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Transcript of Interlanguage
A term coined by Selinker - 1972, as an attempt to describe the developing L2 system - all the linguistic levels
Refers to "the language system that each learner constructs an any given point in development"
Marked the transition from the older school of contrastive analysis
Differs systematically from both the native language and the target language BUT linked to them
Nature of Interlanguage
The learner's interlanguage changes over time and with exposure to the TL
Rules that learners' construct - similar to those of the native speakers BUT differ in many respects
Over the course of time - learners progress but the process may not be observable
Characteristics of Interlanguage:
What lies behind Interlanguage?
Cross - linguistic Influences and transfer
English as a lingua franca
E Tarone, 747 - 752
Gang Dong, 42 - 44
Lourdes Ortega, 110-112, 116 - 118
Development of L2 Morphology
Concept Oriented Approach
Learners express particular concept
Most important in LA
How you say things --> not that important
what you say
Learners' procedure in phases
Pragmatic Means---> scaffolding
she steal bread/and run away from the shop
listeners assume that things happened in the same order as have been told
Lexical Means added:
then the car of police come/ so he ride this car/ next the woman ride too
use of temporal, locative adverbials, connectives such as "then" to indicate time
Morphological Means added
and suddenly she cried/ and later she tried to run away
tense indicates temporal relations
Coined by Selinker in 1972 - "permanent lack of mastery of a target language TL despite continuous exposure to the TL input, adequate motivation to improve and sufficient opportunity to practice"
Several Cases of fossilization
Alberto (Schumann 1976) = unable to move beyond basic English
Patty (Lardiere 2007) = instructed learner (L1 - Mandarin) - achieved a very high level of competence in L2 BUT ceased in L2 bound verbal morphology
Geng and Fong (Han 2000 - 2006) = adults (Chinese L1 background) + optimal learning circumstances in L2 English but failed to use passive in obligatory contexts
Instruction, Development and Learners' Readiness
Learner readiness (Pienemann 1984-89) Instruction" is constrained by development - Teachers can only hope to teach successfully what learners are developmentally ready to learn".
Fewer errors - not always a good thing
For some searchers: F is inevitable - All learners are expected to fossilize,and some do sooner and others do it later.
For others researchers,fossilization affects some learners but not others.
The one-to-one principle: one meaning is always expressed by one form - no taking the risk of looking for synonyms
The transfer to somewhere principle: a grammatical form occurs many times as a result of transfer in the Interlanguage
The relexification principle: students use L1 sentence structure filled in with L2 lexical items
Why do we care?
Selinker (1992: 218): “no other subject
matter needs to integrate pedagogical concerns as we do"
Improve the process of L2 learning
Comparisons between languages - enable teachers make their students aware of the differences and similarities
Teachers would be able to identify their students' errors
Aid in designing and selecting proper course books for L2 students
Rosa Muñoz Luna, 69 - 70
compare interlanguage requests of advanced ESL learners with British native speakers on a written discourse completion task
187 students (95ESLlearners/92L1native speakers
- a short description of the scenario, which specified the setting, the familiarity and the social power between the participants - then asked to complete the dialogue by performing a request for an assignment extension from their lecturer.
Interlanguage Requests in Academic
Tiana Ken prezi
"THERE IS NO END AND THERE IS NO STATE"
Diane Larsen Freeman
"Language is a dynamic ,constantly evolving,and self-organizing."
"An individual’s language resources are ever mutable,and their development continues,even development of the L1 "(MacWhinney 1999)
“Studies of fossilization in sla” Han -Odlin 2005
Steve Kaufmann- Linguist
Kogetsidis et al, 2007
By: Marie Pouilles
Learners underused the politeness marker "please" as compared to NS
Learners used fewer apologies but overused imposition minimisers and preparators in external modification as compared to NS.
Both groups employed the grounder as the most frequent external modification device
NS made more frequent use of impersonal perspective combined with formulaic constructions
Because something happened to my family
(grounder)I need a few days off.
I understand it is very soon to ask something likethis but
(disarmer) I would be very pleased if you give me these days"
"I’m really sorry
(apology)but I will have to take some leave at shortnotice
as my grandmother has requested that I see her. I don’t think she’s got very long
Kogetsidis et al, 2007
L2 learners' pragmatic performance may present deviations from that of native speakers
Sometimes their deviations may lead to pragmatic and sociolinguistic failure
mplications for ESL teaching
Need for the development of pragmatic competence in L2 learning
1)Pragmatics should be included in second language teaching
2)Textbook materials need to be more culture - oriented
Concept Oriented Approach is
interested in mistakes in grammar
The main focus is to understand the
of the words.
How the concept is expressed?
How the expression of the concept changes over the time?