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The Industrial Revolution
Transcript of The Industrial Revolution
1825 The Erie Canal is completed 1826 The Industrial City of Lowell, Massachusetts is officially named for Francis Lowell Francis Cabot Lowell was born in Newburyport, Massachusetts, on April 17, 1775, the son of John Lowell, noted jurist and delegate to the Continental Congress.
Lowell became a successful merchant and traveled to England, where in 1810 he acquired information about the Lancashire power looms' inner workings. Upon his return to the United States, Lowell collaborated with master mechanic Paul Moody to construct an improved version of the machinery that conducted the spinning and weaving functions.
In 1814, the Boston Manufacturing Company successfully gathered the entire process under one roof in Waltham, Massachusetts on the Charles River. Nine years later, after Lowell’s death on August 10, 1817, the plant was relocated as a massive complex in a town bearing the founder’s name.
Efforts were made to foster the “Lowell System,” a plan to address all the needs of the female former farm workers (and later immigrant women) who were employed in the plant. The company owned and operated not only the factory, but the dormitories, shops and churches. Behavior was carefully regulated, supervision was intense and wages were initially high. Lowell increased from a population of several dozen to more than 8,000 in 15 years. 1837 John Deere introduces a plow with steel blades. The story of John Deere, who developed the first commercially successful, self-scouring steel plow, closely parallels the settlement and development of the midwestern United States.
Deere was born in Rutland, Vermont, on February 7, 1804, the third son of William Rinold Deere and Sarah Yates Deere. In 1805, the family moved to Middlebury, Vermont, where William engaged in merchant tailoring. In 1808, he boarded a boat for England, in the hopes of claiming an inheritance and making a more comfortable life for his family. He was never heard from again, and is presumed to have died at sea.
Raised by a mother on a meager income, John Deere's education was probably rudimentary and limited to the common schools of Vermont. At the age of 17, he apprenticed himself and learned the trade of blacksmithing, which he carried on at various places in Vermont.
In 1837, facing depressed business conditions in Vermont and with a young family to care for, Deere traveled alone to Grand Detour, Illinois, to make a fresh start. Resourceful and hard working, his skills as a blacksmith were immediately in demand.
The new pioneer farmers struggled to turn heavy, sticky prairie soil with cast iron plows designed for the light, sandy soil of New England. John Deere was convinced that a plow that was highly polished and properly shaped could scour itself as it cut furrows. In 1837, he created such a plow, using a broken saw blade.
By 1841, Deere was producing 100 of the plows annually. In 1843, he entered a partnership with Leonard Andrus to produce more plows to meet increasing demand.
By 1848, Deere dissolved his partnership with Andrus and moved the business to Moline, which offered advantages of water power, coal and cheaper transportation than to be found in Grand Detour. In 1850, approximately 1600 plows were made, and the company was soon producing other tools to complement its steel plow.
In 1858, Deere transferred leadership of the company to his son, Charles, who served as its vice president. John Deere retained the title of president of the company, but now turned his attention to civic and political activities.
John Deere was active in public life throughout his career in Moline. Among other roles, he was the second president of the National Bank of Moline, served as a director of the Moline Free Public Library, was an active member of the First Congregational Church and served as the city's mayor for two years.
John Deere died on May 17, 1886, at his home in Moline. 1869 The first transcontinental railroad is completed The First Transcontinental Railroad (known originally as the "Pacific Railroad" and later as the "Overland Route") was a railroad line built in the United States between 1863 and 1869 by the Central Pacific Railroad of California and the Union Pacific Railroad that connected its statutory Eastern terminus at Council Bluffs, Iowa/Omaha, Nebraska (via Ogden, Utah and Sacramento, California) with the Pacific Ocean at Alameda, California on the southern shore of San Francisco Bay opposite San Francisco. By linking with the existing railway network of the Eastern United States, the road thus connected the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the United States by rail for the first time. The line was popularly known as the Overland Route after the principal passenger rail service that operated over the length of the line through the end of 1962