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Physics B


on 13 September 2011

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Transcript of Kaleidoscope

Kaleidoscope Physics B ii. Angle iii. Length Introduction: Consists of multiple walls of mirror and some decorations like colored bits of glass or beads. Works on the principle of reflection of light. Pieces of mirrors fixed at a certain angle to each other, producing multiple images after reflection of light on the object. When the tube is rotated, the color and design of the images formed changes.
The colored objects like the glasses or the beads show different symmetrical pattern with the rotation. Length If the mirrors aren't long enough it's difficult to see the entire image. Even with your eye pushed right up against the mirror opening it will still end up looking like this: Mirrors should be at least four times as long as the largest dimension of the object window. Two-mirror kaleidoscope Image Dimmer Some is scattered and some is absorbed at the reflecting surface. Impurities Reflects off the front side Create an illusion of distance Beneficial in scopes with three dimensional images Loss of sharpness Image reflected off the front of the glass follows a slightly different path than the main reflection. Blur Imperfections in the glass and main mirror surface. For angles less than 20 degrees, the opening to view the image becomes so small that it may be difficult to look through, unless the kaleidoscope is made very large. Limitation: small angle = small but more
image Size of image decreases with the angle Separation angle is zero: Infinite number of images can be seen lining up in a straight row 60 Degree: Image: 45 36 30 22.5 20 6 8 10 12 16 18 Final image of kaleidoscope is created after reflecting off 7 mirror surfaces, each time losing a little brightness. The reflecting surface is behind the glass, the light has to travel through the glass before and after it's reflected. The light passed in and out through the glass each for seven times. Some of the light (about 4%) reflects off the front side.
7 layers x 4% = 28%. Total = 14 layers of glass A significant of light is absorbed. D
L Other acceptable angles are 18 degrees (20 images), 15 degrees (24 images),12 degrees (30 images) and so on to 1 degree (theorically-360 images). However, if the angle is too small, the amount of loss of light is very big even using the best first surface mirrors. The image formed is too dim to be seen. If the separation angle is reduced to zero (when the two mirrors are parallel) the number of images should be infinite because 360 degrees cannot be divided by 0. Degree: Image: 120 72 40 15.65 3 5 9 23 May not look too bad when stationary, the problem is that when the objects being viewed are moved, the boundary between the final two reflections will have images of different objects merge with each other. Odd number of images: Even number of images: You can see the loss of symmetry at the top vertical boundary
(red arrows merging into blue arrows) If the kaleidoscope's angle doesn't divide 360 degree by whole number: This kaleidoscope has a separation angle of 64 degrees,
which creates 5.6 images. If the angle is only off by a small amount it may not be noticeable, as the following kaleidoscope with a separation angle of 51.4 degrees (7.004 images) shows: Viewing angle: The advantage of lowering the viewing angle is that it gives the image a more interesting 3-D look. The drawback is that building a kaleidoscope with the eyepiece in a lowered position is more The recommended viewing angle is 55 degrees, but it varies depending on the nature of the image. Object window size: Smaller
- Image is smaller in diameter. Larger
- Larger in diameter but the effect is unattractive. iv. Object window witdh i. Image Outline RATIO 4:1 Shows very minor difference with 7 images COMPLICATED. Example For Conclusion Kaleidoscope Works on principle of reflection of light Looks different if viewed from different angles small angle
= small but more image Length and Object window width
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