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AP Biology-Life Summed Up!
Transcript of AP Biology-Life Summed Up!
Metaphase 1: Tetrads converge on metaphase plate. All kineochords are attached to spindle fibers at centromeres. Law of Independent Assortment occurs
Anaphase 1: Tetrads split; sister chromatids (still attached) head to opposite ends of the cell via motor protiens along the shortened microtubules.
Teleophase 1/Cytokinesis: Cell splits into two diploid cells
Prophase II: Chromatin decondense once again. Spindle fibers start to reform
Metaphase II: Sister chromatids converge at the metaphase plate. All kineochords are attached to spindle fibers at centrometers.
Anaphase II: Sister chromatids seperate. Individual chromosomes head toward opposite ends of the cell.
Telophase II: nucleus reforms in each cell. 2 cells in one.
Cytokinesis: Two diploid cells split into four genetically different haploid cells Mitosis interphase S phase: DNA replication Transcription Crossing Over: Occurs in Meiosis 1 (prophase 1). nonsister chromatids incorporate
eachothers DNA into one another.The result, each chromosome has become genetically
different. This process occurs at the chiasmata.
Law of Independent Assortment: Occurs in Meiosis I (metaphase 1). each maternal and paternal
chromosomes line up independentally of eachother. this line up is completely random. there is a 50%
chance that a daughter cell will get a maternal gene and a 50% chance a daughter cell will get a paternal gene. RNA processing Complex Inheritance Patterns Translation Mendialian Genetics Proteins Binary Fission Prokaryotic Cells Endoplasmic Reticulum Conjugation Golgi Apparatus Vesicles Operators Fuse with Plasma Membrane Nucleus Permeability Phospholipid Bi-layer Eukaryotic Cells Cholesterol Cytoskeleton Fats Lipids Intermediate Filaments Microtubles Osmosis Water and Hydrogen Bonds Properties of Water Microfilaments Intercellular Junctions Mitochondria ATP Active Transport Cellular Respiration Protein Structure Enzymes Amino Acids The importance of Carbon Bonds Functional Groups Catalysts DNA/RNA in depth Nucleic Acids Denaturing pH Buffers Glucose Fermantation Diffusion Passsive Transport Genetic Code Cell Organelles Centrosomes Lysosomes Rough ER Smooth ER Zygote! pH illustrates the concentration of hydrogen ions within a cell.
pH<7: Acidic Denaturing is the unraveling of proteins. It causes the protein to become non-functional and occurs due to a change in pH or temperature. differentiation Cohesion, adhesion, and high surface tension.
Moderation of temperature/ high specific heat.
Universal solvent (solvent of life!)
Ice floats on water (water is less dense as a solid) Meiosis Enzymes are proteins that assist natually occuring chemical reactions in the cell. They work to either launch or speed up these reactions. The chemicals that are transformed with the help of enzymes are called substrates.
Their are three main types of enzyme: metabolic enzymes (required for the growth of cells and repair and maintenance of all the cell's tissues and organs), digestive enzymes (aid in the digestive of food and the absorbtion and delivery of nutrients), and food enzymes (derived from raw fruits and vegetables that also help in digesting foods). Prophase: Nucleus starts to fragment. Chromosomes start to condense and form sister chromatin. Centrosomes start to migrate to the polls and sprout spindle fibers.
Prometaphase: Centrosomes continue to migrate toward poles. Nucleus completely disapears. Kineochords start to form at the centromeres.
Metaphase: Sister chromatids start to converge at the metaphase plate. Nonkinechords attach to eachother on the perimeter of the cell. Centrosomes are now at the poles. Longest phase.
Anaphase: Sister chromatin seperate becoming full fledged chromosomes. Cell elongates. Chromatin start to migrate to poles via motor proteins along the shortened chromosomes.
Telophase: Nucleus starts to reform. At the end of the phase there are two nuclei in one cell
Cytokinesis: This phase is not apart of mitosis. Inorder for two cells to be created, a cleavage furrow cuts in the middle of the cell.
The result of mitosis: two genetically identical cells tight junctions: prevent leakage of extracellular fluids.
desmosomes: made of keratin proteins. They fasten cells together.
Gap junctions (animals) and plasmodesmata (plants): provide cytoplasmic channels from one cell to an adjacent cell. A hallow tube made of tubulin.
The largest of the cytoplasmic components.
Shape and support the cell (compression resistant). And serve as tracks along which motor proteins move. Interphase is 90% of the cell cycle. During this period of time is when cell growth is exhibited. It consists of 3 steps.
G1: This is where a majority of the growth occurs in the cell. Here growth factors are established. If enough growth factors attach the cell can be promoted into S phase; if not, the cell goes into the G0 stage. It is where the cell prepares its DNA for replication.
S phase: DNA replication occurs.
G2: This is where cyclin combines with the cyclin-dependent kinase creating mitosis promoting factor. Once enough of this has occured the cell is able to be promoted into mitosis. 3 components made of protein
reinforces cell's shape
functions in cell movement
Digestive organelle where macromolecules are hydrolyzed. Region where the cell's microtubules are initiated; in an animal cell they contain a pair of centrioles. They are middle sized cytoskeletal components made of the keratin proteins.
they are permanent fixture.
various typed of intermediate filaments that function in a variety of ways. Smallest of all cytoskeletal components; they are made of the protein actin.
A twisted double chain of actin subunits.
Help support the cell; they bear tension.
Well known for their role in cell motility; they are part of the contractile apparatus of muscle cells. DNA Replication:
The enzyme helicase unzips the DNA and seperates it into two strands: the leading and lagging strand.
Topoisomerase helps relieve the tension on the opposite ends of the DNA.
Single stranded binding protein binds the exposed nucleotides when unzipped.
Primase turns the DNA nucleotides into RNA nucleotides.
DNA polermase III: copies the RNA nucleotides. On the leading strand this is done continuosly in the 5' to 3' direction. Primase must turn the DNA to RNA because DNA pol III cannont attach to DNA directly. On the lagging strand (template) the DNA pol III attaches to the primase and works in the 3' to 5' direction in small little segments known as Okazagi Fragments.
On the newly copied RNA segment, with Okazagi Fragments, small snipets of RNA are left uncopied. This snipets are removed and filled with DNA via DNA polermase I
Finally, there is one strand of RNA left on the newly copied DNA strand. This snipet of RNA connects the leading and lagging strands together. DNA ligase comes in and replaces this RNA with DNA, completing DNA Replication. Organelle where cellular respiration occurs and most ATP is generated.
Endosymbiotic theory: mitochondria where once prokaryotic cells; they have their own circular DNA, they reproduce individually of the cell, they are surrounded by a double membrane and have their own ribosomes. After the DNA has been transcribed a 5' cap and poly-A tail are added to the ends of the mRNA; these modified ends allow the cell to leave the nucleus, help protect the mRNA from degradation and they allow for ribosome attachment.
Introns (non-coding sequences) are removed from the pre-mRNA chain by snRNPs, a protein that contains spliceosomes.
Exons (coding segments) remain part of the chain and the mRNA is now ready to enter the cytoplasm.
This organelle is active in synthesis, modification, sorting and the secrection of cell products. Golgi Apparatus has two ends: cis end, where protein enters, and trans end, where protein leaves. The Golgi Apparatus is a shipping and recieving organelle that adds sugars to the protein to help modify it. Creating Genetic Variety Gregor Mendel is considered the father of genetics. His discoveries were made from breeding pea-plants.
A purple true bred plant was hybridized by a white true bred plant. These plants are known as the P-generation. The offspring of these plants are known as the F1 generation. The result of the F1 generation was all purple plants. The F1 generation was then self-pollinated to create the F2 generation. The result of the F2 generation was 3 purple flowers and one white flower. There are four concepts that Mendel discovered with this experiment.
He discovered that each gene has two versions of itself, called alleles, these allow for varation. dominant allele (PP or Pp): allele that determines the organisms apperance. recessive allele (pp) : allele that has no noticeable effect on the organisms apperance
For each character (heritable trait) an organism inherits one allele from each parent
If the two alleles inherited from each parent differ, the dominant gene will be shown in apperance
Law of Segregation: two alleles for a heritable character seperate guring gamete formation.
Genetic's Problems can be used to determine the ratio or outcome of breeding. All possible allele combinations can be determined from a Punnett Square. Some common ratios include: monohybrids- 3 of dominant: 1 of recessive. dihybrids- 9 of dominant both traits: 3 of dominant one trait, recessive another: 3 of recesive one trait, dominant of another: 1 of recessive of both traits. Genetics problems can also be solved using probability laws.
Important Vocabulary for Genetics:
genotype: genetic makeup of organism Ex: PP, Pp, pp
phenotype: organism's trait/apperance Ex: purple/white Codominance: where both alleles affect the
phenotype. Ex: Type AB Blood
Incomplete Dominance: where neither allele
takes presidence over the other. The result
is somewhere inbetween each allele.
Ex: Red flower is bred with white flower
to produce a pink flower
Multiple Alleles: where genes have forms with
more than two alleles. Ex: ABO Blood
Pleiotropy: genes have multiple phenotypic effects
responsible for multiple symptoms resulting
from certain diseases
Epistatsis: a gene at one loci alters the gene of
another by turning on or off the gene.
Ex: a brown mouse breeding with a black
mouse and a white mouse is produced.
Polygenetic Inheritance: where multiple alleles
affect one gene. Ex: skin, height.
Linked Genes: Genes on the same chromosome stay
together during assortment. They don't segregate
correctly and move as a group. Ex: gene for flower color
and pollen shape are inherited teogher. Sex- Linked Traits Humans contain 23 pairs of chromosomes.
The first 22 pairs are known as autosomes.
The 23rd pair are known as sex chromosomes.
This pair is what determines the sex of the organisms.
Male: XY and Female: XX
The sex-linked genes are located on the X chromosome.
This is the reason for males having a majority of the sex-
linked diseases. Fathers may pass these disease onto their
daughters, but not sons. While mothers who have the
disease will automatically pass the disease onto their sons.
Sex Linked Dieases include Hemophilia, Color Blindness,
Duschenne Muscular Dystrophy DNA: Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid
nucleic acid that helps determine person's genetics
double helix; shape discovered by Watson/Crick
each nucleotide contains a five-carbon sugar, phosphate and nitorgen base
nitrogen bases: Purines: GA Pyrimidines: CT
strands run anti-parellel to eachother RNA: Ribose Nucleic Acid
each nucleotide contains a five-carbon sugar, phosphate, nirtrogen base
nitrogen bases: Purines: GA Pyrimidines: CU
common types of RNA: mRNA, rRNA, tRNA There are four different types of protein structures.
1: Primary Structure: amino acid sequence determined by DNA. Provides instructions for what protein will turn into
2: Secondary Structure: back-bone structures are put together. A protein can either be alpha structure or beta structure. Alpha structure makes a helix backbone; humans are able to digest these kinds of proteins. Beta structure mkes a straight backbone; humans are unable to digest these kinds of proteins.
3: Teritary Structure: the side chains (R) are added to the protein. This stage is what produces the vast amount of variety that we have among proteins. There are twenty different R groups that can attach.
4: Quartinary Structure: in this stage multiple polypeptide chains come together to create a 3D shape. Not all proteins go through this stage. This is the process in which glucose is broken down and turned into energy. This process occurs very quickly and takes place mostly in the
mitochondria. The balanced chemical equation for this process is C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O. There are three steps to cellular respiration
Part One: Glycolysis
Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell. Glucose comes into the cell via an integral protein channel. Upon entering, glucose is phosphorlyated two times, which means the cell has spent 2 ATP, and becomes very unstable. The glucose molecule breaks into 2 G3P molecules. These G3P molecules are then reduced by the electron carrier NAD+, which now accepts the hydrogen ion and becomes NADH. The G3P is then turned into Pyruvate; in the process, four ATP are created.
Result of Glycolysis: 2 ATP (+4, -2), 2 NADH
Part One (and a half): Pyruvate Conversion.
This process occurs in the mitochondria matrix. This process happens twice, once per each Pyruvate molecule. Pyruvate enters the mitocondria and becomes phosphorlyated. Pyruvate then loses a CO2 and an eletron, taken away from NADH. Through these changes Pyruvate turns into Acetate. Acetate then combines with Coenzyme A to make Acetyl CoA. Acetyl CoA than combines with oxolacetate to form the molecule Citrate.
Part Two: Citric Acid Cycle, aka Krebs Cycle
This process occurs in the mitocondrial matrix as well. In this process, the molecule Citrate, which is a six-carbon molecule, is broken down of all its useable energy. This occurs through the reduction of the molecule by the electron carriers NADH and FADH2. The cycle must happen a total of two times because there are two Citrate molecules.
Result of Citric Acid Cycle (per Citrate molecule): loss of 2 CO2 molecules, 3 NADH, 1 FADH, 2 ATP.
Part Three: Electron Transport Chain
This process occurs in the intermembrane space of the mitochondria. The two electron carriers, NADH and FADH2, bring the electrons to this chain of proteins that accept each electron. The electrons are passed along the chain, based on the electronegativety of each protein. The most electronegavtive proteins are the ones located farther along the chain. In order to have a continual movement of electrons throughout the chain, oxygen (which is more electronegative than all the other proteins) acts as the final electron acceptor. This oxygen comes from the splitting of water during photosynthesis. This part of cellular respiration is what makes it an aerobic process and why we need oxygen in our bodies.
Result: No ATP is produced from phosphorlyated oxidation.
Part Four: Chemiosmosis
This is the final step to cellular respiration. In this step is where most of the ATP is produced. The hydrogen ions that the electron carriers had taken from previous steps are all together in the intercellualr membrane space. These hydrogen ions are positively charged These positively charged ions are attracted the the negatively charged electrons that are being passed along the electron transport chain. They are so attracted that the hydrogen ions attempt to join the electrons so they "chase after them". The hydrogen ions do not come in contact with the electrons and instead end up in the matrix of the mitochondria. This happens an abundance of times and now there is an electochemical imbalance in this section of the mitochondria. Since like charges repel eachother, the hydrogen ions try to "get away from eachother" and want to go back into the intermembrane space. Inorder to do so, the hydrogen ions pass through the intgeral protein, ATP Synthase. As the hydrogen ions pass through ATP synthase, they turn the rods in the protein which in turn create an abundance of ATP! From this process is wehre we get a majority of our energy.
Result: 32 ATP!
Final Count for all of Cellular Respiration: 34-36 ATP, 2 FADH2, 6 lost CO2, and 6 NADH. Active Transport is a way proteins can travel through membranes that are against their concentration gradient, but in order for this to occur the cell must spend energy (ATP). A common example of this type of transport in the human body is the Sodium Potassium Pump. The sodium potassium pump is a pump located on cells. Inside the cell, potassium ions are circulating. Three potassium ions attach to the pump. Immediately the pump changes shape, thanks to ATP, and transports the three potassium ions outside of the cell. After the potassium ions detach from the pump, it has change shape so that two sodium ions attach. Upon attachement, the pump transports the two sodium ions inside the cell. This creates an electrochemical imbalance between the inside and outside of the cell. The outside of the cell has a positive charge, and the inside of the cell has a negative charge. This electrochemical imbalance creates the energy for the cell to change shape again and allow the sodium ions to come back out of the cell when necessary, as well as allow potassium ions to come back into the cell when needed. Unlike the rough ER, the smooth ER does not contained embedded ribosomes. This part of the ER is responsible for the synthesis of lipids, detoxification in the body.
Just a fun fact: The more a person drinks, the more smooth ER is contained in their cells! This part of the ER contains embedded ribosomes. The proteins produced from these ribosomes are ones that will be secreted from the cell. Integral proteins are also attached here to allow the proteins produced to exit the ER. A series of membraneous structures in
the cell that provide a variety of functions. Transportation via Vesicles Exocytosis is the process in which substances enter the cell. They fuse with the cell membrane and it folds inward creating a "dent" in the membrane. As the substance pushes in farther, it finally breaks the cell membrane, which becomes the vesicle and makes a bubble around the substance, now the substance is out of the cell.
Endocytosis is the process in which a substance exits the cell. In endocytosis, substances form a pocket with the cellular membrane. This pocket continues to fold inward until the vessicle is large enough. Once enclosed by a vesicle, the cell is free to move about the cell. There are three different types of exocytosis. Pinocytosis, which is how liquids are transported into the cell. Phagocytosis is how solids are brought into the cell. Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis is how specific substances are brought into the cell. In Receptor-Mediated, the vesicle is line with coated pili that make sure what is entering the cell is the correct substance. A catalyst is any substance that alters the rate of a chemical reaction without altering itself (enzymes are catalysts!)
Substances that interact with catalysts to slow a reaction are called inhibitors, while substances that interact with catalysts to increase activity are called promoters. Amino acids are the building blocks (monomer) of proteins (legos of life!)
There are 20 different types that.
The different types of amino acids come together to form peptide or polypeptide groupings. Each different grouping of amino acids contributes to different protein functions.
Passive Transport is transportation of proteins and other substances across the cell membranes without any energy being spent. These substances flow with the concentration gradient. An example of such transport would be a hydrophobic substance going through the phospholipid bi-layer Diffusion is the movement of a substance from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. It is a spontaneous process that does not need ATP. All substances move with their concentration gradient. There is also faciliated diffusion. Facilated diffusion is diffustion that inolves the help of a chennel so like charges are able to pass through a membrane of the same charge. There is still no energy spent for this process. The movement of water across a membrane. The water moves from a area of high solute to low solute. The goal of osmosis is to spread the water out evenly between the two membrance areas. hypotonic solutions: low concentration of solute filled water
hypertonic solution: high concentration of solute filled water
isontonic solution: equal concentrations of solute and water Water is an important molecule in biology. It is a molecule made up of one oxgen atoms and tw0 hydrogen atom held together by a very strong, special version of dipole-dipole interactions known as hydrogen bonding. Hydrogen bonding is what is responsible for the four properties of water. These water molecules act like magnets from the dipole. The oxygen becomes partially negative; the hydrogen atoms become partially positive. Buffers are substances that keep the pH stable. These are very important for our health because the pH in our blood needs to stay consistent at 7.4 (slightly basic). Buffers help keep the consistency by accepting hydrogen ions when the concentration increases (too acidic) or by donating hydrogen ions what the concentration decreases (too basic).
Example: Carbonic Acid H2CO3--> HCO3 + H+ Lipids are one of the four major macromolecules. They do not have a monomer and instead are classified as fatty acids, chloesterol, and steroids. Lipids are non-polar and hydrophillic molecules. Lipids are an important part of the phsopholipid bi-layer. They contain a lot of hydrocarbons! Fats, despite the fact we don't like them very much, are a very important source of fuel in our bodies! Also known as triglycerides, they are made up of 3 long fatty acid chains and a glycerol molecule. In animals, fats are stored in adipose cells. There are different types of fat cells. Saturated fatty acids are fatty acids that contain no double bonds; very unhealthy for you, these solid fats are created by animals. Unsaturated fats are much more healthier and contain at least one double bond. These fats are liquid and come from fish. Trans fats are unsaturated fats that have been hydrogenated. The plasma membrane consists of a phospholipid
bilayer.It has a glycerol backbone and two fatty
acid tails. The hydrophobic tails face inward, while
the hydrophillic heads face outward. Chlosterol is an important buffer for the phospholipid bilayer. It is a lipid
wedged between the phospholipids that keeps it at a constant fluidity when
the temperature flucuates. Chlosterol restrains the movement of lipids
when its warm and prevents the bilayer from freezing together when its
cold out. The plasma membrance has selective permability, meaning it allows a limited amount of substances to flow in and out of the cell. Integral proteins are embedded in the plasma membrane to allow the flow of hydrophillic substances that normally woult not be allowed through. a vesicle is a relatively small and enclosed
compartment, separated from the cytosol
by at least one lipid bilayer. Vesicles store,
transport, or digest cellular products and
wastes. Carbon bonding is what allows for such versatility between molecules.
Carbon has four bonding sites which are highly adaptable. They allow
for the most structure, which allows for a great deal of functions. Also,
hydrocarbons (C-H bonds) are what give glucose and fats so much fuel. Adenosine Triphosphate is the major energy source of the cell.
ATP is made up of a nitrogen base bonded to ribose and three
phosphate groups. It helps give off energy and make unnatural
things occur. ATP loses a phosphate when it gives off energy and
becomes ADP. It is an energy storing molecule, but we prefer to
store our energy in glucose or fats because they are more stable. Bacterial "sex": the direct transfer of genetic material between two bacterial cells that are temporarily joined.
conjugation from an F+ donor to an F- recipient (will only transfer the F plasmid):
F+ cell forms a mating bridge with and F- cell to transfer its plasmid
A single strand of the F plasmid breaks off and transfers to the other cell.
DNA replication of each strand of the F plasmid begins in each cell
The F plasmid in the recipient cell circulizes forming a new F+ cell which can then begin conjugation with another F- cell
Conjugation of Hfr donor to a F- recipient (will transfer bacterial chromosome):
The circular F plasmid in an F+ cell integrates into the bacteria's chromosome resulting in an Hfr cell.
Hfr cell forms a mating bridge with the F- cell
A single strand of the chromosome breaks and begins to move through the bridge. DNA replication begins in both cells.
The mating bridge usually breaks before the entire chromosome/F factor has gone through.
Two crossovers can result in th exchange of homologous genes between the donor and recipiet cell's chromosome.
The strand of DNA that does not trasfer is degraded by the cell's enzymes. Bacteria and Archea!
A few basic characteristics:
They are unicellular
They contain a nucleoid, not a nucleus.
They lack membrane bound organelles.
They usually divide by binary fission.
They contain circular DNA The splitting of a prokaryotic cell into two identical daughter cells.
Chromosome replication begins at the origin of replication.
One copy of the origin moves rapidly to the other end of the cell.
Replication continues, one copy of the origin is at each end of the cell.
Replication finishes. The plasma membrane grows inward and a new cell wall forms.
Two daughter cells result that are each identical to the parent cell. Fermentation: the partial degradation of sugars that occurs when no oxygen is present.
Alcohol fermentation (carried out by yeast and bacteria):
Carbon dioxide is released from the pyruvate converting the sugar into acetaldehyde.
Acetaldehyde is reduced by NADH to ethanol.
This process results in 2 ethanol and 2 ATP.
Lactic acid fermentation (carried out by human muscle cells):
Pyruvate is directly reduced by NADH forming 2 Lactate and 2 ATP. Transcription factors bind near the promoter region (TATA box, aka start of promoter region)
When all transcription factors are attached, RNA polymerase II binds to the DNA forming the initiation complex.
The DNA double helix unwinds and RNA synthesis begins at the start point on the DNA template strand.
The polymerase moves down the DNA's 3'-5' end on the upper or leading strand. RNA polymerase moves along the template or lagging strand (bottom) end in the 5'-3' direction.
The DNA strand that has already been transcribe re-winds.
The RNA transcript is releases at the termination end (polyadenylation sigal: AATAAA) and polymerase falls off shortly. Bacteria cells differ from our cells in the way that they regulate their genes.
Their genes are clusterd into operons, which is a segment of DNA that is required
for enzyme prodcution. Operons consist of operators, the segment of DNA that
controls the access that RNA polermase has to getting to the genes, promoter, and
certain set of genes. Another important component is the repressor, which is a
protein that fits into the operator that either turns the operon on or off. There are
two types of such gene regulation negative and positive gene regulation. In negative
gene regulation, when the repressor must be turned off in order for transcription to
occur. In positive gene regulation, the repressor must be turned on for transcription to occur. A small subunit of ribosome is binded to by a tRNA molecule containing the anti-codon UAC, which matches up the the start codon on a mRNA transcript.
Initation factors attach the large and small subunits of a ribosome together, done with the help of GTP.
Now that ribosome assembly is complete, tRNA's are allowed to attach to codon in the A site.
Peptide bonds start forming as amino acids are continually added in the A site. The peptide bond forms in the P site.
Once used, tRNA exit through the E site
When a stop codon is read on the mRNA transcript, release factors attach at A site. These release factors break the hydrogen bonds and release the polypeptide chain through the exit tunnel
Finally, the Ribosome comes apart. After mitosis, embryonic cells under go differentation. This is where they become specialized in structure and function. The cells become different from their different gene regulations, meaning that different cells have different genes expressed at different times. First, the axis are determined by the maternal effect genes. Secondly, the segments of each genes are determined by the three segmentation genes. This decides wehre your thorax will go, abdomen, etc. Lastly are the homeotic genes that give each segement an identity. Ex: fingers go on hands, eyes on head. Fruits, like apples, contain glucose! Tiff's holding soup( full of sodium) and a banana (full of potassium). Chocolate Milk- helps get rid of lactic acid!