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Chemistry Final Project
Transcript of Chemistry Final Project
the acidity (pH) and the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood from an artery. This test is used to check how well your lungs are able to move oxygen into the blood and remove carbon dioxide from the blood. But how does it do this? "Arterial Blood Gases." WebMD - Better information. Better health.. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 May 2013. <http://www.webmd.com/lung/arterial-blood-gases>.
"Blood gases: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia." National Library of Medicine - National Institutes of Health. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 May 2013. <http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003855.htm>.
"Common Laboratory (LAB) Values - ABGs - Arterial blood gases." Clinicians ultimate guide to drug therapy. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 May 2013. <http://www.globalrph.com/abg_analysis.htm>.
"Interpretation of Arterial Blood Gases (ABGs)." American Thoracic Society - We help the world breathe - PULMONARY :: CRITICAL CARE :: SLEEP. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 May 2013. <http://www.thoracic.org/clinical/critical-care/clinical-education/abgs.php>.
"NCBI." Chapter 49Arterial Blood Gases. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 May 2013. <www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK371/>.
Shomer, Mathew R. "Arterial Blood Gas Tests." Personal interview. 30 May 2013.
A sample of blood from an artery is taken from the inside of the wrist (radial artery), but it can also be taken from an artery in the groin or on the inside of the arm above the elbow crease (brachial artery). The blood's acidity and concentration of various gases in the blood can then be measured in a laboratory and compared with normal calues to determind how well the lungs are working. An ABD measures partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), pH, Bicarbonate (HCO3), oxygen content (O2CT) and oxygen saturation (O2Sat) values. But how does this deal with chemistry? How does Arterial Blood Gas deal with chemistry? As said in previous slides, arterial blood gas tests measures different types of measurements. The measurement that gets affected the most by a change of carbon dioxide, is pH. The normal range for pH is 7.35-7.45, and if the pH decreases (<7.35) it becomes acidosis, while if the ph Increases (>7.45) it becomes alkalosis (basically another word for basic). The most common occurence will be that of respiratory acidosis. What are the normal ranges for the results given from the Arterial blood gases measure pH (A measurement of acidity or alkalinity), PaO2 (amount of carbon dioxide dissolved in arterial blood),
HCO3 (The calculated value of the amount of bicarbonate in the blood stream), PaCO2 (The amount of cabon dioxide dissolved in arterial blood), B.E. (the amount of excess or insufficient level of bicarbonate in the system), and SaO2 (The arterial oxygen saturation). The normal range for ph is between 7.35-7.45, the normal range for PaO2 is 80 to 100 mm Hg., the normal range for HCO3 is 22 to 26 mEq/liter, the normal range for PaCO2 is 35-45 mm Hg, the normal range is -2 to +2 mmol/L, and the normal range for SaO2 is 95%to 100%. Explanation of why respiratory acidosis occurs Carbon dioxide is dissolved in the blood as carbonic acid, a weak acid. However, when in large concentrations, it can affect the pH drastically. Whenever there is poor pulmonary ventilation, the carbon dioxide levels in the blood are expected to rise. This then leads to a rise of carbonic acid, leading to then, the decrease in pH. As carbon dioxide concentrations continue to increase, a condition known as respiratory acidosis occurs. As a reaction, the body tries to maintain homeostasis by increasing the respiratory rate, a condition known as tachypneoa occurs (Tachy meaning fast). Tgis allows carbon dioxide to escape the body through the lungs, which then increases the the PH by having less carbonic acid Explanation of why respiratory alkolosis occurs Respiratory alkolosis occurs when there is too little carbon dioxide in the blood. This may be because of hyperventilation or else excessive breaths given via a mechanical venilator in a critical care setting. The action to take is to calm the patient and to attempt to reduce the number of breaths being taken to normalize the pH.