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Transcript of TWPSG7A
canadian history timeline
1534-1630s: The Explorers
Jacques Cartier was sent to find a shipping route to the Orient and precious gems and metals like gold in 1534 However, Cartier went to America and explored Prince Edward Island and Gaspé Peninsula. Chief Donnacona, his brother, and his sons went to protest about France's claim to Gaspé Peninsula. Instead, the French convinced Donnacona to take his sons to France, and they returned the next year and developed a positive relationship. Cartier didn't listen to Donnacona, though, and went farther into Canada, and kidnapped Donnacona and some other Iroquois to bring back to the king. This developed a bad relationship with the First Nations People. Later on, Samuel de Champlain developed a military alliance with the Huron people and killed two Iroquois chiefs when helping the Huron. He also established a colony. In 1608, he found Quebec City. He became the "Father of New France".
The People Living in New France
The Society of New France
The government of New France had a governor, who was a symbol of the king. The most famous governor was Count Frontenac, who disobeyed the King by expanding the fur trade when he was governor from 1672-1682. He was selfish, but he persuaded the King to make him governor again from 1689-1698, and disobeyed his orders again. A famous intendant was Jean Talon, from 1665-1668 and 1670-1672. Intendants were usually a commoner, and did the day-to-day work of the government. Jean Talon, the first intendant, increased New France's wealth, but because the King didn't want to spend much on New France, it was vulnerable to attack. In the church, the bishop is the highest in the church organization. The first bishop of New France, François de Laval arrived in 1659 and became bishop in 1674. There were also clergy, trained religious leaders, and lay organizations, a religious organization run by people who weren't clergy. In 1665-1666, there were only 3215 people in New France. Many were soldiers. Indentured servants, criminals, slaves and First Nations were at the bottom of the hierarchy of New France. There was also a mercantilist system, where New France was supposed to make France rich. New France only traded with countries in the French Empire. This was called the triangular trade. However, New France didn't make France that rich. Trading with the First Nations did increase the rivalry between First Nations.
1713-1763: The Final Years of New France
The Great Peace of Montreal in 1701 was a treaty that the First Nations and New France would cooperate with the each other. That is what happened. Acadia, one of France's colonies, was vulnerable to attack and was hard to defend. A war between Britain and France, the War of the Spanish Succession, was in 1702 and led to the loss of Acadia. Britain captured Acadia, and during the the Treaty of Utrecht, New France agreed to give up Acadia. Acadia became a British colony, and the British expelled the people living in Acadia in 1755. When Acadia became British, New France felt insecure because they were surrounded and the British could cut off their supplies easily.
1763: The First Nations and the British
The First Nations' leader, Pontiac organized an attack on the British on Fort Detroit in May 1763. However, the British knew so Pontiac's force decided to capture other forts and laid siege on Fort Detroit. The British gave the First Nations smallpox and killed of many of them. The Royal Proclamation of 1763 made peace with the First Nations. New France, now named Québec, and all other French territories, was controlled by the British. The seigneurial system was replaced by English civil law.
The Thirteen Colonies
The Thirteen Colonies were found in the 1600's and 1700's. The people there were taxed to pay for about 82 million pounds, which was about $5 billion, spent on the Seven Years' War. There was the Sugar act in 1764, the Stamp Act in 1765, which was canceled the next year, the Declaratory Act in 1766, the Townshend Act in 1767, the Tea Act, and the Coercive/Intolerable Acts in 1774. There were taxes on tea, which made the colonists angry. That lead to the Boston Tea Party, where colonists dressed up as First Nations and threw chests of tea into the water. People started to resist the taxes and protest. The Quebec Act in 1774 angered the colonists even more because it expanded Quebec, let Roman Catholics in the government, and French civil law replaced English civil law. The colonists didn't like anything about the Québec Act. The American Revolutionary War, or the War of Independence, started in 1775. The colonists declared independence in 1776. They asked the French for help, but they wouldn't, so the Americans attacked Québec but failed. In 1783, there was another Treaty of Paris which made the Americans independent.
The Loyalists and the Constitutional Act in 1791
During the war, there were people who didn't support it, called the Loyalists. They supported Britain, and about half went to Québec, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, and what is now Ontario. The Patriots, people who wanted independence, would burn down the Loyalists' houses. The Loyalists worked hard to cultivate land and build. At the beginning, it was difficult for the Loyalists. Many Black Loyalists also moved to British North America, land controlled by the British, but were rejected and made their own communities in Nova Scotia. However, their communities didn't last because the white Loyalists were frustrated and destroyed the Black Loyalists' communities. Loyalists settled in what is called the Eastern Townships, in the Eastern part of Quebec near the St. Lawrence River. They also settled in the Lake Erie and Lake Ontario regions. However, the Loyalists didn't like how they were governed under the French system, so the British changed it with the Constitutional Act. They split Quebec into two, creating Upper Canada, where the Great Lakes were, and Lower Canada, which was were New France was. People in Lower Canada could live under the seigneurial system or the freehold system, where you can own and sell land. There would also be a lieutenant-governor, legislative assembly and legislative council in each Canada. The Loyalists brought the township system, elections and the freehold system.
The Roman Catholic religion came to New France. Jesuit priests arrived in 1611, and wanted to spread their religion and establish a school for boys. Ursuline nuns also arrived in New France in 1639 and established a school for girls. There were coureurs des bois, who were illegal fur traders and traded with the First Nations for hatchets, metal pots, etc. The people in New France lived under the seigneurial system, where there were seigneurs, men who had won the king's favour and were given large pieces of land in New France called seugneuries. Habitants settled in a seigneury, and had to pay to the seigneur as a rent. They worked very hard all year, and had to cut and clear the land, and many other responsibilities. New France grew faster because of the filles du roi. They were single women sent to New France because of a shortage of them. They provided stable families and were an important part in the development of New France. There was also intermarriage with the First Nations people.
Causes of the War of 1812
The War of 1812
The War of 1812 started on June 18nth, 1812, when the United States declared war against the British. There were a lot of Americans, and the British had a large area of land to defend. The Americans had the advantage.
Just a few weeks after the declaration of war, Fort Michilimackinac on Mackinac Island surrendered to the British without anyone shooting. Sir Isaac Brock, a British officer, and Tecumseh, a Shawnee chief, lead this attack. They decided to attack the western forts, so the Americans couldn't attack from the west. At Fort Wayne, the American garrison was also captured. Then, Brock and Tecumseh decided to attack Detroit in July 1812, even though they only had 100 regular soldiers, 300 militia soldiers, and 600 First Nations warriors. There were more than 2500 soldiers at Detroit. Brock dressed the militia in red uniforms to make it look like all the soldiers were regular ones. He also told the soldiers to make individual fires and march around the fort so it seems like there were a lot more soldiers than there actually were. The general surrenders to Brock and Tecumseh, and they received many supplies.
However, at Queenston Heights, near Niagara-on-the-Lake, the Americans took the British by surprise in October 1812. They captured Queenston Heights ,so Brock and his army rushed there to recapture it. He slowed down the Americans and pushed them back, allowing the British forces to advance and win the battle. However, when Major-General Brock was leading the attack, he was shot by a sniper. His sacrifice lead to the British prevailing in that battle.
A long term cause was that Britain and France were at war in Europe, that lasted until 1815, called the Napoleonic Wars because Napoleon, the ruler of France, wanted to become the strongest country instead of Britain. The European countries tried to weaken each other in the colonies by disrupting trade and not allowing trade with any country other than their own by inspecting them. The U.S. had many merchant ships, and they weren't happy that their ships were being inspected.
Some short-term causes was that the British would do something called impressment, which was when the British found other British people while inspecting, and would force them to join the army. This wasn't legal unless the British seamen were deserters, but mant of them weren't. The Britsh ignored the Amercans' complaints. The British did this because many Americans supported France in the Napoleonic Wars, and didn't want other British people supporting the French.
In the Treaty of Paris in 1783, the Ohio Valley was given to America, but the British still had treaties with the First Nations who lived in the Ohio Valley. They said the treaties were being ignored when Americans moved there in large numbers and were losing traditional areas. The British were scared that the Americans would become bolder and try to take over Upper Canada.
The United States said that the British were encouraging the claims of the First Nations, and that they were giving weapons to them so they can attack the Americans. They also said that the Native Americans were telling lies about the U.S. by making reports that didn't happen. The U. S. said that they might be forced to do something if this doesn't stop.
There was a lot of American jingoism, which was when there was aggressive talking and opinions about having a war and liking it. The jingoists said that America should invade Upper and Lower Canada to protect themselves. They also said that the British weren't happy under the monarchy, and the Americans could help free them from it.
There were other battles too, like the ones at York(Toronto), Stoney Creek, Beaver Dams(Thorold), Crysler's Farm, Lundy's Lane, and Washington and Baltimore, where the British burned down government buildings, including the White House.
The Effects of the War of 1812
The Treaty of Ghent was signed on December 24, 1814, and the war was a stalemate. Without the support of Tecumseh and the other Native Americans, the Americans might have won the war. There were no major victories, but without it, the development of Canada would have been different.
Agriculture declined because many farmers joined the militia and fields were destroyed during the fights. The food supply was very low. However, merchants who were in the import business made a lot of money since more materials were needed for the war.
The war also brought the French and the English people together by working with each other. The Canadiens supported the British again in this war too. Loyalty to the monarchy survived the war, and is a symbol of Canadian independence. The Canadas' self-confidence grew after this war.
Sir Isaac Brock (1769-1812)
Sir Isaac Brock was born in 1769. He was the eighth son of his family, so he joined the army when he was 15. In 1802, Brock and his regiment went to Lower Canada to protect it, and was in charge of the defences of Quebec City by 1810. Then he was promoted to major-general that year and was in charge of the protection of the whole colony. Brock was smart, and knew that they needed the help of the First Nations to make it easier to defend. He captured Detroit and Michilimackinac with Tecumseh and the Native Americans because they were strong American settlements.
Tecumseh was the Chief of the Shawnee people. They lived the Ohio Valley, where the Americans were arriving in large numbers. His father was killed in a war between Britain and the First Nations. Many Shawnee villages were destroyed during the American Revolution, and even more by the Americans in 1811, which angered him so much that he joined forces with the British. The British made him brigadier-general in their army. However, in 1813, the Americans won an important naval battle. The British and First Nations fled, but the Americans followed them and killed Tecumseh. Without their leader, the Shawnee people surrendered, and forced them to move west in 1827, and their way of life was changed forever.
The Rebellions of 1837-1838
In late 1837, William Lyon Mackenzie and his supporters wanted to rebel againsts the government without more waiting. However, Mackenzie waited for 3 days so he could get more supporters, people who were farmers, worker, and people who didn't have a job. They only had some rifles, shotguns, swords and clubs, but nothing that matched the firepower of the people who were defending Toronto. Lieutenant-Governor Bond Head, the lieutenant-governor of Upper Canada, had more time to have his army organized for defending Toronto. When Mackenzie and his 400 supporters attacked, the troops defending Toronto easily defeated them in minutes. Many rebels fled and so did Mackenzie to the countryside and to the United States. He only returned when the government forgave all former rebels in 1849, and became a writer and politician again.
Louis-Joseph Papineau didn't like the way the government was run. The British didn't want to change it, so Papineau tried to get some supporters, called Patriotes. He thought he could get what they wanted peacefully, but the Russell Resolutions of 1837 changed people's minds about that. The Patriotes organized a rebellion and fighting started in late 1837. Paineau went to the rebellion too, but fled when he knew it would fail, returning in 1846 after the government granted amnesty.
The Battles of Saint-Denis and Saint-Charles
In late November 1837, Patriotes captured a seigneur's manor, and the government failed to recapture it. The rebels had victory, but 2 days later at Saint-Charles, a troop went to a Patriote camp and killed many defenders. The government wanted the rebellions to stop, and were very determined about it.
The Battle of Saint-Eustache
The same thing that happened in Saint-Charles happened in Saint-Eustache. Sir John Colborne, the commander of the British army, led a group of 1200 regular soldiers against an armed Patriote camp. The rebels were no match for the army, and about 100 rebels were killed and many were prisoners.
After the rebellions, the British didin't know what to do. Some thought that they should have people elect everyone in the government, and others said that was too radical and would make Upper and Lower Canada too similar to America.
Some rebels had fled to America, and began organizing groups to invade the Canadas. They were called Hunter's Lodge in Upper Canada and Frères Chasseurs in Lower Canada. Many Americans also joined these groups because they thought the rebels would defeat the British. In 1838, there were 40 000-60 000 people in these groups. They attacked the government, but were defeated at Winsor and Prescott in Upper Canada, and Napierville, Lacolle, and Odelltown in Lower Canada.
Cause of the Rebellions
The governments was undemocratic. People could elect others to the legislative assembly, but the legislative assembly barely had any power. All the other people in the government were appointed by the governor. If the legislative assembly passed a bill but the governor didn't like it, it couldn't become law. If the legislative council, appointed by the lieutenant-governor, passed a bill that the legislative assembly didn't like, they could only vote against it but it would still become law. There were also government éliltes, who had all the power and didn't want anyone else to have power. They were mostly lawyers, landowners, clergy and merchants. They were called the Château Clique in Lower Canada and the Family Compact in Upper Canada. Also, because of the Napoleonic Wars, prices fell, and so did the incomes in British North America. A lot of farmers were almost bankrupt in the 1830s. The government didn't do anything about this though, and the people were dissatisfied. The seigneurs were jealous of the rich English merchants, so they increased their income by raising the taxes and rents for the habitants. The habitants complained, but the government couldn't do anything about it. Merchants were expanding trade in Upper Canada, but leaders said that Lower Canada wasn't spending enough on canal building.
The Seven Years' War from 1756-1763, was when the British captured New France. In 1759, General James Wolfe attacked the Beauport Shore and was defeated by French commander Montcalm. Then he made them think he was going to attack that place again, but instead scaled the cliffs on the shores of Québec and attacked it from the west. On the Plains of Abraham, Wolfe and his army waited for the French army and Montcalm to come. The French got defeated easily, though Wolfe and Montcalm both died during the battle on the Plains of Abraham. The French governor surrendered to the British, and Québec became British. The Treaty of Paris in 1763 returned some places they had captured in the war, but New France was still a British colony. There was no New France anymore.
Samuel de Champlain
Louis-Joseph Papineau (1786-1871)
Papineau was born in Montréal and had a father who was seigneur. He was elected to the legislative assembly in 1809, and thought that they should have more power. He went to England, but the British government didn't want to reform the system in Lower Canada. He returned to Lower Canada and published the Ninety-Two Resolutions in 1834, which was a list of demands for reform. He tried to have a peaceful reform, but discovered it wasn't possible.
William Lyon Mackenzie (1795-1861)
Sir Fracis Bond Head (1793-1875)
Laura Secord (1775-1868)
Lieutenant-Colonol John By (1779-1836)
John By was an engineer who built the Rideau Canal so supplies could get to the troops faster and easier. The Americans couldn't block the canal because it was too far away from the border.
Laura Secord was born in Massachusetts, and her father supported the
Patriots. However, her family moved to Upper Canada in 1797 and married James Secord and went to Queenston. When James was hurt during the war, Laura and James were eavesdropping on an American conversation and figured out the Americans were going to attack Beaver Dam, which was 20 km away. So Laura walked all the way to Beaver Dam to warn Lieutenant James Fitzgibbon, the commanding officer for the regiment at Beaver Dam. She walked a roundabout route so she wouldn't be captured, which was 30 km over rough landscape, and took nearly 20 hours in very hot weather. Instead of the Americans surprising the British, it was the other way around, and the British won that battle.
Mackenzie came to Upper Canada as a printer and worked with a newspaper. He was elected to the legislative assembly in 1828, but expelled for publishing lies and libels. Many people hated Mackenzie because of his insulting newspapers. However, he was re-elected to the legislative assembly many times, but each time not allowed to take his seat because of what he published. He thought that the only way to change something was a revolution.
Sir Fracis Bond Head was a retired soldier from the British army. In 1835, he was appointed lieutenant-governor of Upper Canada. He didn't support the reforms, and in 1836, the legislative assembly passed a resolution that criticized his behavior by interfering with the elections. He also shut down the assembly and had new elections, and the Tories who were against reform won. He would do all that to resist the Reformers, and was called back to London after the rebellions.
Canada History Timeline [Online]. Available http://www.canadahistory.com/timeline.asp, 2013.
Bain, Colin M. Pearson Canadian History. Education Canada, Toronto: 2008
" Mark Starowicz." Canada A People's History Series 3. CD-ROM. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 2001.