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Natural Sciences - TOK
Transcript of Natural Sciences - TOK
Natalie Scholtys, Hannah Schorlemmer and Vinisha Kalevaru
IB 11 - TOK
Natural sciences have a lot in common with history
& human sciences
Aim to construct
- true descriptions of the world
- interpretations of that world
- explanations for how and why the world works that way
TOK ways of knowing
As an area of knowledge
Links to Personal Knowledge
Natural Sciences don't deal with human mind & human behavior
=> Deal with natural world & ourselves as biological species within it
Examples of subject matter:
Ecosystems & species
Evolution of DNA
Movement of continental plates & sedimentary rock
do we know?
constitutes a true description of the world?
is the world like that?
Make generalized knowledge claims
=>Necessarily the case
=>Applicable to the world
Form of classification
=> categorization of elements in a periodic table
Laws of science
"Today we still yearn to know why we are here and where we came from. Humanity's deepest desire for knowledge is justification enough for our continuing quest. And our goal is nothing less than a complete description of the universe we live in."
- Stephen Hawking
Observational statements about the world
describes or explains the world?
=> Many human uncertainties removed
Benefit & hinder development of scientific knowledge
-Keen interest -Disappointment
-Pride in work -Irritation
Intuition credited for first glimpse of patterns emerging from research
Imagination valued for conjecturing beyond the known into other ways of conceptualizing connections
Observation, in using sense perception, is basis of science
Science uses inductive & deductive reasoning
=>Inductive reasoning to make generalizations from observation
=>Deductive reasoning to apply those generalizations to new instances
=>Hypothetico deductive reasoning - formulating hypothesis
Essential for knowledge to be shared & archived
Precise, denotative, as little ambiguity as possible
Difficulties in communicating scientific knowledge to general public
Links to personal
Scientists work with others in their university
Papers & Conferences
Contribution of papers to journals
=> Examination & evaluation of scientific papers by scientists working in the same or related field
=> Does not ensure truth but increases reliability
to word research and observations
state ideas and theories
to share knowledge gained and experimented
different key words and terminology
=> i.e. Hypothesis, conjectures
to be able to understand key points and ideas, certain knowledge and terms should be known
scientists talk in completely different manner
more research => more knowledge
more attention in recent years due to more discoveries
more knowledge, greater understanding of our world
due to more knowledge, scientists have been able to form more ideas and theories
today's science is based on theories and knowledge gained in the past
students study natural sciences (i.e. biology, chemistry, physics)
base their ideas/knowledge of the world on what they have learned in class
students with an interest in any field of the natural sciences can hope to contribute new knowledge by research
Methods of observation
Theories and models
Repetition of scientific processes
Results coherent with other findings
Treat results pragmatically
Accept conclusions that seem to work
Examine evidence to justify their inductively reasoned conclusion
No fixed 'scientific methods'
=>All work within same broad methodology
Aristarchus Heliocentric Model