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Transcript of Racial Discourse
By Najma Abshir
Mini Quiz Time!!
1. What is Racial Discourse?
2. What is an example of Racial Discourse?
-What is Racial Discourse?
-Two forms of Racial Discourse
- Ferguson, Niqab Ban, Jersey Shore
What is Racial Discourse?
~"Spoken, written, and visual texts and language that categorizes and sorts people, places, and things into constructs of race. Such discourse can reveal assumptions, beliefs and practices, that are racist in nature and their privileging in whiteness, and their challenging of equity and rights for all peoples". ( Hirji, 391)
In the words of Van Dijk...
~"Discourse is a form of discriminatory social practice that manifests itself in text, talk and communication." (Van Dijk, 2002)
Two Forms of Racial Discourse
1. Racist Discourse
at ethnically different others
ethnically different others
(Van Dijk, 1993)
1. The first form of racial discourse:
one of the most common discriminatory ways that dominant group members interact with members of ethnic minorities, refugees, immigrants, etc.
Use derogatory slurs, insults, impolite forms of address, and enact superiority.
Blatant forms of verbal discrimination tend to be "politically incorrect"
-more subtle, and indirect
2. The second form of Racial Discourse:
Usually addressed to other dominant group members.
(Van Dijk, 2004)
May range from everyday conversations and political debates to tv shows, movies, news, textbooks, laws etc.
Overall Characteristic is the negative portrayal of "them" vs the positive representation of "ourselves"
(Van Dijk, 2004)
Media/Bias/Discrimination of Racial Discourse
According to a research study done by the Canadian Race Relations Foundation:
People of color are "underrepresented and largely invisible in the media".
when POCs appear in media coverage, they are often represented in a negative light and stereotyped
"there appears to be a lack of awareness, understanding or concern when it comes to news that is being reported about POCs"
(Henry et al., 2014)
Media does not always "objectively or neutrally report facts/news"
Rearrange stories based on their "professional and personal ideologies, corporate interests, organizational norms, values, priorities and news schema formats"
(Henry et al., 2014)
Ferguson: When Cop Darren Wilson unjustly shot Michael Brown, relationship between law enforcement and african americans heavily watched nationwide
From 1999-2014, a total of 76 black men and women have been killed while in police custody. ( Chan et al., 2014)
Use of social media has inspired many to create change and peace
-Jason Kenney believes that the niqab should be completely banned and "represents a view of women that is unacceptable in Canada."
- Lawyers fired back and said that Kenney was enforcing his own ideology onto the citizens. (Goodman, 2014)
allows the media to present a story while highlighting specific components, in a particular way, overall leaving a negative image.
-trying to influence other's behaviors/attitudes
- For example, A positive story about a minority group may be flipped around and told in a negative light by the media
-"Entman and Rojecki suggest that because Americans generally do not have
extensive, close relations with other racial and ethnic groups, the majority of people
largely obtain their understanding of those groups from ‘‘cultural material,’’ particularly
the media." This shows us that the Media is the only source of information that Americans can go to.
-We are basically a hegemonic society because we are digesting news/media/information without thinking twice about it. We may be fed news with subtle hints of racial discourse without even knowing it.
Sadly, News broadcasters & Media was barely covering this story....up until there was an uproar and high demand for it to be covered. *sigh*
1.What is Racial Discourse?
2. Name the two forms of racial discourse and the difference between them
3. What is Framing?
CLASS DISCUSSION: Do you think the niqab should be unveiled while giving oath to citizenship?
-Two Forms of Racial Discourse: There's direct Racial Discourse about ethnically different others, and then there's racial discourse about ethnically different others
-POCs tend to be misrepresented in a negative light by the media
-The media is not always telling you the wholehearted truth, does not always "objectively or neutrally report facts/news"
-There has been some controversy over whether the cast of Jersey Shore have been playing up the stereotypes of italians.
*note* non of the cast members were even born in Italy.
CLASS DISCUSSION: What's your take on this? Do you believe this show portrays a negative image on Italians?
(Key Concepts of Media Studies, 2011)
(2011). Key Concepts of Media Studies. Retrieved from http://www.mediaknowall.com/as_alevel/alevkeyconcepts/alevelkeycon.php?pageID=race
Chan, Alecsander and Rich Juzwiak. (2014, December 8). Unarmed People of Color Killed by Police, 1999-2014. Retrieved from http://gawker.com/unarmed-people-of-color-killed-by-police-1999-2014-1666672349
Desmond-Harris, Jeneé. (2015, January 14). Twitter forced the world to pay attention to Ferguson. It won't last. Retrieved from http://www.vox.com/2015/1/14/7539649/ferguson-protests-twitter
Dijk, T.A.V. (1993) Stories and racism. Retrieved from http://www.discourses.org/OldArticles/Stories%20and%20racism.pdf
Dijk, T.A.V. (2002). Discourse and Racism. In Goldberg D.T., & Solomos, J. (Eds.), A companion to racial and ethnic studies (pp. 145-159). Retrieved from www.discourses.org/ OldArticles/ Discourse%20and%20racism.pdf
Dijk, T.A.V. (2004). Racist Discourse. In Ellis Cashmore (Ed.), Routledge Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic Studies. (pp. 351-355). Retrieved from http://www.discourses.org/OldArticles/Racist%20discourse.pdf
Goodman, Lee-Anne. (2014, October 17). Jason Kenney defends niqab ban at citizenship ceremonies on Twitter. Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/jason-kenney-defends-niqab-ban-at-citizenship-ceremonies-on-twitter-1.2803642
Henry, Frances et al. (2014). Racist Discourse In Canada's English Print Media. Retrieved from http://www.crr.ca/en/component/flexicontent/292-policies-and-research/23532-racist-discourse-in-canadas-english-print-media-en-gb-1?view=item
Hirji, Faiza. (2010). The Color of difference: race, diversity, and journalism in Canada. In Mediascapes: New Patterns in Canadian Communication (pg. 390-405). Toronto, Ontario: Nelson.
Warren, Deirdre M. (2012). Constructing ‘‘The Other’’: Media Representations. Retrieved from http://raj.sagepub.com.ezproxy.kwantlen.ca:2080/content/2/2/93.full.pdf+html