Catholics, his title of ‘Ruler’ was recalled and he would be relieved of duty in the war. He was left angered by the emperor’s treatment of him that he would consider becoming a Protestant. By the emperor’s approval, he was assassinated due to him being looked at as a potential threat and traitor in 1634 1583-1634 The Battle of Dessau Bridge He was Graf von (Count of) Mansfeld, Vorderort and Bornstedt who commanded troops during the Thirty Years' War.
Mansfeld first served under Ernst von Mansfeld and the Swedish Empire during the Thirty Years' War. The two were, in fact, second-cousins; Mansfeld's grandfather and Ernst von Mansfeld's father were half-brothers.Ernst von Mansfeld had originally fought on the side of the Catholics and Leopold V, Archduke of Austria, but conflicts with the Archduke had driven him to join the side of the Protestants.
In 1622, Ernst von Mansfeld's troops faced the army of Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly at the Battle of Mingolsheim. They were victorious but during Tilly's final push, Mansfeld's troops were overwhelmed and he was captured along with a number of other senior officers. Albrecht von Wallenstein managed to convince him to join the side of the Holy Roman Empire. Occured on April 25 1626
Fought between Von Wallenstein and his Imperial Roman Catholics against the Protestants led by Von Mansfeld
Marks the Danish entering the war
April 26 1626 Von Mansfeld was defeated Battle of Wolgast Protestants; Christian IV, Danish troops
1628, Usedom Germany Imperials; Wallenstein,
Imperials built a fort on the riverside. Protestants reached it, and took control of it.
Taking control of Wolgast with Locals support, Swedish reinforcements arriving.
Christian left 1000 troops in town, 6000 to the battlefield. He met 8000 Imperials,
Flank destroyed, 500 Danes surrender. Over 1000 captured, 1000 killed.
Wallenstein regained control of Wolgast, Looting and burning it.
Remaining Protestants boarded vessels and left, ending the aquatic campaign.
After this battle, Christian would sign the "Peace of Lubeck"
His contributions Gained Swedish a strong foothold. Reasons for the War Treaty; "Peace of Westphalia"
(Osnabruck- May, Munster-October)
Thus ending the war, this would implement regulations to;
Each German state chooses their own religion.
Nation-state Sovereignty, freedom.
Over 30% of the German population was lost
Germany's agriculture, Industry and Commerce weakened.
The Holy Roman Empire weakened. Denmark enters war
Protestant Denmark Leaves war
abandons Protestants France enters war
Protestants England enters war
Protestants England Leaves war
1630 Denmark re-enters war
Imperials Denmark Leaves war
Abandons Imperials 1618 1620 1622 1624 1626 1628 1630 1632 1634 1644 1646 1648 1640 Charlie, Julia, Alana, Jen, Caitlin