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Nervous system- The system of cells, tissues, and organs tha

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on 24 February 2015

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Transcript of Nervous system- The system of cells, tissues, and organs tha

Central Nervous system
The central nervous system is the processing center for the nervous system. The CNS receives information from and sends it to the peripheral nervous system. The brain and the spinal cord are the two main organs of the central nervous system.
The nervous system is a system of cells, organs, and tissues that monitor the body's responses to internal and external stimuli. The parts of the nervouse system in the human body include the brain, spinal cord, nerves and ganglia.
2 Types of nervous systems : Central nervous system and the Peripheral nervous system
The brain processes and interprets sensory information sent from the spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System
Sympathetic - controls activities that increase energy expenditures.
The peripheral nervous system connects with organs and structures of the body which are established through cranial and spinal nerves.
2 Sub systems : Autonomic Nervous system and the Somatic nervous system
Somatic Nervous system: controls skeletal muscle as well as external sensory organs.
The somatic nervous system is responsible for voluntary muscle movements and processing sensory information that arrives from external stimuli. External stimuli includes hearing, touch and sight.
Autonomic Nervous System
The autonomic system is part of the peripheral nervous system responsible for regulating body functions, such as blood flow, heartbeat, digestion and breathing. These functions are involuntary functions.
The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for the fight or flight response. This will activate breathing, blood flow, and other bodily processes for fight or flight.
The parasympathetic nervous system inhibits or rejects the effects of the sympathetic nervous system. The parasympathetic nervous system originates in the brain stem and lower part of the spinal cord. This nervous system also increases activity of the intestines and glands.

The enteric system sends and receives impulses, records experiences and responds to emotions between the gut and the brain. Its nerve cells are influenced by neurotransmitters. Both the gut and the brain can upset each other.

Enteric Nervous system:
The Neuron
Neurons are specialized cells that process information in the brain. They are responsible for receiving and transmitting information.
Dendrites are at the beginning of a neuron that increase the surface area of the cell body. They receive information from other neurons and transmit electrical stimulation to the soma (cell body) . Dendrites are also covered with synapses.
The soma is where the signals from the dendrites are joined and passed on. The soma and the nucleus maintain the cell and keep the neuron functional.

The axon is the elongated fiber that is from the cell body to the terminal endings. Axons transmit neural signals. The bigger the axon, the faster it transmits information. Some axons are covered with a fatty substance called myelin, which is essentially an insulator. Myelinated axons transmit information faster than other neurons.
The nucleus of the nueron contains the genetic material in the form of chromosomes.
Longer axons are covered with a myelin sheath. The myelin sheath is a series of fatty cells that are wrapped around axons frequently. The myelin sheath serves as an insulator.
A schwann cell is the cell of the peripheral nervous system that wraps around a nerve fiber, which ends up forming the myelin sheath.
The Node of Ranvier is a gap in the myelin sheath of a nerve, between Schwann cells.
Motor end plate is a large terminal formation where the axon of a motor neuron creates synaptic contact with muscle fibers.
Different types of neurons
Sensory neurons
Sensory neurons are sensitive to non-neural stimuli. Sensory neurons in the skin, muscles, and organs that detect pressure, temperature, and pain. There are more specialized neurons in the nose and tongue that are sensitive to taste and smells.
Neurons in the inner ear are sensitive to vibration, that gives us sound. In the eye the retina cones and other structures allow us to see.
Motor neurons stimulate muscle cells throughout the body. These muscles mean the heart, diaphragm, intestines, and blatter.
Interneurons are the neurons that give us connections between sensory and motor neurons. The neurons of the central nervous system, are interneurons.
When chemicals contact the top of the neuron, they change the balance of ions between the inside and outside of the cell . This change runs across the cell's membrane to the axon. When it reaches the axon, it initiates the action potential.

When neurons receive or send messages, they transmit electrical impulses with axons. Many axons are covered in myelin sheath, which increases the transmission of electrical signals along the axon.
Dendrites extend from the neuron cell body and receive messages from other neurons. Synapses are the contact points. Dendrites are covered with synapses formed by the ends of axons from other neurons. This helps the process speed up.
Generating action potentials
How do neurons communicate with eachother

Web. 6 Feb. 2015. <https://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/cells.html>.
Cherry, Kendra. "What Is a Neuron? Building Blocks of the Nervous System." Web. 6 Feb. 2015. <http://psychology.about.com/od/biopsychology/f/neuron01.htm>.
"The Life and Death of a Neuron." : National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Web. 6 Feb. 2015. <http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/brain_basics/ninds_neuron.htm>.

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