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The Industrial Revolution

This will show you all about the Industrial Revolution
by

Michael Mascarenhas

on 12 September 2010

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Transcript of The Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution 1769 British inventor, James Watt, patents an improvised steam engine that can power textile mills The Industrial Revolution began with Watt's steam powered engine. Meant to pump water out of mines, it was later used to power steamboats. This invention was world changing, so naturally the British wanted the new technology for themselves. 1785 Thomas Jefferson argues against industrialization in his "Notes on Virginia" Jefferson wrote, that the U.S. should be an agricultural country. 1790 Samuel Slater and his partners build the first textile mill in the United States "Encouragement of agriculture and of commerce as its handmaid I deem [one of the] essential principles of our government, and consequently [one of] those which ought to shape its administration." Right then others wanted it to become a large part of the Industrial Revolution. The U.S. would eventually become one of the largest parts of the Industrial Revolution. 1793 Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin After Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin, and patented it, he expected to grow rich. However there was a major complication that destroyed his profits. The cotton gin, was a ingenious idea, built into a simple machine. This made it easy to duplicate, and Eli had to spend large amounts of his lifetime in court prosecuting people who copied his invention without his permission. Eli, unfortunately did not make a considerable amount of money off the cotton gin. In fact he hardly made anything. 1798 Whitney excepts a government contract to manufacture muskets This is how a musket is fired The selling of the muskets would make Eli a little wealthier. However he just wasn’t able to complete the order in time. However a decade later he managed to make 13,500 muskets with his factory, and interchangeable parts. Before Eli’s idea of interchangeable parts, muskets were made by hand. They all were unique, so if a part broke it would have to be specially made, and was very expensive. This meant that producing the 12,000 muskets, the U.S. government asked Eli to make, was a tall order already. Top it with the one year time limit, and the order was almost impossible. Eli’s new idea, to use a factory of workers, and interchangeable parts, meant that he had to build all of the parts separately, and assemble them at one spot. This allowed the 13,500 muskets in one year, that Eli later produced. 1807 Robert Fulton travels up the Hudson River by steamboat This was a huge achievement, because then going up the Hudson, meant that cargo was able to travel, and move goods throughout the U.S. Since land travel was so expensive, and water travel so slow, and some times in the wrong direction with sails, the steamboat was a huge achievement. The steamboat used an adaptation of Watt’s steam engine. This boat allowed goods to be transferred from one port to another. The steamboat is a watercraft propelled by steam; more narrowly, a shallow-draft paddle- wheel steamboat widely used on rivers in the 19th century, particularly the Mississippi River and ts tributaries. Though U.S. experiments with steam-powered boats began in1787, the first regular steamboat service, operating on the Mississippi, was not established until 1812. Until 1870 the steamboat dominated the economy, agriculture, and commerce of the middle of the U.S. Because the paddle wheel created turbulence that eroded the banks of narrow channels, river steamboats worked best on broad rivers. The first ocean voyage of a steamboat occurred along the eastern coast of the U.S. in 1809, and Europeans soon developed steamboats capable of crossing Europe's stormy, narrow seas. The first transatlantic steamboat journey was made by the Savannah in 1819, and the first commercial shipping line, the Cunard Line was established in1840. The screw propeller replaced the paddle wheel in oceanic steamers in the later 19th century.

1825 The Erie Canal is completed 1826 The Industrial City of Lowell, Massachusetts is officially named for Francis Lowell Francis Cabot Lowell was born in Newburyport, Massachusetts, on April 17, 1775, the son of John Lowell, noted jurist and delegate to the Continental Congress.
Lowell became a successful merchant and traveled to England, where in 1810 he acquired information about the Lancashire power looms' inner workings. Upon his return to the United States, Lowell collaborated with master mechanic Paul Moody to construct an improved version of the machinery that conducted the spinning and weaving functions.

In 1814, the Boston Manufacturing Company successfully gathered the entire process under one roof in Waltham, Massachusetts on the Charles River. Nine years later, after Lowell’s death on August 10, 1817, the plant was relocated as a massive complex in a town bearing the founder’s name.

Efforts were made to foster the “Lowell System,” a plan to address all the needs of the female former farm workers (and later immigrant women) who were employed in the plant. The company owned and operated not only the factory, but the dormitories, shops and churches. Behavior was carefully regulated, supervision was intense and wages were initially high. Lowell increased from a population of several dozen to more than 8,000 in 15 years. 1837 John Deere introduces a plow with steel blades. The story of John Deere, who developed the first commercially successful, self-scouring steel plow, closely parallels the settlement and development of the midwestern United States.
Deere was born in Rutland, Vermont, on February 7, 1804, the third son of William Rinold Deere and Sarah Yates Deere. In 1805, the family moved to Middlebury, Vermont, where William engaged in merchant tailoring. In 1808, he boarded a boat for England, in the hopes of claiming an inheritance and making a more comfortable life for his family. He was never heard from again, and is presumed to have died at sea.
Raised by a mother on a meager income, John Deere's education was probably rudimentary and limited to the common schools of Vermont. At the age of 17, he apprenticed himself and learned the trade of blacksmithing, which he carried on at various places in Vermont.
In 1837, facing depressed business conditions in Vermont and with a young family to care for, Deere traveled alone to Grand Detour, Illinois, to make a fresh start. Resourceful and hard working, his skills as a blacksmith were immediately in demand.
The new pioneer farmers struggled to turn heavy, sticky prairie soil with cast iron plows designed for the light, sandy soil of New England. John Deere was convinced that a plow that was highly polished and properly shaped could scour itself as it cut furrows. In 1837, he created such a plow, using a broken saw blade.
By 1841, Deere was producing 100 of the plows annually. In 1843, he entered a partnership with Leonard Andrus to produce more plows to meet increasing demand.
By 1848, Deere dissolved his partnership with Andrus and moved the business to Moline, which offered advantages of water power, coal and cheaper transportation than to be found in Grand Detour. In 1850, approximately 1600 plows were made, and the company was soon producing other tools to complement its steel plow.
In 1858, Deere transferred leadership of the company to his son, Charles, who served as its vice president. John Deere retained the title of president of the company, but now turned his attention to civic and political activities.
John Deere was active in public life throughout his career in Moline. Among other roles, he was the second president of the National Bank of Moline, served as a director of the Moline Free Public Library, was an active member of the First Congregational Church and served as the city's mayor for two years.
John Deere died on May 17, 1886, at his home in Moline. 1869 The first transcontinental railroad is completed The First Transcontinental Railroad (known originally as the "Pacific Railroad" and later as the "Overland Route") was a railroad line built in the United States between 1863 and 1869 by the Central Pacific Railroad of California and the Union Pacific Railroad that connected its statutory Eastern terminus at Council Bluffs, Iowa/Omaha, Nebraska[1][2] (via Ogden, Utah and Sacramento, California) with the Pacific Ocean at Alameda, California on the southern shore of San Francisco Bay opposite San Francisco. By linking with the existing railway network of the Eastern United States, the road thus connected the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the United States by rail for the first time. The line was popularly known as the Overland Route after the principal passenger rail service that operated over the length of the line through the end of 1962
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