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History - Renaissance
Transcript of History - Renaissance
What does Renaissance really mean?
a. Cultural prosperity
c. New beginning The word 'Renaissance' means rebirth. This era was called this because it was a time that brought back many ideas and activities that were lost. However, this era did not only bring back old customs, but it was a time where many important advancements were made that still influence our daily lives. One of the key factors needed in the world to bring about the beginning of a new era is a drastic event. The Black Plague was the event that allowed the Renaissance era to emerge as the world could not be prosperous in any ways as thousands of people were dying. People no longer cared about making advancements or learning as people just hoped they would make it through the day without being infected by the plague. In a way, the Plague wiped many previous notions away and society could essentially restart. However, once the Plague was over these views started to change in Florence, Italy. Florence, Italy Therefore, there were many important people in this time that made many great changes to the world that adds to what the Renaissance stands for; however, this era was really launched into motion by one prominent family known as the Medici's. There are many reasons why Florence was the birthplace of the Renaissance. Mainly, Italy was home to Rome, where one of the world's greatest empires derived from and there was still many remnants from the past that reminded them of a better, more prosperous time. Can you imagine seeing things like these... Bibliography!
Textbook - Chapter 12 by Robert J. Walker
http://www.italymag.co.uk/italy-featured/arts-and-culture On a daily basis and not knowing how our own ancestors could manage building these magnificent feats. This led to a new found energy for people to study and learn the past so that they could live and create things the way their predecessors did. Like many families in Italy at this time, the Medici's gained their wealth through banking and trading. They were not only rich aristocrats, but they were popular with the commoners, as well, for supporting their interests. Cosimo de' Medici became the governor of Florence in the 1434 leading Italy into the Renaissance. In this time, artists did not just simply copy the ways of their ancestors; but, they developed many new techniques and innovations that our generation could not imagine living without. One way that art changed dramatically in the Renaissance was the creation of perspective. Before this time, drawings and paintings were only 2-Dimensional. The idea of things being 3D was just created. Drawings went from
A great example of perspective can be seen in Lorenzo Ghiberti's bronze door panels that he created in a competition with Filippo Brunelleschi. Perspective was a huge advancement not only for art, but for architecture, as well. Now people could effectively plan what they wanted to build with drawings before they started. Speaking of Brunelleschi, he became the most famous architect of the Renaissance as he built the biggest dome on Florence's cathedral. Another area of art that advancements were made in was with sculpting. Again, the Medici's helped create the Renaissance by paying Donatello to sculpt a bronze statue of David. This is significant because it was the first free- standing statue. Which one of these painters were not from the Renaissance era?
b. Pablo Picasso
c. Leonardo da Vinci Michelangelo and da Vinci are two of the world most famous painters of all time and they painted in the Renaissance era. This shows how the Renaissance has left its mark on the Modern World as their paintings are still viewed and famous to this day. As we can see the Renaissance was a historical time for art as perspective was created, the largest dome was built, the first free-standing statue was sculpted and many painters we remember today came from this era. The Medici's invested much of their fortunes in THE ARTS And so the Renaissance began. The Renaissance began in Florence, Italy; however, it did not stay there, it spread throughout the Western World as Florence was a major trading city where ideas could be shared. Religion
and The Church also took a new direction in the Renaissance. Many people lost their faith in The Church, God and Jesus Christ in the Middle Ages as they could not believe that God would do something as horrible as creating the Black Plague which severely set the world and society back. However, there were always those whose faith never faltered. The new belief of humanism also lowered the power of the Church as people now started to put their own needs and wants first as society started to emphasize individuality. The Renaissance's new way of thinking, of inquiring started a movement in Catholicism known as the Reformation. Some other reasons why the people wanted the Church to change and become more simpler is because the nobility was given more than the commoners. For example, Pope Leo X, spent the people's taxation to build numerous grand churches. Once these church's and cathedral's were built, the jobs were given to other nobles whose interest was in making more money. Bibliography 2!
http://m.historytoday.com/martin-luther The Commoners also did not like the idea of indulgences. They did not think that just because they have less money than the nobles that they should have to pay longer for any sins that they may have committed in purgatory in the after life. Because that's what indulgences are, being able to pay for your sins by donating money to the Church. As the Church took away the ban they had placed on profiting and charging interest on borrowed money, capitalism was created. This led to the the increase in international commerce and a revised way of banking. Many new banks were created in the Renaissance era and, not only did they charge interest, but the idea of exchanging currency emerged. As resentment towards the Church grew, one individual rose up and became the voice for everyone. MARTIN LUTHER - German peasant
- was almost struck by lightning
- saw it as a sign from God and decided to become a monk
- realized the only way an individual could be saved was with faith A friar, named Johann Tetzel, like many other religious people, decided to sell indulgences so that a new cathedral could be built. He stated that every time someone donated money a soul was released from purgatory and went to heaven. Luther was outraged by this and wrote 'Ninety-Five Theses' that he nailed to the door of the Church. The printing press allowed this to be widely known throughout the country and many agreed with Luther's dislike of the idea of indulgences. Pope Leo X gave Luther 60 days to retract his statements as many started to wish that the Pope had less power. Luther was summoned to the Imperial Diet which is the parliamentary assembly of the Roman Empire where he declared that he would not take back his statements and he was declared a heretic. However, one member allowed him sanctuary in his fortifies castle where Luther translated the bible into German so that priests were no longer needed . Luther returned to his home and he established a new church from his ideas from his statements. His church was more simplified than Catholicism. An example of the differences is that in his church the clergy were allowed to marry unlike the celibate Catholic priests. Martin Luther was responsible for the second greatest split within Christianity. This new branch that he created was called Protestant. - Protestantism quickly spread throughout the Western World against the wishes of the Pope.
- As a result two reformations were created
-Catholic Reformation - wanted to change the Church back to the ways of earlier times with less worldly views
-Counter-Reformation - launched the Church into a more militant group had great effects everywhere, especially in Europe as it encouraged admirable human qualities such as:
- Hard work
- Little extravagance
- Careful savings
- Better relationships
- Importance on family unit
- Encouraged women's education Who do you
think this individual was? a. Galileo Galilei
b. Martin Luther
c. Pope Leo X The Renaissance was also a time with many changes within SOCIETY The Renaissance was full of changes with the economy and with society that forever changed the ways of people and the world as they knew it to be. One great event that happened in the Renaissance was Columbus finding the New World, later to be called the Americas. Bibliography 3!
http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=petrarchan+sonnet It was also during this time that Europe's monarchy of Queen Elizabeth began. This is important as Europe is still ruled by her descendants. It was in this time that the idea of international law emerged. Previously, each city or state within a country were governed by their own laws and beliefs. This change ensured that people would be tried fairly throughout the country, showing the beginning of quality. The Renaissance era was an important stepping stone for the world as many changes and advances were made in this time that led to a better, more intelligent society that we live in today. In conclusion, the Renaissance was a much needed era that broke nature's and mankind's previous notions setting the world up for future changes that have been continuous up until this day and will continue until we are long gone. The ways of the family also changed in this time as the idea of a nuclear family became known and was very common. Families no longer considered their extended family as closely tied to them as their immediate family. When family was said, it meant parents and their children. This came about as a result of families no longer needed all of their relatives to work the land and to keep a business running successfully. ACTIVITY Who was the scientist that discovered that the Earth revolved around the Sun and not vice versa?
a. Andreas Vesalius
b. Johannes Kepler
c. Nicolaus Copernicus The Renaissance also spread with LITERATURE and the printing
press. Many advancements were also made with SCIENCE Johannes Gutenberg's creation of the printing press was one of the greatest innovations of the Renaissance Era. It is so significant because it allowed books and printed to be common. For example, the printing press helped with the protestant reformation as it made copies of the documents and spread the news to the rest of the country in a faster way than word of mouth. Books were becoming cheaper to make and buy, therefore reading became more common. Before the printing press, stories had to be remembered and said aloud. As a result of more books, people began to have a better education, even
the lower classes.
Who was the first to create the Sonnet?
c. Giovanni Petrarch’s love poems were written in vernacular Italian and had 14 lines in a specific rhyming pattern
This form became known as the Italian or Petrarchan sonnet. The Petrarchan sonnet was the basis for the English sonnet Shakespeare later became famous for. Which of these types of poems was created in during the Renaissance?
c. Sonnet The greatest scientific advancement made in the Renaissance era was the discovery of the Heliocentric world. Nicolaus Copernicus wrote his book called 'Concerning the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres' stating that Earth was just one of the planets that revolved around the Sun. This was a major step forward for society as people started to realize that there was more to the world than they knew. This discovery made others want to do research and to learn about the vast world around them. Copernicus finding out that the Earth revolved around the Sun led to Isaac Newton's theory of gravity. Before the Renaissance, people knew that things would fall when dropped; but, they just believed it was natural. Newton created a formula of the world's gravitational pull. His theory was the basis on Albert Einstein's corrected, final formula. Another scientific advancement made in the Renaissance was with medicine. Andreas Vesalius made many corrections to the writings and knowledge of anatomy. He spent hours dissecting dead corpses that forever changed medical science. Shakespeare's plays and sonnets are still studied today because his writing embodies every important part of literature in that time. Shakespeare has also created many of the words we use in the English language today. Most literature during this time was based on Philosophy. The philosophy at this time was that of Humanism. The thinkers of the Renaissance began to question the church and had no problems studying pagan literature and depicting polytheism. The people in the Renaissance began to embrace life in the fullest, which was a very different view than their ancestors who only wanted to prepare for heaven. People in the Renaissance believed in enlightened education and action. Because of all of these things the Renaissance was an era full of self confidence, creativity, and optimism.