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Chapter 19 DBQ
Transcript of Chapter 19 DBQ
Nick Meusburger Faith Healing
and Old Practices Sickness, pain, and disease were a great part of European life in the eighteenth century and therefore the Enlightenment's growing focus on discovering the laws of nature and on human problems gave rise to a great deal of research and experimentation in finding many different ways to treat these ailments. Hospitals and Surgery Midwifery Many people in the 18th century, even those without illness, turned to Christ and the Christian church in times of trouble.
In Document 4, John Wesley, founder of the Methodist Church, describes a mystical emotional conversion in a journal.
His account describes how he felt that Christ "saved him from the law of sin and death" and therefore would save him from anything such as illness in the future.
Many converts and Christians believed that if they were ill, God could save them. They thought that simply praying would take away their illness.
Wesley is biased toward faith healing because as a Christian convert, he believes in the omnipotent power of God. Document 7 offers Christianity as a consolation, a means for comfort when ill rather than a cure-all.
The author of this document, William Buchan was a physician and therefore would not have believed in the healing powers of religion, instead trusting actual healing done by science and medicine. Another old fashioned method for fighting illness was bloodletting, which is when veins and arteries are severed and let to drain of any "tainted" blood so as to relieve the patient of their ailment.
In Document 6, an excerpt for Memoirs of the Royal Academy of Surgery describes what the Ancients of Greek and Rom society believed about bloodletting and how after two thousand years, the disease still trust this form of treatment.
The author of this piece is against bloodletting, as he believes the observations that seem to support this practice were wrong and that simply draining blood from specific parts of a body near a pain does not solve the problem. Small pox was a huge epidemic in the eighteenth century and even prior to that. There was not much treatment for it and many died.
The author of Document 3, Lady Wortley Montagu, developed a way to prevent small pox in young children called engrafting, when a small piece of a small pox blister is placed under the patient's skin therefore introducing them to the virus enough so they can develop an immunity with a much milder infection than inhaling the disease.
In the letter, she asserts her intent to use the method on her own son showing her extreme bias towards the procedure, seeing as she developed it.
This became general practice and led to the ultimate disappearance of small pox after her method was refined by Sir Edward Jenner's vaccination. Document 5 depicts a growing need for surgeons and surgery because of all of the new technologies and opportunities for calamity or broken bones.
The author of this document, John Atkins, an English surgeon, is biased towards surgery because as a surgeon, injuries keep him in work. The more need for surgery, the more money he can make. Document 8 offers a description of a hospital called Hotel-Dieu in Paris, France.
Diderot offers this description in his Encylcopedia, therefore making it a hopefully unbiased source. However, his description does not make hospitals sound appealing at all.
He discusses how cramped the hospital seems as well as the contamination in the air.
His most blatant depiction is that of "the spectacle of suffering and agony on every hand." This places a negative view on hospitals. Though required and becoming a staple in every town, as can be seen today, the hospitals of the eighteenth century as depicted by Diderot were unsanitary, cramped, and generally depressing to be in. A new method of surgery was developed to treat intracranial diseases called trepanation where doctors would drill a hole in the patient's head.
Document 10 depicts this surgery in a drawing.
This marks a start to procedures done by cutting into the body and working with the organs versus praying or using non-surgical means to treat patients. Midwives used many methods to help mothers give birth.
Document 1, A Directory for Midwives written by Nicholas Culpeper is a passage about herbs and their medical qualities.
He tells midwives that many people have herbs in their gardens but don't even know their virtues and that they should tell these people about the qualities they possess.
This shows the development of medical minds. Not only would those trained in medicine become knowledgeable about treatment, but everyday people with herbs in their gardens would be able to treat themselves and others. Another document on midwifery is found in Document 2, an English translation of "The Art of Midwifery Improved", showing that midwifery and giving birth was extremely prominent in the eighteenth century.
This document discusses the growing volume of men in the business of midwifery, as it used to be a primarily women centered business.
The author being a male, is inclined to support men joining this business and will see their skill.